Title of Invention  A METHOD FOR SPREADSPECTRUM DIGITAL COMMUNICATION BY GOLAY COIMPLEMENTARY SEQUENCE MODULATION. 

Abstract  The frequency spectrum of a transmission system is spread in the transmitter (1) by information bit encoding by means of Golay complementary sequence pairs. The spectrum is picked up in the receiver (2) and passed through a filter that is adapted to the characteristics of said frequencies enabling detection of digital levels FRUUHVSRQGLQJWRWKHWUDQVPLWWHGRULJLQDOLQIRUPDWLRQ,ISDLUVRIRUWKRJRQDOVHTXHQFHVùDPSOLWXGHVIRUGDWDmodulation and NPSK modulation are used, it is possible to obtain transmission speed (C) which equals formula (I), wherein B is the nulltonull bandwidth used in Hertz. This makes it possible to improve quality in comparison with other digital communication systems using spreadspectrum techniques and CDMA. A process gain independent of transmission speed is obtained (FIG.  3) 
Full Text  A METHOD FOR SPREAD SPECTRUM DIGITAL COMMUNICATION BY GOLAY COMPLEMENTARY SEQUENCE MODULATION DESCRIPTION FIELD OF THE ART The present invention refers to the modulation and demodulation merhod as well as the transmitter and receiver which makes it possible to transmit and receive data by means of any transmission means, particularly when it is necessary or preferable to use spread spectrum techniques. STATE OF THE ART The spread spectrum concept was developed for use in military communications due to its immunity features towards noise and interference. Its principle is based on the use of certain binary sequences having certain features similar to noise and which, however, a receiver which knows said sequence is capable to detect as a signal. In the same manner the compression of impulses by means of binary sequences is useful also in RADAR, SONAR and echograph applications since it allows better resolution of the detected objects. However, in recent years its use has become widespread in space applications and civil communications such as mobile telephony, DSCDMA (Direct Sequence CodeDivision Multiple Access), radio telephone access loops, Internet access, wireless local area networks, deep space communications, etc. All of which are based on digital modulation by means of using of sequences which are suitable for this type of applications due to their autocorrelation and crosscorrelation features are suitable for this kind of applications. Therefore, international organisations (IEEE, UIT, etc.), have begun norrralising and standardising modulation systems v/hich facilitates the use of certain sequences to modulate the transmitted binary data and thus obtain characteristics which makes it possible to use, among others, certain frequencies reserved for industrial, scientific and medical applications (ISM bands) and whose use and exploitation do not require any kind of administrative license. The need to send as much information as possible with the same bandwidth has made the telecommunications industry to develop commercial applications which use the IEEE 802.11 standard for the transmission of information by radio in local networks obtaining increasingly higher speeds by means of the use of binary sequences such as the 11bit Barker (to obtain a minimum processing gain of 10.4 dB) or 5bit Walsh, and dif ferent modulation techniques (BPSK, QPSK, MBOK, QMBOK, etc.) which makes it possible to attain transmission speeds of up to 11 Mbps. This standard makes it possible to work within three frequency bands with a nullto null bandwidth of 22 MHz, in the socalled 2.4GHz band. Likewise, reliable transmission methods are needed for the so called deep space communications between spaceships and the bases on Earth, allowing a big processing gain due to the need to limit the emission power of the ship"s transmission equipment, and due to the reduced signal to noise ratio of said signals when they are received. In the present applications (Figure 1) the length of the coding sequence (Barker, PN, Walsh, etc.,....) determines both the processing gain and the bandwidth used. Generally, the transmission speed will be reduced if we attempt to increase the processing gain, which is why a compromise between the two parameters must always be found. The transmission speed may be increased by increasing the number of modulation phases, however, the restrictions of this technique increase with the decrease in the signal to noise ratio during reception. Based on the above it can be deduced that there is a need for a spread spectrum digital modulation technique which on the one hand makes it possible to increase transmission speed and on the other to obtain a bigger processing gain to make it possible to reduce the needed transmission power or improve the signal to noise ratio during reception, and at the same time to reduce the complexity of the present modulation tables. No patent or utility model whatsoever is known whose features are the object of the present invention. DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION The present invention uses pairs of Golay complementary sequences for the modulation by means of spread spectrum and DSCDMA of the amplitude modulated binary data in combination with an NPSK modulation widely used in digital communication systems. The main property of the sequences used in this invention is that in contrast to the Barker sequences, which have side lobes, the Golay sequences are characterised by an ideal auto correlation, that is, they correspond to a perfect Kronecker delta so that they meet: 2M, n=0 CA[n]+ CA[n] = { 0, n?O where CA and Cn are the individual autocorrelations of the A and B sequences of the pair of selected Golay complementary sequences, M length; and whose values belong to the bivalued set (1,1) . The generation of such sequences is based on the socalled kernel basics of 2, 10 and 26 bits, known hitherto (the rules of Golay sequence generation are discussed in the article called "Complementary Sequences" by M.J.E. Golay, published in IRE Transactions on Information Theory, vol. IT7, pp. 8287, April 1961). The communication system object of the present invention makes it possible to establish a physical endtoend or endto multipoint connection at a transmission rate, which will depend on the employed means and on the available bandwidth and on the acceptable error rate. It consists of two pieces of equipment or devices: One is a transmitter and the other one is a receiver. The transmitter equipment is used to perform the following tasks: • Receive the data and generate the symbols corresponding to each group of (m) bits as a function of the Golay sequence number (n) of the selected length (M) , number of amplitudes (A) per symbol, number of phases (N) used for the modulation and processing gain needed to comply with the quality requirements of the system. • Carry out the adding up of the different phases to form an NPSK modulation and thus generating the transmission signal. • Transmit the composite signal to the transmitter means, for example by means of an RF stage and antenna. The receiver equipment is used to perform the following operations: • Demodulate the NPSK information and extract the components of each of the different phases. • Adapt, filter and correlate the extracted components with their corresponding complementary pairs or Golay. • Sum up the correlations and thus obtain the original data stream as digital levels. • Perform the level decoding to obtain the original data. The first advantage of this method is being able to obtain as biq a processing gain as one wishes, independently from the transmission rate, as will be seen later, and only by increasing the length of the selected Golay sequences, for which reason high transmissin power is not needed to obtain a high signal to noise ration during reception. The processing gain (in decibel) in this case is defined as: GP = 10 log10 (2M) dB. (1.1) where M corresponds to the length of the Golay sequences used in the modulation. This feature is very important in applications where a low transmission power is desired(portable terminals, space ships and communication satellites), the communication is performed over great distances (deep space transmissions), and even military applications in which the interference caused by the enemy or the need to encrypt the transmission determine the security and quality of the communication. Furthermore, this method makes it possible to transmit simultaneous information flows in the same frequency bands over the channel by means of using n different low cross correlation Golay sequences, thus facilitating the creation of n communication subnet works within a same band, or to multiply the transmission rate by a factor proportional to rj. Likewise, it is possible to increase the transmission rate even more if a prior amplitude modulation of the entry data by means of A amplitudes is performed. Therefore, from the aforementioned it can be deduced that the transmission speed, or capacity (C), that can be obtained in a spread spectrum communication system using this method will be: C= n • log2A • (1/2) • log2N • (B/2) n bits/sec. (1.2) where B (Hertz) is the nulltonull bandwidth used, N is the number of phases used in the modulation (power of 4), A is the number of amplitudes used in the binary data encoding and rj is the number of pairs of Golay complementary sequences used. In the previous expression it is observed that C is independent of M. Therefore, the described invention constitutes a powerful communication system for use in spread spectrum applications, DSCDMA, hostile environments, when restrictions on the transmission power exists, or simply when there is a wish to improve the quality of the communication without a transmission rate degradation. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE ACCOMPANYING DRAWINGS Figure 1 shows the present basic transmission technique of a spread spectrum system and particularly using an 11bit Barker sequence, which by means of an exclusive OR function performs the spreading of the spectrum of the original data signal. It is seen that the bit frequency is 11 times lower to the one used for the Barker sequence, which makes it possible to obtain a processing gain of 10 • loglO (11) ˜ 10.4 dB. Figure 2 shows the basic outline of the transmission method and a possible implementation of the transmitter which uses this method for N=4. The binary data (1) enter the emitter in groups of nxm bits. Each i group of m bits multiply with sign (3) by both Golay sequences A and B (2) corresponding to the BMB i number. The result of both multipliers independently accumulates in each of the phases, and in each element, within the displacement register (4) and moves towards the right to wait for the next symbol. The output values of the shift register of each BMB are summed (5) and the result is phase and quadrature modulated by means of the product with, for example, a sine and cosine symbol (6). The result is sent to a conventional transmission stage (7). Figure 3 shows a basic outline of the reception method and particularly an example of a receiver using this method for N = 4. Both phases are reduced by a 4PSK demodulation obtaining one inphase signal and another in quadrature (1). The obtained analogue inphase (I) and quadrature (Q) signals are quantified and introduced into all the BDBs, and the result of both is correlated with the corresponding original sequences (2), the sum (3) of both flows will provide us with an amplitude coded signal corresponding to the data of each subgroup of m original bits which are demodulated. A multiplexer block (4) manages the decoding and arrangement of the bits to recover the original data flow. Figure 4 corresponds to a possible embodiment of the modulation. For the sake of simplification only the embodiment of phase 1 is shown. Phase Q is identical but modulating with the complementary sequence. Therefore, only one of the Golay registers (1), one of the accumulators and shift registers (2) and one multiplier (3) is shown. PREFERRED EMBODIMENT A possible embodiment of this method applied to a endtoend openair radio communication system is shown below. For reasons of clarity the implementation in the case of a QPSK transmitter (N=4) is outlined in figure 2, performing data modulation using n Golay sequences, amplitude modulated by means of A amplitudes. Therefore, by applying the formula (1.2), the transmission rate will be: C= n • log2A • (B/2) bits/sec. (1.3) In accordance with what has been explained above, the starting point is a set of n pairs of Golay sequences of M bits generated and stored in the transmitter by means of, generally, 2xg binary registers (values 1 and 1) which we aim to amplitude modulate with A amplitudes and with 4 Q PSK phases (4PSK) . In the same figure 2 one of the basic modulator blocks (BMB) of which the transmitter consists is shown in detail. The transmitter performs the following operations where R is the transmission rate in symbols: (1) Encoder (a. 2) : The NRZ digital data received at nxmxR bits/sec. arrive encoded and are grouped in n groups of m=log2A bits. Each BMB processes in parallel a group of m bits, so that the system will transmit nxm bits per symbol. The bit with the highest weight of each group corresponds to the sign, and the m1 of less weight, to the module. (2)Golay register(a.3): Formed by two binary registers of M length which store the pair of A and B complementary sequences whose values belong to the set (1, 1), which will modulate the data processed by the corresponding BMB. (3)Multiplier (a. 4): Consists of two multipliers with sign (highest weight bit) of the pair of A and B Golay sequences of the BMB with the arithmetic value of the corresponding group within the set of groups of the input symbol. (4)Double accumulator (a.5) and Shift register (a. 6): Perform the arithmetic summing of the result of the multipliers with the content of the double shift register (the upper path with A and the inner path with B) and shifts a register to the right for each symbol cycle, updating the register, located furthest to the left of the same, to the value of zero. The shift register is formed by basic elements which store signal values, and therefore, the number (n) of bits used in each basic element of said register, must be dimensioned to avoid overflow during the accumulation operations. Thus, the number of elements in the shift register must be equal to or higher than M for each of the paths A and B. (5) Adder(a. 7): Independently sums up the data corresponding to the output of each shift register of each of the BMBs thus obtaining the total IT and QT signals which are afterwards modulated. (6) QPSK modulator(a.8): Modulates the output signals from the adder by multiplying the exit signals of the adders by two quadrature symbols, for example, a sinusoidal symbol with phase o (via IT) and another quadrature 0  n/2 (via Qr) , and adding the result of both phases, thus obtaining the transmission signal in QPSK. (7) Exit stage (a. 9) :Consists of a D/A converter stage (a. 9 .1) and a conventional radio frequency stage(a.9.2), for example, sending the signal to the transmission means. Figure 3 shows an example outline of a receiver for N=4, which is formed by ? basic demodulator blocks (BDB) detailed in the same figure, and the structure of the receiver which consists of the following blocks: {1) QPSK receiver (b. 1) :Amplifies the RF input signal and if necessary converts the signal to an intermediate frequency (IF), obtains the phase information and makes it possible to demodulate (b.2)and recover the different flows inphase I and quadrature Q corresponding to the phases 0 and 0  n/2. The I and Q signals are digitised and their output passed on to the correlator blocks. This block is common for all the BDBs. (2) Golay correlators (b.3): Makes it possible to correlate the different flows received with their corresponding Golay sequences. Given that the sequences are normalised between +1 and 1, the correlation is reduced to performing adding and subtraction. (3) Adder and detector(b. 4): Performs the adding up of the correlations, two and two, so that the result are the original amplitude modulated data. These are thresholded and converted into binary data generated at the symbol rate at the output of each block. (4) Decoder (b.5) : Performs the grouping of the ? groups received within the data stream, corresponding to the transmitted data in the order in which they were transmitted at ?xmxR bits/sec. Both devices together make up the transmission system. CLAIMS 1. A method for spread spectrum digital communication by Golay complementary sequence modulation, said method being carried out by a communication system, whereby transmission of information is caused to be allowed through a communication channel, and binary data, and its spread spectrum are caused to be encoded and modulated in amplitude, using Golay complementary sequences modulated in NPSK, wherein said communication system comprises the following elements : a) a transmitter apparatus; formed of at least the following parts : (i) a receiver; (ii) an encoder for receiving NRZ digital data, encoding and grouping together the received NRZ digital data ; (iii) a Golay register, formed by two binary registers of M length ; (iv) a multiplier, formed by two multipliers with a symbol; (v) a double accumulator for performing the arithmetic additions of the result of the multipliers ; (vi) a shift register, formed by basic elements which store signal values; (vii) an adder for adding up the data corresponding to the output of each register independently; (viii) a QPSK modulator for modulating the output signals of the adders, for obtaining the transmission signal and QPSK ; (ix) an exit stage, made up of two substages, and comprising a D/A converter stage, and a conventional radio frequency stage ; and b) a receiver apparatus formed of at least the following parts : (i) a QPSK receiver for amplifying the RF and IF signals from the exit stage ; (ii) a demodulator for recovering the different digitalised flows in phases I and Q ; (iii) Golay correlators for correlating the different flows received with their corresponding Golay sequences ; (iv) an adder and a detector for performing the addition of the correlations ; and (v) a decoder for performing the grouping of the ? groups received. 2. A method as claimed in claim 1, wherein said communication system is adapted to generate ? binary Golay sequences with low crosscorrelation, encoding entry data which in turn are amplitude modulated by means of A amplitudes. 3. A method as claimed in claim 2, wherein the transmitter apparatus (a) is adapted to generate the binary sequences for spread spectrum applications by using Golay complementary sequences and the same with changed sign to represent and send at least one bit of information per symbol. 4. A method as claimed in claim 2, wherein the transmitter apparatus (a) is adapted to generate the binary sequences for spread spectrum applications by using Golay complementary sequences and to add them unchanged or with changed sign and position, displaced within the transmission symbol. 5. A method as claimed in claim 2, wherein the transmitter apparatus (a) is adapted to generate the binary sequences for spread spectrum applications, and to multiply Golay complementary sequences modulated by A amplitude values, which represent the digit input, making it possible to multiply the quantity of information bits per symbol interval by m=log2A. 6. A method as claimed in claim 2, wherein the transmitter apparatus (a) is adapted to generate the binary sequences for spread spectrum applications and to generate a processing gain in decibels equal to 10 log10(2M) dB, where M is the selected Golay sequences. 7. A method as claimed in claim 6, wherein the double accumulator and shift register of the transmitter apparatus (a) are adapted to accumulate and displace the pattern of sequences generated in order to obtain the different phases. 8. A method as claimed in any of claims 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7, wherein the adder of the transmitter apparatus (a) is adapted to add all the elements generated in the previous phases, be they all together, or in any other combination, and to obtain the signals which are subsequently modulated by means of the NPSK modulation and sent to the transmission medium by means of a conventional radio frequency stage. 9. A method as claimed in claim 8, wherein the transmitter apparatus (a) is adapted to modulate and transmit the information of a data flow at a rate of C= ? log2A (1/2) log2N (B/2) bits / second, where ? is the number of Golay pairs used, A is the number of amplitudes used to modulate the input data, N is the power of 4, being the number of phases used in the modulation, and B is the nulltonull bandwidth used in the NPSK modulation. 10. A method as claimed in any of claims 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9, wherein modulation is caused to be generated by the steps of:  amplitude modulation with A amplitudes of the binary input data grouped in r groups of m = log2A bits, which are introduced into r basic modulator blocks  BMB.  storing of the ? pairs of Golay complementary sequences, of length M, in binary registers of length M, the values of which are comprised within the range of 1 and1.  determining product with sign of each group of m bits, whose sign corresponds to the heaviest bit and whose module is the remaining m1 bits, for each one of the Golay complementary sequences of length M corresponding to the said group, which will form two I and Q phases of M length elements.  accumulation, element by element, of the first actual M values contained in a double shift register of length M with the corresponding M elements of the products of each of the phases obtained in the previous stage.  displacement of the said registers in a basic element towards the M element of said registers  output  adding the value zero in the basic elements of first order of the double register.  providing the sum of the ? values obtained at the output of the I and Q phases of each one of the BMBs independently in order to obtain the total It and Qt phases.  modulation of both lT and QT phases by means of quadrature symbols and the sum of both to obtain the transmission signal.  transmitting the obtained signal to a transmission stage. 11. A method as claimed in claim 10, wherein demodulation is caused to occur on the basis of an NPSK reception, coherent or noncoherent, which extracts the specific phases and performs the correlation with the corresponding ? sequences per phase, adding them and obtaining the binary data flow transmitted at origin by means of amplitude detection. 12. A method as claimed in claim 10, which involves the steps of:  adapting and synchronising the signal received and demodulating the quadrature phases which make up the said signal and inserting all these into each one of the ? basic demodulator blocks (BDB);  filtration by means of correlation, convolution or filter adapted to the ? pairs of Golay complementary sequences of the various recovered phases, the ? sums of the results of every two correlations corresponding to the same pair of Golay complementary sequence to obtain an information stream, modulated in amplitude with A amplitudes ; demodulating the ? modulated flows in amplitude to obtain r groups of m = log2A bits ; and  multiplexing said groups to form the original data flow. The frequency spectrum of a transmission system is spread in the transmitter (1) by information bit encoding by means of Golay complementary sequence pairs. The spectrum is picked up in the receiver (2) and passed through a filter that is adapted to the characteristics of said frequencies enabling detection of digital levels corresponding to the transmitted original information. If ? pairs of orthogonal sequences, A amplitudes for data modulation and N PSK modulation are used, it is possible to obtain transmission speed (C) which equals formula (I), wherein B is the nulltonull bandwidth used in Hertz. This makes it possible to improve quality in comparison with other digital communication systems using spreadspectrum techniques and CDMA. A process gain independent of transmission speed is obtained. 

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Patent Number  213780  

Indian Patent Application Number  97/KOLNP/2003  
PG Journal Number  03/2008  
Publication Date  18Jan2008  
Grant Date  16Jan2008  
Date of Filing  24Jan2003  
Name of Patentee  DIAZ FUENTE VICENTE.  
Applicant Address  C/PEDRO SARMIENTO DE GAMBOA,3.2 B 28805 ALCALA DE HENARES (MADRID) SPAIN  
Inventors:


PCT International Classification Number  H04 L 27/18  
PCT International Application Number  PCT/ES01/00160  
PCT International Filing date  20010427  
PCT Conventions:
