Title of Invention


Abstract The invention relates to a method for producing (cryogenic) solid monopropellants which are cooled to below room temperature and are used for rocket drives, especially using heterogeneous liquid-solid propellants wherein at least one of the reactants in the form of an oxidiser or a fuel contains a phase which is liquid or gaseous at normal temperature, for example emulsions of liquid constituents which do not dissolve in each other, suspensions of solid in liquid constituents or liquid-impregnated feed materials. The invention also relates to a cryogenic solid propellant for rocket drives, especially heterogeneous quasi-monopropellant fuel-oxidiser combinations. The aim of the invention is to increase the efficiency of the cryogenic solid propellants compared with conventional storable solid drives, hybrid drives or liquid driving gears, and to improve in a simple manner the storage properties and economic efficiency of said propellants, avoiding costly liquid management, and simultaneously eliminating the permanent ignition of the cryogenic solid propellants. To this end, the at least one liquid or gaseous phase embodied as a reactant in the form of a fuel or an oxidiser is transferred into a solid structure comprising interconnected cavities, said structure consisting of reactants which are formed in such a way that they complement the liquid phase, and the liquid phase is converted into a cryogenic solid phase inside the solid structure by means of freezing, said solid phase being stable below normal temperature.
Full Text FORM 2
THE PATENTS ACT, 1970 (39 of 1970)
COMPLETE SPECIFICATION (See Section 10, rule 13)
The following specification particularly describes the nature of the invention and the manner in which it is to be performed : - .

The invention relates to a method of producing monergole solid propellants [solid monopropellants] cpoled below room temperature (cryogens] especially from heterogeneous liquid/solid propellants in which at least one of the reactants as oxidizer or .fuel contains a phase which is liquid or gas' at standard [normal] temperature, for example an emulsion of mutually insoluble
liquid components, suspensions of solids in liquid components
or liquid/impregnated bulk material.
The invention relates further to a solid propellant cooled below room temperature [cryogenic solid propellant] for rocket N drives, especially a heterogeneous quasimonergole [monopropellant] propellant-oxidizer combination in which at least one of the reactants is a liquid or gas phase at standard temperature, for example, an emulsion of liquid components which are not mutually soluble, a suspension of a solid component in a liquid component, or a liquid impregnated bulk material.
The invention is thus in the technological field of propellants for rocket drives and their fabrication and the development of solid propellant combinations. As such, it should be understood that within the framework of the invention are specific geometric forms of simple propellant blocks and assemblies thereof. This encompasses as well possible inclusions such as baffles and the

like which can be, incorporated in the block and which in uncooled
propellants capable of storage are included for mechanical reasons
as seals, combustion inhibitors,! as melt loss inhibitors or for
other reasons and in the case of cryogenic solid propellants serve for or as support, filling, emptying or cooling devices. In both cases, during combustion or firing, in operation they may be completely or partly burned up.
With all known rocket fuels, the component::; .11:0 in a liquid and/or solid aggregation state and serve as oxidizers or as fuel. Many have still other functions and can act for example as binders or additives.
Independently of the state of aggregation, propellant substances
whether having oxidizer or fuel functions can be considered as
individual or monergole substances (single component fuel
substance). By separating the functions for different components,
one can have diergoles. Monergoles can, dependent on their phase
structure and their molecular composition a homogeneous or
heterogeneous aggregation state. Examples of homogenous monergoles
as ' liquid propellants are hydrogen peroxide hydrazine and
nitroglycerin. -Heterogeneous monergoles encompass for example
emulsions of liquid components which are not mutually soluble.
An entire series of preparations for rocket drives are
known which have at least one of the components in a liquid phase
at standard temperature (us 2,802,332, US 3,3 67,2 68,
US 3,398215, US 3,687,746, US 3,697,455, US 3,703,080).

US 2', 802,332 describes a propellant system for a liquid rocket which has a structure formed by a multiplicity of cells. Each of these cells contains at least one reactant. The walls of the cell-like structure are comprised of polyethylene, Teflon or silicone rubber. The individual cells are connected with one another by openings.
The state of the art of US patent 3,367,268 deals with a hybrid rocket propellant system which is formed by a solid polymeric cell-like rubber substance which forms an intercellular matrix. In this matrix pulverulent fuel, for example, a light metal powder from groups II and III of the periodic system of the elements and reinforcing fibers are embedded. The pores contain a liquid oxidizer.

In US Patent 3,398,215 a method of making a rocket
propellant system is described in which a| hardenable rubber polymer
is mixed with pulverulent metal fuel and a hardener and is treated
as an organic preparation. The rubber polymer is selected from the
group of rubben-like hydrocarbons and the halogenated hydrocarbon
rubbers. As the metal fuel, powders of aluminium, boron, titanium,
I beryllium, magnesium and lithium are used. The organic preparation
boils at 70 to 200°C and is compatible with the polymer. It is
evaporated at the hardening temperature of 120°C to 205°C in the
composite to form | pores or cells therein. The foam-like matrix
contains the metal fuel and forms a phase which holds together. The
matrix is then immersed in an oxidizer liquid so that the pores are
solutions have
filled with the oxidizer liquid. All| of these known
the .common drawback that they are able to achieve only ia very low
power level and are complicated in their construction and 'handling.

It is also known to fabricate propellant systems in very different geometric forms. They can however be divided coarsely into two categories, namely, internal burners with a plurality of radially-directed burn-up segments and end butners with a plurality of axially directed burn-up segments.
Apart from monergole propellants [monopropellants] there are known propellants which contain the fuel and oxidizer as separate elements' in various geometric arrangements. Examples are radially burning disk stacks or rod-in-matrix end burners (R.E.LO, N. EISENRIECH; "Modulare und kryogene Feststofftreibsatze - eine neue Klasse cheipischer Raketenantriebe", Deutscher Luft- und Raumfahrtkongress, DGLR-JT98-104; Bremen, 7.10.1998; Jahrbuch 1998, Band 2, 8. 1231) (Modular and cryogenic solid propellant systems -a new class of chemical rocket drives). Such arrangements are designated as modular drive systems. Modular drive systems with which modular Jelements are in the diergole [two component preparants] classification. The burn involves a diffusion frame with so-called boundary layer burns which is not followed are not easily followed by a transition to an end controlled explosion or
destination. 'One should also distinguish encapsulated components
propellants from modular propellants. The goal of encapsulation is
the mutual separation of reactive liquids and thereby the
improvement in the long-term storage capabilities. Liquids or very
sensitive reactants can be included in the capsules. No capsules are
incorporated in an undirected manner in binders. Minor propellants
are oriented and cast in place with a binder or hardenabie solid
propellant. With increasing capsule size (see R.M. McCURDY et al
"Solid Propellant Grain Containing Metal Macarocapsules of Fuel and
Oxidizer", US 3,527,168) and an oriented arrangement, encapsulated
propellants move info the subclass of rod-in-matrix preparations.
With smaller element dimensions and especially when the elements become no longer uniform but rather are statistically arranged, one obtains with all known propellants a transition to the heterogeneous monergole class. The preparation combinations which are' thus formed can best be described as "quasirnonergoles;
The ,same relatively poor boundaries between monergoles and diergoles can be found in the case of filled foam', propellants and propellant bulk materials which are incorporated in a cast
matrix. Thesel two classes of propellant have in common modular propellant systems that they ate hardly interesting for practical use in rocket drives because of the storage characteristics although the reasons differ. In the case of modular solid propellants the choice of storable propellants is limited because of energy availability grounds. Where there is a greater selection in the case of liquid propellants, these are limited because of the solid phases used in solid/liquid, heterogeneous bulk materials and foam. The ehn i: net or i s t i o 1 i mi tn t i. oris derive from thoir limited :.;u i table 1. :i ty under propellant operating conditions where separation of the liquid phase must be avoided absolutely. While encapsulation is a possible solution, it is burdened by the complex fabrication conditions. When the capsules grow to the size of bars as in the case of modular rod-in-matrix propellant systems, the methods for composites of liquids become no longer suitable.
Apart from the storable solid propellant systems, propellants which have been frozen have been proposed. These can have components which are,liquids or gases at standard temperature. Such propellants are here designated; as cryosolid propellants (cryogenic solid propellants or CSP).

Monergole CSP are comprised of frozen monergoles which
are liquid at room temperature, j Modular CSPs are assembled from at
least frozen elements which cannot be burned alone (US patent
3,137,127) . The burning of 'modular nonmonomergole propellant
I elements are basically a diffusp boundary layer burn and as such,
dependent upon that flow of reactants. This flow is not effected as a
force flow but only proceeds by convection, the reaction is not
controllable and drags whenever it predominates. As a result modular
drive systems at least from a certain size of the element, require
one or more ignition discharge generators (US patent 6 311 479).
i i
In this state of the art the invention has as its object to increase the power availability of cryosolid propellants by comparison ' with conventional solid propellants, hybrid propellants i>r liquid propellants, to improve the storability and economy\ of a rocket propellajnt while avoiding expensive liquid management and eliminating simultaneously the' need for permanent ignition of cryosolid propellants in a simple way.
This object is attained with the method of the type set 20 out at the outset with the characterizing -feature of claim 1 and , with a solid propellant having the features of claim 06.
Advantageous refinements can be deduced from the dependent claims. The method according to the invention is characterized above' all in that by the freezing of the liquid phase in a heterogeneous liquid-solid propellant, so that the latter can be converted to a cryogenic monergole solid propellant whereby the permanent ignition can be dropped and problems of liquid management which may arise with normal liquid-solid quasimonergoles can be overcome.

The invention covers therefore all quasimonergole fuel-oxidizer combinations in which at'least one of the components is a frozen liquid. The invention yields a significant power increase for carrier rockets. Apart from the environmental compatibility of the drive, the invention enables a choice of suitable propellant candidates like for example SOX or SH2O2 in combination with solid hydrocarbons like PE, PU, HTPB to significant operating and this starting cost saving pairings. In spite of apparent but not relevant technological problems of cryogenic solid rockets, the invention enables for them a potentially greater market in rocket technology.
Further advantages and details are given in the
following description with reference to the accompanying drawing.
, The invention will be 'described,in greater detail with
\ 1
a specific example..
The drawing shows:
FIG. 1 a section through a polymer foam as a solid structure with a cryogenic phase incorporated therein,

FIG. 2 a section through an aluminium foam
structure with an incorporated cryogenic phase and

Fig3 a section through a cast packing of polyethylene cryogenic phase.


The rocket drive system of a solid propellant according
to the invention should be made by the method of the invention.

The( solid propellant should, as FIG. 1 shows, be
comprised of a. polymer foam 1, for example of polyethylene as a fuel
and a cryogenic oxidizer phase 2, for example frozen [ hydrogen
i peroxide. The foam 1 as a solid phase is initially 'affixed to the
internal insulation of a fuel chamber wall which has I not been shown
and 'then has its capillaries filled with hydrogen peroxide utilizing
capillary forces or a pressure gradient and then frozen in the foam
1 as .required by undercooling. The hydrogen peroxide remains as a
cryogenic phase in the foam 1.
Naturally it is also possible without departing from
the invention to foam the foam 1 directly in the combustion chamber.
\ The combustion of the solid propellant according to the invention is then effected analogously to the classical solid fuel combustion in the combustion chamber whereby the propellant is ignited by means of an igniter.
FIG. 2 shows an example in which an aluminium foam 3 is used as the solid phase and has its pores filled with frozen oxygen. The production of the solid propellant according to the invention is effected as has been described previously.
FIG. 3 shows a polyethylene packing 4 whose interior is 10 filled with an oxidizer 5 which is liquid at room temperature and after filling has been frozen.

The following table shows the range of applications of the present indention in which two components are provided in each case and whereby the oxidizer formed by one component of the fuel formed by the other component are each replaceable by others. Each component can then be a homogeneous or heterogeneous mixture of different substances.
Note should be taken especially that naturally also high . energy materials, for example representatives of high energy density matter (HEDM) as components or additives can be considered, especially dispersed atoms or molecules' in a stabilizing matrix, stressed compounds (for example CUBAN), weakly covalent components (polynitrogen compounds), excited atoms or activated atoms or molecules (triplet helium) or metallic hydrogen. The cryogenic temperature provides a stabilization of the HEDM and is absolutely relevant to its use.
The different possibilities of the topologies of the
components are not considered here, that is in the following table,
it is not critical whether foams or bulk material or packings are
used or whether or not these are mentioned as examples. Materials
are described as "storable" when they| have the given state of
aggregation at room temperature and as "cryoqens" when
they require dooling as a rule on one of the above-mentioned
It suffices to observe that in solid rocket propellant systems all components will have the same starting point temperature regardless of their nature.





Storable solid

Cryogenic solid

Plastic foam impregnated with frozen hydrogen peroxide (5H202) or oxygen (SOX), with fuel particles of plastic or metal embedded therein

Storable solid

Cryogenic liquid Capsules lor tubes of cryogenic
components in solid

Cryogenic solid

Cryogenic solid

Frozen oxygen with frozen fuel in any possible quasi-monergole composition, for example SMOX (solid methane and solid oxygen!

Cryogenic solid

Storable liquid Frozen H202 with liquid fuel
encapsulated therein ,

Cryogenic solid ,

Cryogenic liquid Combinations of frozen
hydrocarbons with liquid 'oxygen encapsulated therein

Cryogenic liquid

Cryogenic or storable liquid

Bulk material (packing) of capsules of both components bonded together with an additional binder


We Claim:
1. A method of making a solid propellant for rocket drives from cryogenic monergole systems cooled below room temperature and especially a heterogeneous liquid-solid propellant in which at least one of the reactants is an oxidizer or fuel which contains liquid or gas phase at standard temperature, for example, emulsions of liquid components which are not soluble in one another, suspensions of solid components in liquid components or liquid impregnated bulk materials or packings, characterized in that (i) at least one liquid or gaseous phase as a reactant in the form of a fuel or oxidizer is incorporated in a solid phase structure containing hollow spaces with a complementary reactant therein by immersion and/or impregnation, wherein said solid structure is an open pore foam, especially a foam of plastic and/ or metal foam, such as, a polyethylene foam, a polyurethane foam, a HTBP foam, a GAP foam, an aluminum foam, a magnesium foam or a beryllium foam, produced by freezing liquid fuel or oxidizer, especially oxygen, hydrocarbons, hydrogen peroxide or an HEDM propellant, whereby the liquid phase is initially encapsulated, then mixed with the solid structure before freezing and bonded with the binder and both are then frozen together; and (ii) the liquid or gaseous phase is transformed by freezing into the cryogenic solid phase below standard temperature within the solid structure, wherein said the liquid or gaseous phase is oxygen, hydrocarbons, hydrogen peroxide or an HEDM propellant.
2. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein as the solid structure a packing which is incorporated in a casting material and is composed of a polyethylene, polyurethane, HTPB, GAP, AP, aluminum, magnesium or beryllium or other mixtures is used.
3. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the combustion speed is adjusted by the selection of a special hollow space size in the solid structure.

4. A solid propellant for rocket drives cooled below room temperature, especially a heterogeneous quasi-mechanical fuel-oxidizer combination in which at least one of the reactants is a liquid or gaseous phase at standard temperature, for example, an emulsion of liquid components which are not soluble in one another, a suspension of a solid component in a liquid component or a liquid impregnated packing, characterized in that at least one of the reactants is contained in a stable state by cooling to form a solid and at least one of the reactants is a solid phase as a stable solid, which is coherently combined with the other via a pore structure and comprised of a plastic foam, especially PUR, PE, HTPB or GAP foam, a metal foam, such as, aluminum, magnesium or beryllium or a mixture thereof that is transformed by cooling into the stable state and from oxygen, hydrocarbons, hydrogen peroxide or an HEDM propellant, wherein said stable solid phase is provided with a protecting coating which chemically insulates the two reactants from one another and frozen reactant is not in homogenous form but it is packing, which is mixed into he hollow space of the first packing.
5. The solid propellant as claimed in claim 4, wherein the solid phase is comprised of a packing of optionally shaped individual pieces whose hollow spaces are connected together and in which a frozen liquid is contained as a reactant.
6. The propellant as claimed in claim 4, wherein the solid phase is provided with a protecting coating which chemically insulates the two reactants from one another.


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Patent Number 213273
Indian Patent Application Number 568/MUMNP/2004
PG Journal Number 13/2008
Publication Date 31-Mar-2008
Grant Date 26-Dec-2007
Date of Filing 08-Oct-2004
Name of Patentee ADIRIM, HARRY
Applicant Address HAUPTSTR. 34/35, 10827 BERLIN
# Inventor's Name Inventor's Address
PCT International Classification Number C06B45/00
PCT International Application Number PCT/EP2003/003860
PCT International Filing date 2003-04-14
PCT Conventions:
# PCT Application Number Date of Convention Priority Country
1 02090144.3 2002-04-16 EUROPEAN UNION