|Title of Invention||
BODY FOR PROVIDING INGROWTH AND GROWTH OF BONE TISSUE AND/OR CONNECTIVE TISSUE AND METHOD OF MAKING SUCH A BODY
|Abstract||A body, such as a grain, for providing ingrowth and growth of bone tissue and/or connective tissue. The body consists of a plastic or non-essentially elastic biocompatible material, preferably metal or metal alloy. It is also porous, having the following porosity characteristics: (a) the porosity is continuous and (b) the opening of cavities/indentations/pockets and the ducts connecting them has the width of $m(g) about 50 $g(m)m for bone tissue and $m(g) about 10 $g(m)m for connective tissue. In a method of making such a body, the body has been produced by blowing gas into a melt of metal. An advantageous use of bodies according to the invention is enclosing thereof in a casing, formed with openings, for making an implant, such as a spinal implant.|
|Full Text||The present invention relates to a body such as a grain and method of making such a body.
SE-B-462,638 discloses a means for fixing an elongate prosthesis, such as the stem of a femural prosthesis, to living tissue which defines a cavity in which a length of the prosthesis is received with a gap to the boundary of the cavity. Essentially the entire gap is filled with loose, but packed grains of a biocompatible material, said grains interlocking. As an example of granular material titanium is mentioned, and the grains are stated to be irregular, essentially non-elastic and preferably porous, the latter property being said to bind growth of bone tissue which has grown from the osseous wall. The porosity has been obtained by blowing gas through a melt of the granular material.
US-A-5,217,496 discloses an implant suited for use in living bone tissue and comprising a support of titanium having a porous outer surface and an attached layer of a mixture consisting of disintegrated living bone tissue and titanium powder. The mixture is supplied with nutriment which makes the disintegrated bone tissue grow and form tissue which connects the disintegrated bone tissue and the titanium powder with each other and with the support.
US-A-5,676,700 discloses biocompatible structure elements for repair, reinforcement and replacement of bone tissue, said elements being indicated to form an osteoconductive or osteoinductive matrix in a bone tissue cavity. The material of the elements can be titanium and the elements are said advantageously to be microporous for ingrowth of natural bone.
All the documents above mention as biocompatible material, in addition to titanium, inter alia, hydroxylapatite, bioceramics, bioglass.
In the above documents, porosity of biocompatible materials is thus pointed out to cause something favour¬able for binding of bone tissue.
According to the invention, it has surprisingly been found that a predetermined measure of the porosity of biocompatible material is in fact a decisive factor as regards the growth rate of bone tissue. It has been found that while surface porosity certainly allows binding of bone tissue, a significantly increased growth rate of bone tissue and a larger amount of bone are obtained and, thus, a significantly improved anchoring and strength of bone tissue on the biocompatible material if
- the body, such as a grain, of the biocompatible material is continuously porous,
- the porosity of the body has a minimum-limit-value.
An additional advantage of the invention is obtained by the strength of the porous granule with grown-in bone tissue being greater than if bone is not allowed to grow in. Owing to the ingrowth of bone, the strength will mainly be carried by the bone tissue, which is favourable from the biomechanical point of view.
By "continuously porous" is here meant a porosity
which allows bone tissue to grow through the porous body,
such as the grain of biocompatible material. According to
the invention, such porosity results in cavities in the
body which are interconnected by ducts, passages, so that
growth of bone tissue onto a part of the outer surface of
the body allows the growth to continue through the body
and out through other parts of the outer surface of the
body. By cavity is meant indentations, pits, pockets of
an arbitrary shape, and the ducts, passages, intercon¬
necting these cavities can have an arbitrary form and
constitute part of the cavities. Examples of such a .
structure can be found in nature _in corals or dripstone /
By minimum limit value is here meant an opening of an indentation, pit, pocket and a duct opening having a width of > about 50 μm. A smaller opening dimension restricts or inhibits the growth of bone tissue, probably because the supply of nutriment is inhibited and the bone is prevented from developing its normal structure with the elements that are included. In fact there is no upper limit of the porosity of the body. The upper limit is rather determined by the strength properties of the body.
According to the invention, cavities can be allowed to form of surface pores in bodies which are located next to each other and have open surface pores, so that the surface pores in one body form a cavity or duct/passage with the surface pores in the other body.
According to the invention, it has also been found that a brittle biocompatible material, such as hydroxy1-apatite, is not optimal for the purposes of the invention when such material is used for repair, reinforcement and replacement of natural bone. Such a material easily decomposes when subjected to a load, which inevitably occurs, for example when the human body or a part of the human body, in which the biocompatible body, such as the grain, is located, is subjected to a load when e.g. the extremities move. Decomposed parts of a body of biocom¬patible material cause an unfavourable inflammatory reac¬tion which inhibits the formation of bone and which often results in bone resorption.
According to the invention, a metallic material or non-brittle composites are therefore chosen, where natu¬ral material, such as hydroxylapatite, bioceramics etc. , can be included as a component in the material of the porous body and another component, such as plastic, guarantees plasticity. The body material according to the invention should in fact be plastic or non-essentially elastic. Successive elasticity causes pressure on the bone tissue, with the ensuing destruction thereof.
Titanium (titanium dioxide) is advantageously selected as metallic material. The porosity of the titanium body is advantageously achieved by blowing gas through a melt of titanium. This makes it possible to produce titanium grains, as mentioned in SE-B-462,638.
The requirement as to porosity as stated above is, however, not automatically satisfied by blowing gas through a melt of metal. According to the invention, a check is therefore made of the porosity of the body/ grain/grains obtained in this manner to ensure that it/ they satisfies/satisfy the requirement. The check can be carried out, for example, by means of fluoroscopy at a suitable wavelength and a TV receiver and automatic sepa¬ration (e.g. from a conveyor belt) of grains that do not satisfy the above-mentioned requirement.μThe above limit value of > about 50 /im relates to bone tissue. If ingrowth of connective tissue is desired instead of or at the expense of bone tissue, the limit value is instead > about 50-10 ^m.
A porous body, such as a grain, according to the invention can be implanted in a living body, such as a human body, for as replacement, after growth of bone tissue in vivo a lost leg (rheuma¬tism, osteporosisp-grr a" prosthesis according to SE-B-462,638. A porous body according to the invention can also serve as a base for preculturing of bone tissue in vitro or be filled with a nutrient solution contain¬ing, inter alia, growth factors in vitro for subsequent implanting in living tissue. In the case of filling a bone cavity, it is preferred for the body to be granular
and irregular and to have the size The porous body can be filled with a decomposable material, for example of a so-called matrix of the natu- ral material. Examples of such natural matrices are gels of collagen, fibrin, starch and hyaluronic acid. Accord¬ing to the invention, this matrix is decomposed to be
replaced with the ingrowing bone tissue. The ingrowth of bone tissue can be further stimulated if growth-stimulating substances are added to the decomposable material, above all growth factors such as TGF beta (Transforming Growth Factor beta) or BGF (Bone Growth Factor). The pores in the body according to the invention can be moved with the gel material, e.g. by suction, before the material is ready-gelled.
Smaller bodies, grains according to the invention can be enclosed in a casing, flexible or rigid, for producing an implant. For example, grains according to the invention can be enclosed in a rigid sleeve so as to form, together with the sleeve, a spinal implant, see e.g. the sleeve in US-A-5,015,247. Other possibilities of enclosing in a casing are disclosed in SE 9803078-6. The casing has openings to allow ingrowth and growth of biological cell material to and from the grains, through the casing. Grains according to the invention can be mixed with decomposed biological tissue.
Accordingly the present invention provides a body, such as a grain, said body being made of a plastic or non-essentially elastic biocompatible material, preferably metal or metal alloy, characterised in that it is porous and has the following porosity characteristics:
-the porosity is continuous
-the opening of cavities/indentations/pockets and the ducts/passages interconnecting them has a width of >about 50 μm for bone tissue and >about 10 μm for connective tissue.
Accordingly the present invention also provides a method for making the body characterised by producing the body, consisting of metal, such as titanium, by blowing gas through the melt of the metal and separation of bodies with the opening of cavities/indentations/pockets and of the ducts/passages connecting them having the width of
Embodiments of the invention are illustrated in the accompanying Figures which are electron microscope images and of which Fig. 1 shows a porous structure according to the invention and Fig. 2 shows another porous structure according to the invention of the outer surface of a titanium grain. Fig. 3 is an image of a thin section of a titanium grain with porosity according to the invention. All images are made of an irregular grain or granule which has been removed from the femur in a human body after implanting using a vibration technique which is described in more detail in SE-B-462,638.
Fig. 1 shows a structure in the form of a mound of stones and Fig. 2 shows a coraLslnicture.- The structures have been provided by blowing gas through a melt of titanium and applying the above-mentioned quality check. Both images show a whitish-grey film of living material, the prestage of bone tissue, which covers the outer surface of the grain and has penetrated into the cavities and
gaps in the pores of the titanium grain. Fig. 1 also shows bone cell growths bridging cavities/gaps in the structure.
Fig. 3 illustrates bone tissue which has intersect¬ed, penetrated a grain according to the invention.
Clinical analyses have proved that the bone tissue in grains according to Figs 1-3 had a composition of 95-98% bone, 2% marrow and 0-3% connective tissue, which essentially corresponds to the composition of the bone outside the grains in their vicinity.
1. A body, such as a grain, said body being made of a plastic or non-essentially
elastic biocompatible material, preferably metal or metal alloy, characterised in that it
is porous and has the following porosity characteristics:
-the porosity is continuous
-the opening of cavities/indentations/pockets and the ducts/passages interconnecting them has a width of >about 50μm for bone tissue and >about 10μm for connective tissue.
2. The body as claimed in claim 1, wherein it is made of titanium.
3. The body as claimed in claim 1 or 2, wherein its cavities are filled with a decomposable material, e.g. a matrix of natural material, such as gel of collagen, fibrin, starch, hyaluronic acid.
4. The body as claimed in anyone of claims 1 to 3, wherein the decomposable material contains growth-stimulating substances.
5. The body as claimed in anyone of claims 1 to 4, wherein it has a coral structure.
6. The body as claimed in anyone of claims 1 to 5, wherein it is 7. The body as claimed in anyone of claims 1 to 6, wherein it consists of an individual in an aggregate of similar bodies.
8. A method for making a body as claimed in anyone of claims 1 to 7, characterised by producing the body, consisting of metal, such as titanium, by blowing gas through the melt of the metal and separation of bodies with ,the opening of cavities/indentations/pockets and of the ducts/passages connecting them having the width of
9. A body, such as a grain, substantially as herein described with reference to the
10. A method for making a body, substantially as herein described with reference
to the accompanying drawings.
|Indian Patent Application Number||IN/PCT/2001/1555/CHE|
|PG Journal Number||13/2008|
|Date of Filing||08-Nov-2001|
|Name of Patentee||TIGRAN TECHNOLOGIES AB (PUBL)|
|Applicant Address||Medeon Science Park, 205 12 Malmao,|
|PCT International Classification Number||A61L 27/06|
|PCT International Application Number||PCT/SE00/00802|
|PCT International Filing date||2000-04-28|