Title of Invention

A DIAGNOSTIC KIT FOR THE DETECTION AND/OR QUANTIFICATION OF THE NUCLEIC ACIDS OF ANY COMBINATION OF THE MICROBIAL SPECIES AND/OR GENERA SELECTED FROM THE GROUP CONSISTING OF ENTEROCOCCUS FAECIUM, LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES, NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS, STAPHYLOCOCCUS SAPROPHYTICUS, STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE, CANDIDA ALBICANS, ENTEROCOCCUS SPECIES, NEISSERIA SPECIES, STAPHYLOCOCCUS SPECIES, STREPTOCOCCUS SPECIES AND CANDIDA SPECIES.

Abstract A DIAGNOSTIC KIT FOR THE DETECTION AND/OR QUANTIFICATION OF THE NUCLEIC ACIDS OF ANY COMBINATION OF THE MICROBIAL SPECIES AND/OR GENERA SELECTED FROM THE GROUP CONSISTING OF ENTEROCOCCUS FAECIUM, LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES, NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS,STAPHYLOCOCU
Full Text The present invention relates to a diagnostic kit for the detection and/or quantification of the nucleic acids of any combination of the microbial species and/or genera selected from the group consisting of enterococcus faecium, listeria monocytogenes, neisseria meningitidis, staphylococcus saprophyticus, streptococcus agalactiae, Candida albicans, enterococcus species, neisseria species, staphylococcus species, streptococcus species and Candida species.
This application is divided out of Indian Patent application No.2153/CAL/97.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
Classical methods for the identification and susceptibility testing of bacteria
Bacteria are classically identified by their ability to utilize different substrates as a source of carbon and nitrogen through the use of biochemical tests such as the API20E™ system (bioMerieux). For susceptibility testing, clinical microbiology laboratories use methods including disk diffusion, agar dilution and broth
microdilution. Although identifications based on biochemical tests and antibacterial susceptibility tests are cost-effective, at least two days are required to obtain preliminary results due to the necessity of two successive overnight incubations to identify the bacteria from clinical specimens as well as to determine their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. There are some commercially available automated systems (i.e. the MicroScan system from Dade Diagnostics Corp. and the Vitek system from bioMerieux) which use sophisticated and expensive apparatus for faster microbial identification and susceptibility testing (Stager and Davis, 1992, Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 5:302-327). These systems require shorter incubation periods, thereby allowing most bacterial identifications and susceptibility testing to be 0 performed in less than 6 hours. Nevertheless, these faster systems always require the primary isolation of the bacteria as a pure culture, a process which takes at least 18 hours for a pure culture or 2 days for a mixed culture. The fastest identification system, the auloSCAN.-Walk-Away™ system (Dade Diagnostics Corp.) identifies both gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial species from standardized inoculum in as little as 2 hours and gives susceptibility patterns to most antibiotics in 5.5 hours. However, this system has a particularly high percentage (i.e. 3.3 to 40.5%) of non-conclusive identifications with, bacterial"species other than Enterobacteriaceae (Croize J., 1995, Lett. Infectiol. 10:109-113; York et a!., 1992, J. Clin. Microbiol.
30:2903-2910). For Enterobacteriaceae, the percentage of non-conclusive
identifications was 2.7 to 1 1.4%.
A wide variety of bacteria and fungi are routinely isolated and identified from Clinical specimens in microbiology laboratories. Tables 1 and 2 give the incidence for the most commonly isolated bacterial and fungal pathogens from various types of clinical specimens. These pathogens are the most frequently associated with nosocomial and community-acquired human infections and are therefore considered the most clinically important.
Clinical specimens tested in clinical microbiology laboratories
Most clinical specimens received in clinical microbiology laboratories are urine and blood samples. At the microbiology laboratory of the Centre Hospitalier de l"Universite Laval (CHUL), urine and blood account for approximately 55% and 30% of the specimens received, respectively (Table 3). The remaining 15% of clinical specimens comprise various biological fluids including sputum, pus, cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluid, and others (Table 3). Infections of the urinary tract, the respiratory tract and the bloodstream are usually of bacterial etiology and require antimicrobial therapy. In fact, all clinical samples received in the clinical microbiology laboratory are tested routinely for the identification of bacteria and susceptibility testing.
Conventional pathogen identification from clinical specimens Urine specimens
The search for pathogens in urine specimens is so preponderant in the routine microbiology laboratory that a myriad of tests have been developed. However, the gold standard remains the classical semi-quantitative plate culture method in which 1 µL of urine is streaked on plates and incubated for 18-24 hours. Colonies are then counted to determine the total number of colony forming units (CFU) per liter of urine. A bacterial urinary tract infection (UTI) is normally associated with a bacterial count of lO7 CFU/L or more in urine. However, infections with less than lO7CFU/L in urine are possible, particularly in patients with a high incidence of diseases or those catheterized (Stark and Maki, 1984, N. Engl. J. Mcd. 311:560-564). Importantly, approximately 80% of urine specimens tested in clinical microbiology laboratories are considered negative (i.e. bacterial count of less than 107 CFU/L; Table 3). Urine specimens found positive by culture are further characterized using standard biochemical tests to identify the bacterial pathogen and are also tested for susceptibility to antibiotics. The biochemical and susceptibility testing normally require 18-24 hours of incubation.
Accurate and rapid urine screening methods For bacterial pathogens would allow a faster identification of negative specimens and a more efficient treatment and care management of patients. Several rapid identification methods (Uriscreen™, UTIscreen™, Flash Track™ DMA probes and others) have been compared to slower standard biochemical methods, which are based on culture of the bacterial pathogens. Although much faster, these rapid tests showed low sensitivities and poor specificities as well as a high number of false negative and false positive results (Kocning et al., 1992, J. Clin. Microbiol. 30:342-345; Pezzlo et al., 1992, J. Clin. Microbiol. 30:640-684).
Blood specimens
The blood specimens received in the microbiology laboratory are always submitted for culture. Blood culture systems may be manual, semi-automated or completely automated. The BACTEC system (from Becton Dickinson) and the BacTAlert system (from Organon Teknika Corporation) are the two most widely used automated blood culture systems. These systems incubate blood culture bottles under optimal conditions for bacterial growth. Bacterial growth is monitored continuously to detect early positives by using highly sensitive bacterial growth detectors. Once growth is detected, a Gram stain is performed directly from the blood culture and then used to inoculate nutrient agar plates. Subsequently, bacterial identification and susceptibility testing are carried out from isolated bacterial colonies with automated systems as described previously. The bottles are normally reported as negative if no growth is detected after an incubation of 6 to 7 days. Normally, the vast majority of blood cultures are reported negative. For example, the percentage of negative blood cultures at the microbiology laboratory of the CHUL for the period February 1994-January 1995 was 93.1% (Table 3).
Other clinical samples
Upon receipt by the clinical microbiology laboratory, all body fluids other than blood and urine that are from normally sterile sites (i.e. cerebrospinal, synovial, pleural, pericardial and others) are processed for direct microscopic examination and subsequent culture. Again, most clinical samples are negative for culture (Table 3).
Regarding clinical specimens which are not from sterile sites such as sputum or stool specimens, the laboratory diagnosis by culture is more problematic because of the contamination by the normal flora. The bacterial pathogens potentially associated with the infection are purified from the contaminants and then identified as described previously. Of course, the universal detection of bacteria would not be useful for the diagnosis of bacterial infections at these non sterile sites. On the other hand, DNA-

ised assays for species or genus detection and identification as well as for the detection of antibiotic resistance genes from these specimens would be very useful and would offer several advantages over classical identification and susceptibility testing methods.
BNA-based assays with any clinical specimens
There is an obvious need for rapid and accurate diagnostic tests for bacterial detection and identification directly from clinical specimens. DNA-based technologies are rapid and accurate and offer a great potential to improve the diagnosis of infectious diseases (Persing et ai, 1993, Diagnostic Molecular Microbiology: Principles and Applications, American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.). The DNA probes and amplification primers which are objects of the present invention are applicable for bacterial or fungal detection and identification directly from any clinical specimens such as blood cultures, blood, urine, sputum, cerebrospinal fluid, pus and other type of specimens (Table 3). The DNA-based tests proposed in this invention are superior in terms of both rapidity and accuracy to standard biochemical methods currently used for routine diagnosis from any clinical specimens in microbiology laboratories. Since these tests are performed in around only one hour, they provide the clinicians with new diagnostic tools which should contribute to increase the efficiency of therapies with antimicrobial agents. Clinical specimens from organisms other than humans (e.g. other primates, birds, plants, mammals, farm animals, livestock and others) may also be tested with these assays.
A high percentage of culture negative specimens
Among all the clinical specimens received for routine diagnosis, approximately 80% of urine specimens and even more (around 95%) for other types of clinical specimens are negative for the presence of bacterial pathogens (Table 3). It would also be desirable, in addition to identify bacteria at the species or genus level in a given specimen, to screen out the high proportion of negative clinical specimens with a test detecting the presence of any bacterium (i.e. universal bacterial detection). Such; a screening test may be based on the DNA amplification by PCR of a highly! conserved genetic target found in all bacteria. Specimens negative for bacteria would not be amplified by this assay. On the other hand, those that are positive for bacteria would give a positive amplification signal with this assay.
Towards the developement of repaid- DNA diagnostic tests
A rapid diagnostic test should have a significant impact on the management of infections. DNA probe and DNA amplification technologies offer several advantages over conventional methods for the identification of pathogens and antibiotic resistance genes from clinical samples (Persing et al, 1993, Diagnostic Molecular Microbiology: Principles and Applications, American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.; Ehrlich and Greenberg, 1994, PCR-based Diagnostics in Infectious Disease, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Boston, MA). There is no need for culture of the bacterial pathogens, hence the organisms can be detected directly from clinical samples, thereby reducing the time associated with the isolation and identification of pathogens. Furthermore, DNA-based assays are more accurate for bacterial identification than currently used phenotypic identification systems which are based on biochemical tests. Commercially available DNA-based technologies are currently used in clinical microbiology laboratories, mainly for the detection and identification of fastidious bacterial pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae as well as for the detection of a variety of viruses (Podzorski and Persing, Molecular detection and identification of microorganisms,//; : P. Murray et al., 1995, Manual of Clinical Microbiology, ASM press, Washington D.C.). There are also other commercially available DNA-based assays which are used for culture confirmation assays.
Others have developed DNA-based tests for the detection and identification of bacterial pathogens which are objects of the present invention:Staphylococcus spp. (US patent application serial No. US 5 437 978), Neisseria spp. (US patent application serial No. US 5 162 199 and European patent application serial No. EP 0 337 896 131) and Listeria monocytogenes (US patent applications serial Nos US 5 389 513 and US 5 "089 386). However, the diagnostic tests described in these patents are based either on rRNA genes or on genetic targets different from those described in the present invention.
Although there are diagnostic kits or methods already used in clinical microbiology laboratories, there is still a need for an advantageous alternative to the 50 conventional culture identification methods in order to improve the accuracy and the speed of the diagnosis of commonly encountered bacterial infections. Besides being much faster, DNA-based diagnostic tests are more accurate than standard biochemical tests presently used for diagnosis because the bacterial genotype (e.g. DNA level) is more stable than the bacterial phenotype (e.g. metabolic level).
Knowledge of the genomic sequences of bacterial and fungal species continuously increases as testified by the number of sequences available from databases. From the sequences readily available from databases, there is no indication therefrom as to their potential for diagnostic purposes. For determining good candidates for diagnostic purposes, one could select sequences for DNA-based assays |0 for (i) the species-specific detection and identification of commonly encountered
terial or fungal pathogens, (ii) the genus-specific detection and ideniificaiion of
comnionly encountered bacterial or fungal pathogens, (iii) the universal detection of
bacterial or fungal pathogens and/or (iv) the specific detection and identification of
antibiotic resistance genes. All of the above types of DNA-based assays may be performed directly from any type of clinical specimens or from a microbial culture.
In our co-pending U.S. (M.S. 08/526,840) and PCT (PCT/CA/95/00528) parent applications, we described DNA sequences suitable for (i) the species-specific detection and identification of 12 clinically important bacterial pathogens, (ii) the universal detection of bacteria, and (iii) the detection of 17 antibiotic resistance genes, This co-pending application described proprietary DNA sequences and DNA sequences selected from databases (in both cases, fragments of at least 100 base pairs); as well as oligonucleotide probes and amplification primers derived from these sequences. All the nucleic acid sequences described in this patent application enter the composition of diagnostic kits and methods capable of n) detecting the presence of bacteria, b) detecting specifically the presence of 12 oacterial species and 17 antibiotic resistance genes. However, these methods and kits need to be improved, since the ideal kit and method should be capable of diagnosing close to 100% of microbial pathogens and antibiotic resistance genes. For example, infections caused by Enxerococcus faecium have become a clinical problem because of its resistance to many antibiotics. Both the detection of these bacteria and the evaluation of their resistance profiles are desirable. Besides that, novel DNA sequences (probes and primers) capable of recognizing the same and other microbial pathogens or the same and additional antibiotic resistance genes are also desirable to aim at detecting more target genes and complement our earlier patent application.
STATEMENT OF THE INVENTION
It is an object of the present invention to provide a method for obtaining rw/sequences, from, which many types of primers and probes specific, ubiquitous and sensitive for given microbial species are derived, namely :
- specific microbial species or genera selected from the group consisting of Streptococcus species, Streptococcus agalactiae, "aphylococcus species, Siaphylococcus saprophyticus, Enierococcus species, Enierococcus faecium: Neisseria species, Neisseria meningitidis, Listeria monocytagenes, Candida species and Candida alb icons, and/or
- any bacterial species; and optionally
- an antibiotic resistance gene selected from the group consisting of blatem, blarob, blashy, blaoxa, blaZ, aadB, aacCl, aacC2, aacC3, aacA4 aac6"-Ila, ermA, ermB, errnC, mecA, vanA, vanB, vanC, satA, aac(6")~ aph(2 "),aad(6"),vat,vga, msrA, sul and int,
in any sample suspected of containingnucleic acids of said microbial species, wherein each of said nucleic acids or a variant or part thereof comprises a selected target region hybridizable with said probes or primers.
Diagnostic kits comprising probes or amplification primers for the detection of a microbial species or genus selected from the group consisting of Streptococcus species, Streptococcus agalactiae, Siaphylococcus species, StaphyJococcus saprophyticus, Enterococcus species, Enierococcus faecium, Neisseria species, Neisseria meningitidis, Listeria monocytogenes, Candida species and Candida albicans are also objects of the present invention. Diagnostic kits further comprising probes or amplification primers for the detection of any baaerial or fungal species, comprising or not comprising those for the detection of the specific microbial species or genus listed above, and further comprising or not comprising probes and primers for the antibiotic resistance genes listed above, are also objects of this invention.
Diagnostic kits further comprising probes or amplification primers for the detection of an antibiotic resistance gene selected from the group consisting of blaiem, blarob, blashy, blaoxa, blaZ, aadB, aacCl, aacCI, aacCS, aac4, aac6"-Ila, ermA, ermB, ermC, mecA, vanA, vanB, vanC, sal A, aac(6")-aph(2 "), aad(b"), vat, vga, msrA, sul and im axe also objects of this invention.
In a preferred embodiment, such a kit allows for the separate or the simultaneous detection and identification of the above-listed microbial species or genus, antibiotic resistance genes and for the detection of any bectrium.
In a preferred embodiment, a PCRproiocol is used as an amplification reaction.
In a particularly preferred embodiment, a PCR protocol is provided, comprising, for each amplification cycle, an annealing step of 30 seconds at 45-55cC and a denaturation step of only one second at 95°C without any time allowed specifically for the elongation step. This PCR protocol has been standardized to be suitable for PCR reactions with all selected primer pairs, which greatly facilitates the testing because each clinical sample can be tested wirh universal., species-specific, genus-specific, and antibiotic resistance gene PCR primers under uniform cycling conditions. Furthermore, various combinations of primer pairs may be used in multiplex PCR assays.
We aim at developing a rapid test or kit to discard rapidly all the samples which are negative for bacterial cells and to subsequently detect and identify the above bacterial and/or fungal species and genera and to determine rapidly the bacterial resistance to antibiotics. Although the sequences from the selected antibiotic resistance genes are available from databases and have Been used to develop DMA-based tests for their "detection, our approach is unique because it represents a major improvement over current gold standard diagnostic methods based on bacterial cultures. Using an amplification method for the simultaneous bacterial detection and identification and antibiotic resistance genes detection, there is no need for culturing the clinical, sample prior to testing. Moreover, a modified PCR protocol has been developed to detect all target DNA sequences in approximately one hour under uniform amplification conditions. This procedure will save lives by optimizing treatment, will diminish antibiotic resistance because less antibiotics will be prescribed, will reduce the use of broad spectrum antibiotics which are expensive, decrease overall health care costs by preventing or shortening hospitalizations, and decrease the time and cosis associated with clinical laboratory testing.
In the methods and kits described herein below, the oiigonucleotide probes and amplification primers have been derived from larger sequences (i.e. DNA fragments of at least 100 base pairs). All DNA fragments have been obtained either from proprietary fragments or from databases. DNA fragments selected from databases are newly used in a method of detection according to the present invention,"since they have been selected for their diagnostic potential.
It is clear to the individual skilled in the art thai other oligonucleotide sequences appropriate for (i) the universal bacterial detection... (ii) the detection and identification of the above microbial species or genus and (lii) the detection of antibiotic resistance genes other than those listed in Annex VI may also be derived from the proprietary fragments or selected database sequences. For example, the oligonucleotide primers or probes may be shorter or longer ihan the ones we have chosen; they may also be selected anywhere else in the proprietary DNA fragments or in the sequences selected from databases; they may be also variants of the same oligonucleotide. If the target DNA or a variant thereof hybridizes to a given oligonucleotide, or if the target DNA or a variant thereof can be amplified by a given oligonucleotide PCR primer pair, the converse is also true; given Target DNA may hybridize to a variant oligonucleotide probe or be amplified by a variant oligonucleotide PCR primer: Alternatively, the oligonucleotides may be designed from any DNA fragment sequences for use in amplification methods other than PCR. Consequently, the core of this invention is the identification of universal, species-specific, genus-specific and resistance gene-specific genomic or non-genomic DNA fragments which are used as a source of specific and ubiquitous oligonucleotide probes and/or amplification primers. Although the selection and evaluation of oligonucleotides suitable for diagnostic purposes requires much effort, it is quite possible for the individual skilled in the an to derive, from the selected DNA fragments, oligonucleotides other than the ones listed in Annex VI which are suitable for diagnostic purposes. When a proprietary fragment or a database sequence is selected for its specificity and ubiquity, it increases the probability that subsets thereof will also be specific and ubiquitous.
Since a high percentage of clinical specimens are negative for bacteria (Table 3), DNA fragments having a high potential for the selection of universal oligonucleotide probes or primers were selected from proprietary and database sequences. The amplification primers were selected from a gene highly conserved in bacteria and fungi, and are used to detect the presence of any bacterial pathogen in

clinical specimens in order to de rermine rapidly (approximately one hour) whether it xs positive or negativef for bacteria. The selected gene, designated mf, encodes a protein (EF-Tu) involved in the transnational process during protein synthesis The tuf"gene sequence alignments used to derive the universal primers include both proprietary and database sequences (Example 1 and Annex 1). This strategy allows the rapid screening of the numerous negative clinical specimens (around 80% of the specimens received, see Table 3) submitted for bacteriological testing.
Tables 4, 5 and 6 provide a list of the bacierial or fun- gai species used to test the specificity of PCR primers and DNA probes.
Table 7 gives a brief description of each species-specific, genus-specific and universal amplification assays which are objects of the presentinvenu"on.
Tables 8, 9 and 10 provide some relevant information about the proprietary and database sequences selected for diagnostic purposes.

,EO DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

Development of species-specific,__genus-specific, universal and antibiotic
resistance gene-specific DNA probes and amplification primers for
microorganisms
Selection from databases of sequences suitable for diagnostic purposes
In order to select sequences which are suitable for species-specific or genus-specific detection and identification of bacteria or fungi or, alternatively, for the universal detection of bacteria, the database sequences (GenBank, EMBL and Swiss-Prot) were chosen based on their potential for diagnostic purposes according to sequence information and computer analysis performed with these sequences. Initially, all sequence data available for the targeted microbial species or genus were carefully analyzed. The gene sequences which appeared the most promising for diagnostic purposes based on sequence information and on sequence comparisons with the corresponding gene in other microbial species or genera performed with the Genetics Computer Group (GCG, Wisconsin) programs were selected for testing by PCR. Optimal PCR amplification primers were chosen from the selected database sequences with the help of the Oligo™ 4.0 primer analysis software (National Biosciences Inc., Plymouth, Minn.). The chosen primers were tested in PCR assays for their specificity and ubiquity for the target microbial species or genus. In general, the identification of database sequences from which amplification primers suitable for species-specific or genus-specific detection and identification were selected involved the computer analysis and PCR testing of several candidate gene sequences before obtaining a primer pair which is specific and ubiquitous for the target microbial species or genus. Annex VI provides a list of selected specific and ubiquitous PCR primer pairs. Annexes I to V and Examples 1 to 4 illustrate the strategy used to select genus-specific, species-specific and universal PCR primers from tuf sequences or from the recA gene.
Oligonucleotide primers and probes design and synthesis
The DNA fragments sequenced by us or selected from databases (GenBank and EMBL) were used as sources of oligonuclcotides for diagnostic purposes. For this strategy, an array of suitable oligonucleolidc primers or probes derived from a variety of genornic DNA fragments (size of more than 100 bp) selected from databases were tested for their specificity and ubiquity in PCR and hybridization assays as described later. It is important to note that the database sequences were selected based on their potential for being species-specific, genus-specific or universal for the detection of

actcria or fungi according to available sequence information and extensive analysis and that, in general, several candidate database sequences had to be tested in order to obtain the desired specificity, ubiquity and sensitivity.
Oligonucleolidc probes and amplification primers derived from species-specific fragments selected from database sequences were synthesized using an automated DNA synthesizer (Perkin-Elmer Corp., Applied Biosystems Division). Prior to synthesis, all oligonucleotides (probes for hybridization and primers for DNA amplification) were evaluated for their suitability for hybridization or DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by computer analysis using standard programs (i.e. the Genetics Computer Group (GCG) programs and the primer analysis software Oligo™ 4.0). The potential suitability of the PCR primer pairs was also evaluated prior to the synthesis by verifying the absence of unwanted features such as long stretches of one nucleotide and a high proportion of G or C residues at the 3" end (Persing et al, 1993, Diagnostic Molecular Microbiology: Principles and Applications, American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.). The oligonucleotide primers or probes may be derived from either strand of the - duplex DNA. The primers or probes may consist of the bases A, G, C, or T or analogs and they may be degenerated at one or more chosen nucleotide position(s). The primers or probes may be of any suitable length and may be selected anywhere within the DNA sequences from proprietary fragments or from selected database sequences which are suitable for (i) the universal detection of bacteria, (ii) the species-specific detection and identification of Enterococcus faecium, Listeria monocytogenes, Neisseria meningitidis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Streptococcus agalactiae and Candida albicans (iii) the genus-specific detection of Streptococcus species, Enterococcus species, Staphylo coccus species and Neisseria species or (iv) the detection of the 26 above-mentioned clinically important antibiotic resistance genes.
Variants for a given target bacterial gene are naturally occurring and are attributable to sequence variation within that gene during evolution (Watson et al., 1987, Molecular Biology of the Gene, 4th ed., The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Menlo Park, CA; Lewin, 1989, Genes IV, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY). For example, different strains of the same bacterial species may have a single or more nucleotide variation(s) at the oligonucleotide hybridization site. The person skilled in the art is well aware of the existence of variant bacterial or fungal DNA sequences for a specific gene and that the frequency of sequence variations depends 3|5 on the selective pressure during evolution on a given gene product. The detection of a variant sequence for a region between two PCR primers may be demonstrated by sequencing the amplification product. In order to show the presence of sequence variants at the primer hybridization site, one has to amplify a larger DNA target with PCR primers outside that hybridization site. Sequencing of this larger fragment will allow the detection of sequence variation at this site. A similar strategy may be
pplied to show variants at the hybridization site of a probe. Insofar as the divergence of the target sequences or a part thereof does not affect the specificity and ubiquity of the amplification primers or probes, variant bacterial DNA is under the scope of this invention. Variants of the selected primers or probes may also be used to amplify or hybridize to a variant DNA.
Sequencing of sequences from a variety of bacterial and fungal species
The nucleotide sequence of a portion of tuf genes was determined for a variety of bacterial and fungal species. The amplification primers SEQ ID NOs: 107 and 108, which amplify a tuf gene portion of approximately 890 bp, were used for the sequencing of bacterial tuf sequences. The amplification primers SEQ ID NOs: 109 and 172, which amplify a tuf gene portion of approximately 830 bp, were used for the sequencing of fungal tuf sequences. Both primer pairs can amplify tuf A and tufB genes. This is not surprising because these two genes are nearly identical. For example, the entire tuf A and tufB genes from E. coli differ at only 13 nucleotide positions (Neidhardt et al., 1996, Escherichia coli and Salmonella: Cellular and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed., American Society for Microbiology Press, Washington, D.C.). These amplification primers are degenerated at several nucleotide positions and contain inosincs in order to allow the amplification of a wide range of tuf sequences. The strategy used to select these amplification primers is similar to that illustrated in Annex I for the selection of universal primers. The amplification primers SEQ ID NOs: 107 and 108 could be used to amplify the tuf genes from any bacterial species. The amplification primers SEQ ID NOs: 109 and 172 could be used to amplify the tuf genes from any fungal species.
The tuf genes were amplified directly from bacterial or yeast cultures using the following amplification protocol: One fiL of cell suspension was transferred directly to 19µL of a PCR reaction mixture containing 50 mM KC1, 10 mM Tris-HCl (pH 9.0), 0.1% Triton X-100, 2.5 mM MgCl2, 1 u.M of each of the 2 primers, 200 µ.M of
each of the four dNTPs, 0.5 unit oiTaq DNA polymerase (Promega Corp., Madison, WI). PCR reactions were subjected to cycling using a MJ Research PTC-200 thermal cycler (MJ Research Inc., Watertown, Mass.) as follows: 3 min at 96°C followed by 30-35 cycles of 1 min at 95°C for the denaturation step, 1 min at 30-50°C for the annealing step and 1 min at 72°C for the extension step. Subsequently, twenty microliters of the PCR-amplified mixture were resolved by electrophoresis in a 1.5% agarose gel. The gel was then visualized by staining with methylene blue (Flores et al., 1992, Biotechniques, 13:203-205). The size of the amplification products was estimated by comparison with a 100-bp molecular weight ladder. The band corresponding to the specific amplification product (i.e. approximately 890 or 830 bp for bacterial or fungal tuf sequences, respectively) was excised from the agarose gel
and pun lied using the QIAquick™ gel extraction kit (QIAGEN Inc., Chatsworth, "CA).-The gel-purified DMA fragment was then used directly in the sequencing protocol. Both strands of the tuf genes amplification product were sequenced by the dideoxynucleotide chain termination sequencing method by using an Applied Biosystems automated DNA sequencer (model 373A) with their PRISM™ Sequenase® Terminator Double-stranded DNA Sequencing Kit (Perkin-Elmer Corp., Applied Biosystems Division, Foster City, CA). The sequencing reactions were all performed by using the amplification primers (SEQ ID NOs: 107 to 109 and 172) and 100 ng per reaction of the gel-purified amplicon. In order to ensure that the determined sequence did not contain errors attributable to the sequencing of PCR artefacts, we have sequenced two preparations of the gel-purified ////amplification product originating from two independent PCR amplifications. For all target microbial species, the sequences determined for both amplicon preparations were identical. Furthermore, the sequences of both strands were 100% complementary thereby confirming the high accuracy of the determined sequence. The ////sequences determined using the above strategy are all in the Sequence Listing (i.e. SEQ ID NOs:l 18 to 146). Table 13 gives the originating microbial species and the source for each /w/sequence in the Sequence Listing.
The alignment of the tuf sequences determined by us or selected from databases reveals clearly that the length of the sequenced portion of the tuf genes is variable. There may be insertions or deletions of several amino acids. This explains why the size of the sequenced tuf amplification product was variable for both bacterial and fungal species. Among the tuf sequences determined by our group, we found insertions and deletions adding up to 5 amino acids or 15 nucleotides. Consequently, the nucleotide positions indicated on top of each of Annexes I to V do not correspond for tuf sequences having insertions or deletions.
It should also be noted that the various tuf sequences determined by us occasionally contain degenerescences. These degenerated nucleotides correspond to sequence variations between tufA and tufB genes because the amplification primers amplify both tuf genes. These nucleotide variations were not attributable to nucleotide misincorporations by the tag DNA polymerase because the sequence of both strands were identical and also because the sequences determined with both preparations of the gel-purified tu famplicons were identical.
The selection of amplification primers from tuf sequences
The tuf sequences determined by us or selected from databases were used to select PCR primers for (i) the universal detection of bacteria, (ii) the genus-specific detection and identification of Enterococcus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. and (iii) the species-specific detection and identification of Candida albicans. The strategy
used to select these PCR primers was based on the analysis of multiple sequence alignments of various tuf sequences. For more details about the selection of PCR primers from tuf sequences, please refer to Examples 1 to 3 and Annexes I to IV.
The selection of amplification primers from recA
The comparison of the nucleotide sequence for the recA gene from various bacterial species including 5 species of streptococci allowed the selection of Streptococcus-specific PCR primers. For more details about the selection of PCR primers from recA, please refer to Example 4 and Annex V.
DNA fragment isolation from Staphylococcus saprophyticus by arbitrarily primed PCR
DNA sequences of unknown coding potential for the species-specific detection and identification of Staphylococcus saprophyticus were obtained by the method of arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR).
AP-PCR is a method which can be used to generate specific DNA probes for microorganisms (Fani et al., 1993, Mol. Ecol. 2:243-250). A description of the AP-PCR protocol used to isolate a species-specific genomic DNA fragment from Staphylococcus saprophyticus follows. Twenty different oligonucleotide primers of 10 nucleotides in length (all included in the AP-PCR kit OPAD (Operon Technologies, Inc., Alameda, CA)) were tested systematically with DNAs from 3 bacterial strains of Staphylococcus saprophyticus (all obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC): numbers 15305, 35552 and 43867) as well as with DNA from four other staphylococcal species (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Staphylococcus epidennidis ATCC 14990, Staphylococcus haemolyticus ATCC 29970 and Staphylococcus hominis ATCC 35982). For all bacterial species, amplification was performed from a bacterial suspension adjusted to a standard 0.5 McFarland which corresponds to approximately 1.5 x 10.8 bacteria/mL. One uL of the standardized bacterial suspension was transferred directly to 19 µL of a PCR reaction mixture containing 50 mM KC1, 10 raM Tris-HCl (pH 9.0), 0.1% Triton X-100, 2.5 mM MgCl2, 1.2 µM of only one of the 20 different AP-PCR primers OPAD, 200 µM
of each of the four dNTPs and 0.5 unit of Taq DNA polymerase (Promega Corp., Madison, WI). PCR reactions were subjected to cycling using a MJ Research PTC-200 thermal cycler (MJ Research Inc.) as follows: 3 min at 96°C followed by 35 cycles of 1 min at 95°C for the denaturation step, 1 min at 32°C for the annealing step and 1 min at 72°C for the extension step. A final extension step of 7 min at 72°C was made after the 35 cycles to ensure complete extension of PCR products. Subsequently, twenty microliters of the PCR amplified mixture were resolved by

dectrophoresis in a 2% agarose gel containing 0.25 fig/mL of ethidium bromide. The "size of the amplification products was estimated by comparison with a 50-bp molecular weight ladder.
Amplification patterns specific forStapliylococcus saprophyticus were observed with the AP-PCR primer OPAD-9 (SEQ ID NO: 25). Amplification with this primer consistently showed a band corresponding to a DNA fragment of approximately 450 bp for all Staphylococcus saprophyticus strains tested but not for any of the four other staphylococcal species tested. This species-specific pattern was confirmed by testing 10 more clinical isolates of S. saprophyticus selected from the culture collection of the microbiology laboratory of the CHUL as well as strains selected from the gram-positive bacterial species listed in Table 5.
The band corresponding to the approximately 450 bp amplicon which was specific and ubiquitous for S. saprophyticus based on AP-PCR was excised from the agarose gel and purified using the QIAquick™ gel extraction kit (QIAGEN Inc.). The gel-purified DNA fragment was cloned into the T/A cloning site of the pCR 2.1™ plasmid vector (Invitrogen Inc.) using T4 DNA ligase (New England BioLabs). Recombinant plasmids were transformed into E. coli DH5a competent cells using standard procedures. Plasmid DNA isolation was done by the method of Birnboim and Doly (Nucleic Acids Res. 7:1513-1523) for small-scale preparations. All plasmid DNA preparations were digested with the EcoRl restriction endonuclease to ensure the presence of the approximately 450 bp AP-PCR insert into the recombinant plasmids. Subsequently, a large-scale and highly purified plasmid DNA preparation was performed from two selected clones shown to carry the AP-PCR insert by using the QIAGEN plasmid purification kit. These plasmid preparations were used for automated DNA sequencing.
Both strands of the AP-PCR insert from the two selected clones were sequenced by the dideoxynucleotide chain termination sequencing method with SP6 and T7 sequencing primers, by using an Applied Biosystems automated DNA sequencer as described previously. The analysis of the obtained sequences revealed that the DNA sequences for both strands from each clone were 100% complementary. Furthermore, it showed that the entire sequence determined for each clone were both identical. These sequencing data confirm the 100% accuracy for the determined 438 bp sequence (SEQ ID NO: 29). Optimal amplification primers have been selected from the sequenced AP-PCR Staphylococcus saprophyticus DNA fragment with the help of the primer analysis software Oligo™ 4.0. The selected primer sequences have been tested in PCR assays to verify their specificity and ubiquity (Table 7). These PCR primers were specific since there was no amplification with DNA from bacterial species other than .S". saprophyticus selected from Tables 4 and 5. Furthermore, this assay was ubiquitous since 245 of 260 strains of S. saprophyticus were efficiently amplified with this PCR assay. When used in combination with another S.

saprophyticus-spGcific PCR assay, which is an object of our co-pending U.S. (N.S. 08/526,840) and PCT (PCT/CA/95/00528) patent applications, the ubiquity reaches 100% for these 260 strains.
DNA amplification
For DNA amplification by the widely used PCR (polymerase chain reaction) method, primer pairs were derived from proprietary DNA fragments or from database sequences. Prior to synthesis, the potential primer pairs were analyzed by using the Oligo™ 4.0 software to verify that they are good candidates for PCR amplification.
During DNA amplification by PCR, two oligonucleotide primers binding respectively to each strand of the heat-denatured target DNA from the bacterial genome are used to amplify exponentially in vitro the target DNA by successive thermal cycles allowing denaturation of the DNA, annealing of the primers and synthesis of new targets at each cycle (Persing et al, 1993, Diagnostic Molecular Microbiology: Principles and Applications, American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.).
Briefly, the PCR protocols were as follow: Treated clinical specimens or standardized bacterial or fungal suspensions (see below) were amplified in a 20 µL PCR reaction mixture containing 50 mM KC1, 10 mM Tris-HCl (pH 9.0), 2.5 mM MgCl2, 0.4 u.M of each primer, 200 u-M of each of the four dNTPs and 0.5 unit ofTaq
DNA polymerase (Promega) combined with the TaqStart™ antibody (Clontech Laboratories Inc., Palo Alto, CA). The TaqStart™ antibody, which is a neutralizing monoclonal antibody to Taq DNA polymerase, was added to all PCR reactions to enhance the specificity and the sensitivity of the amplifications (Kellogg et al., 1994, Biotechniques 16:1134-1137). The treatment of the clinical specimens varies with the type of specimen tested, since the composition and the sensitivity level required are different for each specimen type. It consists in a rapid protocol to lyse the bacterial cells and eliminate the PCR inhibitory effects (see example 11 for urine specimen preparation). For amplification from bacterial or fungal cultures, the samples were added directly to the PCR amplification mixture without any pre-treatment step (see example 10). Primer sequences derived from highly conserved regions of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene were used to provide an internal control for all PCR reactions. Alternatively, the internal control was derived from sequences not found in microorganisms or in the human genome. The internal control was integrated into all amplification reactions to verify the efficiency of the PCR assays and to ensure that significant PCR inhibition was absent. The internal control derived from rRNA was. also useful to monitor the efficiency of bacterial lysis protocols.
PCR reactions were then subjected to thermal cycling (3 min at 95°C followed by 30 cycles of 1 second at 95°C for the denaturation step and 30 second at 55°C for
Of e annealing-extension step) using a PTC-200 thermal cycler (MJ Research Inc.) and subsequently analyzed by standard ethidium bromide-stained agarose gel electrophoresis. The number of cycles performed for the PCR assays varies according to the sensitivity level required. For example, the sensitivity level required for microbial detection directly from clinical specimens is higher for blood specimens than for urine specimens because the concentration of microorganisms associated with a septiccmia can be much lower than that associated with a urinary tract infection. Consequently, more sensitive PCR assays having more thermal cycles are required for direct detection from blood specimens. Similarly, PCR assays performed directly from bacterial or fungal cultures may be less sensitive than PCR assays performed directly from clinical specimens because the number of target organisms is normally much lower in clinical specimens than in microbial cultures.
It is clear that other methods for the detection of specific amplification products, which may be faster and more practical for routine diagnosis, may be used. Such methods may be based on the detection of fluorescence after amplification (e.g. TaqMan™ system from Perkin Elmer or Amplisensor™ from Biotronics). Methods based on the detection of fluorescence arc particularly promising for utilization in routine diagnosis as they are very rapid, quantitative and can be automated (Example 14).
2(3 Microbial pathogens detection and identification may also be performed by solid
support or liquid hybridization using species-specific internal DNA probes hybridizing to an amplification product. Such probes may be generated from any species-specific or genus-specific DNA amplification products which are objects of the present invention. Alternatively, the internal probes for species or genus detection and identification may be derived from the amplicons produced by the universal amplification assay. The oligonucleotide probes may be labeled with biotin or with digoxigenin or with any other reporter molecules.
To assure PCR efficiency, glycerol, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or other related solvents can be used to increase the sensitivity of the PCR and to overcome problems associated with the amplification of a target DNA having a high GC content or forming strong secondary structures (Dieffenbach and Dveksler, 1995, PCR Primer : A Laboratory Manual, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Plainview, New York). The concentration ranges for glycerol and DMSO are 5-15% (v/v) and 3-10% (v/v), respectively. For the PCR reaction mixture, the concentration ranges for the amplification primers and MgCL2 are 0.1-1.5 }µM and 1.5-3.5 mM, respectively.
Modifications of the standard PCR protocol using external and nested primers (i.e. nested PCR) or using more.than one primer pair (i.e. multiplex PCR) may also be used (Persing et al., 1993, Diagnostic Molecular Microbiology: Principles and Applications, American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.). For more

details about the PCR protocols and amp!icon detection methods, see Examples 9 to 14.
The person skilled in the art of DNA amplification knows the existence of other rapid amplification procedures such as ligase chain reaction (LCR), transcription-mediated amplification (TMA), self-sustained sequence replication (3SR), nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA), strand displacement amplification (SDA), branched DNA (bDNA) and cycling probe technology (CPT) (Lee et al., 1997, Nucleic Acid Amplification Technologies: Application to Disease Diagnosis, Eaton Publishing, Boston, MA; Persing et al., 1993, Diagnostic Molecular Microbiology: Principles and Applications, American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.). The scope of this invention is not limited to the use of amplification by PCR, but rather includes the use of any rapid nucleic acid amplification method or any other procedure which may be used to increase rapidity and sensitivity of the tests. Any oligonuclcotide suitable for the amplification of nucleic acids by approaches other than PCR and derived from the species-specific, genus-specific and universal DNA fragments as well as from selected antibiotic resistance gene sequences included in this document are also under the scope of this invention.
Hybridization assays with oligonuclcotide probes
In hybridization experiments, single-stranded oligonucleotides (size less than 100 nucleotides) have some advantages over DNA fragment probes for the detection of bacteria, such as case of synthesis in large quantities, consistency in results from batch to batch and chemical stability. Briefly, for the hybridizations, oligonucleotides were 5 end-labeled with the radionucleotidey-32P(dATP) using T4 polynucleotide kinase (Pharmacia) (Sambrook et al., 1989, Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, 2nd ed., Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY). The unincorporated radionucleotide was removed by passing the labeled oligonucleotide through a Sephadex G-50™ column. Alternatively, oligonucleotides were labeled with biotin, either enzymatically at their 3" ends or incorporated directly during synthesis at their 5" ends, or with digoxigenin. It will be appreciated by the person skilled in the art that labeling means other than the three above labels may be used.
Each oligonucleotide probe was then tested for its specificity by hybridization to DNAs from a variety of bacterial and fungal species selected from Tables 4, 5 and 6. All of the bacterial or fungal species tested were likely to be pathogens associated with common infections or potential contaminants which can be isolated from clinical specimens. Each target DNA was released from bacterial cells using standard chemical treatments to lyse the cells (Sambrook et al., 1989, Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, 2nd ed., Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring
arbor, NY). Subsequently, the DNA was denatured by conventional methods and then irreversibly fixed onto a solid support (e.g. nylon or nitrocellulose membranes) or free in solution. The fixed single-stranded target DNAs were then hybridized with the oligonucleotide probe cells (Sambrook et a/., 1989, Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, 2nd ed., Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY). Pre-hybridization conditions were in 1 M NaCl + 10% dextran sulfate + 1% SDS + 100 fig/mL salmon sperm DNA at 65°C for 15 min. Hybridization was performed in fresh pre-hybridization solution containing the labeled probe at 65°C overnight. Post-hybridization washing conditions were as follows: twice in 3X SSC containing 1% SDS, twice in 2X SSC containing 1% SDS and twice in IX SSC containing 1% SDS (all of these washes were at 65°C for 15 min), and a final wash in 0.1X SSC containing 1% SDS at 25°C for 15 min. Autoradiography of washed filters allowed the detection of selectively hybridized probes. Hybridization of the piobe to a specific target DNA indicated a high degree of similarity between the nucleotide sequence of these two DNAs because of the high stringency of the washes.
An oligonucleotide probe was considered specific only when it hybridized solely to DNA from the species or genus from which it was isolated. Oligonucleotide probes found to be specific were subsequently tested for their ubiquity (i.e. ubiquitous probes recognized most or all isolates of the target species or genus) by hybridization to microbial DNAs from clinical isolates of the species or genus of interest including ATCC strains. The DNAs from strains of the target species or genus were denatured, fixed onto nylon membranes and hybridized as described above. Probes were considered ubiquitous when they hybridized specifically with the DNA from at least 80% of the isolates of the target species or genus.
Specificity and ubiquity tests for oligonucleotide primers and probes
The specificity of oligonucleotide primers and probes, derived either from the DNA fragments sequenced by us or selected from databases, was tested by amplification of DNA or by hybridization with bacterial or fungal species selected from those listed in Tables 4, 5 and 6, as described in the two previous sections. Oligonucleotides found to be specific were subsequently tested for their ubiquity by amplification (for primers) or by hybridization (for probes) with bacterial DNAs from isolates of the target species or genus. Results for specificity and ubiquity tests with the oligonucleotide primers are summarized in Table 7. The specificity and ubiquity of the PCR assays using the selected amplification primer pairs were tested directly from cultures (see Examples 9 and 10) of bacterial or fungal species.
The various species-specific and genus-specific PCR assays which are objects of the present invention are all specific. For the PCR assays specific to bacterial species or genus, this means that DNA isolated from a wide variety of bacterial
pecies, other than that from the target species or genus and selected from Tables 4 and 5, could not be amplified. For the PCR assay specific to Candida albicans, it means there was no amplification with genomic DNA from the fungal species listed in Table 6 as well as with a variety of bacterial species selected from Tables 4 and 5.
The various species-specific and genus-specific PCR assays which are objects of the present invention are also all ubiquitous (Table 7). (i) The species-specific PCR assays for E. faeciwn, L. monocylogenes, S. saprophyticus, S. agalactiae and C. albicans amplified genomic DNA from all or most strains of the target species tested, which were obtained from various sources and which are representative of the
diversity within each target species (Table 7). The species identification of all of these strains was based on classical biochemical methods which are routinely used in clinical microbiology laboratories, (ii) The genus-specific PCR assays specific for Enterococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp. and Neisseria spp. amplified genomic DNA from all or most strains of the target genus tested, which represent all clinically important bacterial species for each target genus. These strains were obtained from various sources and are representative of the diversity within each target genus. Again, the species identification of all of these strains was based on classical biochemical methods which are routinely used in clinical microbiology laboratories. More specifically, the four genus-specific PCR assays amplified the following species: (1) The Enterococcusspccific assay amplified efficiently DNA from all of the 11 enterococcal species tested including E. avium, E. casseliflavus, E. dispar, E. durans, E. faecal is, E. faeciwn, E. flavescens, E. gallinarum, E. hirae, E. mundtii and E. raffinosus. (2) TheNeisseria-spccific assay amplified efficiently DNA from all of the 12 neisserial species tested including N. canis, N. cinerea, N. elongata, N. flavescens, N. gonorrhoeae, N. lactamica, N. tneningitidis, N. mucosa, N. polysaccharea, N. sicca, N. subflavaand N. weaveri. (3) The Staphylococcus-specific assay amplified efficiently DNA from 13 of the 14 staphylococcal species tested including S. aureus, S. auricularis, S. capitis, S. cohnii, S. epidermidis, S. haemolyticus, S. hominis, S. lugdunensis, S. saprophyticus, S. schleiferi, S. simulans, S. warneri and S. xylosus. The staphylococcal species which could not be amplified is S. sciuri. (4) Finally, the Streptococcus-specific assay amplified efficiently DNA from all of the 22 strcptococcal species tested including S. agalactiae, S. anginosus, S. bovis, S. conslellatus, S. crista, S. dysgalactiae, S. equi, S. gordonii, S. intermedius, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. parasanguis, S. pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, S. salivarius, S. sanguis, S. sabrinus, S. suis, S. uberis, S. vestibularis and S. viridans. On the other hand, the Streptococcus-specific assay did not amplify 3 out of 9 strains of S. mutans and 1 out of 23 strains of S. salivarius, thereby showing a slight lack of ubiquity for these two streptococcal species.
All specific and ubiquitous amplification primers for each target microbial
0 species or genus or antibiotic resistance gene investigated are listed in Annex VI.

divergence in the sequcnced DNA fragments can occur, insofar as the divergence of these sequences or a part thereof does not affect the specificity of the probes or amplification primers. Variant bacterial DNA is under the scope of this invention.
The PCR amplification primers listed in Annex VI were all tested for their specificity and ubiquity using reference strains as well as clinical isolates from various geographical locations. The 351 reference strains used to test the amplification and hybridization assays ("fables 4, 5 and 6) were obtained from (i) the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC): 85%, (ii) the Laboratoire de sante publique du Quebec (LSPQ): 10%, (iii) the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): 3% , (iv) the National Culture Type Collection (NCTC): 1% and (v) several other reference laboratories throughout the world: 1%. These reference strains are representative of (i) 90 gram-negative bacterial species (169 strains; Table 4), (ii) 97 gram-positive bacterial species (154 strains; Table 5) and (iii) 12 fungal species (28 strains; Table 6).
Antibiotic resistance genes
Antimicrobial resistance complicates treatment and often leads to therapeutic failures. Furthermore, overuse of antibiotics inevitably leads to the emergence of bacterial resistance. Our goal is to provide clinicians, in approximately one hour, the needed information to prescribe optimal treatments. Besides the rapid identification of negative clinical specimens with DNA-based tests for universal bacterial detection and the identification of the presence of a specific pathogen in the positive specimens with species- and/or genus-specific DNA-based tests, clinicians also need timely information about tlic ability of the bacterial pathogen to resist antibiotic treatments. We feel that the most efficient strategy to evaluate rapidly bacterial resistance to antimicrobials is to detect directly from the clinical specimens the most common and clinically important antibiotic resistance genes (i.e. DNA-based tests for the detection of antibiotic resistance genes). Since the sequence from the most important and common bacterial antibiotic resistance genes are available from databases, our strategy was to use the sequence from a portion or from the entire resistance gene to design specific oligonucleotide primers or probes which will be used as a basis for the development of rapid DNA-based tests. The sequence from each of the bacterial antibiotic resistance genes selected on the basis of their clinical relevance (i.e. high incidence and importance) is given in the Sequence Listing. Tables 9 and 10 summarize some characteristics of the selected antibiotic resistance genes. Our approach is unique because the antibiotic resistance genes detection and the bacterial detection and identification are performed simultaneously in multiplex assays under uniform PCR amplification conditions (Example 1.3).
Annex Vi provides a list of all amplification primers selected from 26 clinically important antibiotic resistance genes which were tested in PCR assays. The various PCR assays for antibiotic resistance genes detection and identification were validated by testing several resistant bacterial isolates known to cany the targeted gene and obtained from various countries. The testing of a large number of strains which do not carry the targeted resistance gene was also performed to ensure that all assays were specific. So far, all PCR assays for antibiotic resistance genes are highly specific and have detected all control resistant bacterial strains known to carry the targeted gene. The results of some clinical studies to validate the array of PCR assays for the detection and identification of antibiotic resistance genes and correlate these DNA-based assays with standard antimicrobials susceptibility testing methods are presented in Tables 11 and 12.
Universal bacterial detection In the routine microbiology laboratory, a high percentage of clinical specimens sent for bacterial identification are negative by culture (Table 4). Testing clinical samples with universal amplification primers or universal probes to detect the presence of bacteria prior to specific identification and screen out the numerous negative specimens is thus useful as it saves costs and may rapidly orient the clinical management of the patients. Several amplification primers and probes were therefore synthesized from highly conserved portions of bacterial sequences from the tuf genes (Table 8). The universal primer selection was based on a multiple sequence alignment constructed with sequences determined by us or selected from available database sequences as described in Example 1 and Annex I.
For the identification of database sequences suitable for the universal detection of bacteria, we took advantage of the fact that the complete genome sequences for two distant microorganisms (i.e. Mycoplasma genitalium and Haemophilus influenzae) are available. A comparison of the amino acid sequence for all proteins encoded by the genome of these two distant microorganisms led to the identification of highly homologous proteins. An analysis of these homologous proteins allowed to select some promising candidates for the development of universal DNA-based assays for the detection of bacteria. Since the complete nucleolide sequence of several other microbial genomes are presently available in databases, a person skilled in the art could arrive to the same conclusions by comparing genomes sequences other than those of Mycoplasma genitalium mid Haemophilus influenzae. The selected tuf gene encodes a protein (EF-Tu) involved in the translation process during protein synthesis. Subsequently, an extensive nucleotide sequence analysis was performed with the tuf gene sequences available in databases as well as with novel tuf sequences which we have determined as described previously. All computer analysis

alamino acid and nuclcotidc sequences were performed by using the GCG programs. Subsequently, optimal PCR primers lor the universal amplification of bacteria were selected with the help of the Oligo™ program. The selected primers are degenerated at several nucleotidc positions and contain several inosines in order to allow the amplification of all clinically relevant bacterial species (Annex I). Inosine is a nucleotide analog able to specifically bind to any of the four nucleotides A, C, G or T. Degenerated oligonucleotides consist of an oligonucleotide mix having two or more of the four nucleotides A, C, G or T at the site of mismatches. The inclusion of inosine and/or of degcnercsccnces in the amplification primers allow mismatch tolerance thereby permitting the amplification of a wider array of target nucleotide sequences (Dieffenbach and Dveksler, 1995 PCR Primer: A Laboratory Manual, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Plainview, NY).
The amplification conditions with the universal primers were identical to those
used for the species- and genus-specific amplification assays except that the annealing
temperature was 50°C instead of 55°C. This universal PCR assay was specific and
nearly ubiquitous for the detection of bacteria. The specificity for bacteria was
verified by amplifying genomic DNA isolated from the 12 fungal species listed in
Table 6 as well as genomic DNA from Leishmania donovani, Saccharomyces
cerevisiae and human lymphocytes. None of the above cukaryotic DNA preparations
could be amplified by the universal assay, thereby suggesting that this test is specific
for bacteria. The ubiquity of the universal assay was verified by amplifying genomic
DNAs from 116 reference strains which represent 95 of the most clinically relevant
bacterial species. These species have been selected from the bacterial species listed in
Tables 4 and 5. We found that 104 of these 116 strains could be amplified. The
bacterial species which could not be amplified belong to the following genera:
Corynebacterium (11 species) and Stenotrophomonas (1 species). Sequencing of the
tuf genes from these bacterial species has been recently performed. This sequencing
data has been used to select new universal primers which may be more ubiquitous.
These primers are in the process of being tested. We also observed that for several
species the annealing temperature had to be reduced to 45CC in order to get an
efficient amplification. These bacterial species includeGemella morbilbrum, Listeria
spp. (3 species) and Gardnerella voginalis. It is important to note that the 95 bacterial
species selected from Tables 4 and 5 to test the ubiquity of the universal assay include
all of the most clinically relevant bacterial species associated with a variety of human
infections acquired in the community or in hospitals (nosocomial infections). The
most clinically important bacterial and fungal pathogens are listed in Tables 1 and 2.

AND ANNEXES
The following examples and annexes are intended to be illustrative of the various methods and compounds of the invention, rather than limiting the scope thereof.
The various annexes show the strategies used for the selection of amplification primers fromtuf sequcnces or from the recA gene: (i) Annex I illustrates the strategy used for the selection of the universal amplification primers from /^/sequences, (ii) Annex II shows the strategy used for the selection of the amplification primers specific for the genus Enterococcus from tuf sequences, (iii) Annex III illustrates the strategy used for the selection of the amplification primers specific for the genus Staphylococcus from tuf sequences, (iv) Annex IV shows the strategy used for the selection of the amplification primers specific for the species Candida albicans from tuf sequences, (v) Annex V illustrates the strategy used for the selection of the amplification primers specific for the genus Streptococcus from recA sequences, (vi) Annex VI gives a list of all selected primer pairs. As shown in these annexes, the selected amplification primers may contain inosines and/or degenerescences. Inosine is a nucleotide analog able to specifically bind to any of the four nucleotides A, C, G or T. Alternatively, degenerated oligonucleotides which consist of an oligonucleotide mix having two or more of the four nucleotides A, C, G or T at the site of mismatches were used. The inclusion of inosine and/or of degenerescences in the amplification primers allow mismatch tolerance thereby permitting the amplification of a wider array of target nucleotide sequences (Dieffenbach and Dveksler, 1995 PCR Primer: A Laboratory Manual, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Plainview, New York).
EXAMPJ.ES
EXAMPLE 1 :
Selection of universal PCR primers from tuf sequences. As shown in Annex I, the comparison of tuf sequences from a variety of bacterial and eukaryotic species allowed the selection of PCR primers which are universal for the detection of bacteria. The strategy used to design the PCR primers was based on the analysis of a multiple sequence alignment of various tuf sequences. This multiple sequence alignment includes tuf sequences from 38 bacterial species and 3 eukaryotic species either determined by us or selected from databases (Table 13). A careful analysis of this multiple sequence alignment allowed the selection of primer sequences which are conserved within eubacteria but which discriminate sequences from eukaryotes, thereby permitting the universal detection of bacteria. As shown in Annex I, the selected primers contain several inosines and degenerescences. This was necessary

because there is a relatively high polymorphism among bacterial ////sequences despite the fact that this gene is highly conserved. In fact, among the////sequences that we determined, we found many nucleotide variations as well as some deletions and/or insertions of amino acids. The selected universal primers were specific and ubiquitous for bacteria (Table 7). Of the 95 most clinically important bacterial species tested, 12 were not amplified. These species belong to the gcnemCorynebacterium (11 species) and Stenolrophomonas (1 species). The universal primers did not amplify DNA of non-bacterial origin, including human and other types of eukaryotic DNA.
EXAMPLE 2 :
Selection of genus-specific PCR primers from tuf sequences. As shown in Annexes 2 and 3, the comparison of tuf sequences from a variety of bacterial species allowed the selection of PCR primers specific for Enterococcus spp. or for Staphylococcus spp. The strategy used to design the PCR primers was based on the analysis of a multiple sequence alignment of varioustuf sequences. These multiple sequence alignments include thetuf sequences of four representative bacterial species selected from each target genus as well as tuf sequences from species of other closely related bacterial genera. A careful analysis of those alignments allowed the selection of oligonucleotide sequences which arc conserved within the target genus but which discriminate sequences from other closely related genera, thereby permitting the genus-specific and ubiquitous detection and identification of the target bacterial genus.
For the selection of primers specific fox Enterococcus spp. (Annex II), we have sequenced a portion of approximately 890 bp of thetuf genes for Enterococcus avium, E, faecalis, E. faecium and E. gallinarum. All other tuf sequences used in the alignment were either sequenced by us or selected from databases. The analysis of this sequence alignment led to the selection of a primer pair specific and ubiquitous for Enterococcus spp. (Table 7). All of the 11 enterococcal species tested were efficiently amplified and there was no amplification with genomic DNA from 30 bacterial species of other genera.
For the selection of primers specific for Staphylococcus spp. (Annex III), we have also sequenced a portion of approximately 890 bp of the tuf genes for Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, S. saprophyticus and S. simulans. All other tuf sequences used in the alignment were either sequenced by us or selected from databases. The analysis of this sequence alignment led to the selection of two primer pairs specific and ubiquitous for Staphylococcus spp. (Table 7). Annex III shows the strategy used to select one of these two PCR primer pairs. The same strategy-was used to select the other primer pair. Of the 14 staphylococcal species tested, one (S. sciuri) could not be amplified by the Staphylococcus-specific PCR assays using either one of these two primer pairs. For PCR assays using either one of these two

primer pairs, there was no amplification with DNA from species of other bacterial genera.
EXAMPLE 3 :
Selection from tuf sequences of PCR primers specific for Candida albicans. As shown in Annex IV, the comparison of tuf sequences from a variety of bacterial and eukaryotic species allowed the selection of PCR primers specific for Candida albicans. The strategy used to design, the PCR primers was based on the analysis of a multiple sequence alignment of various tuf sequences. This multiple sequence
alignment includes tuf sequences of five representative fungal species selected from the genus Candida which were determined by our group (i.e. C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. kriisei, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis) as well as tuf sequences from other closely related fungal species, tuf sequences from various bacterial species were also included. A careful analysis of this sequence alignment allowed the selection of primers from the C. albicans /w/scquence; these primers discriminate sequences from other closely related Candida species and other fungal species, thereby permitting the species-specific and ubiquitous detection and identification of C. albicans (Table 7). All of 88 Candida albicans strains tested were efficiently amplified and there was no amplification with genomic DNA from other fungal or bacterial species.
EXAMPLE 4:
Selection of PCR primers specific for Streptococcus from recA. As shown in Annex V, the comparison of the various bacterial recA gene sequences available from databases (GenBank and EMBL) was used as a basis for the selection of PCR
primers which are "specific and ubiquitous for the bacterial genus Streptococcus. Since sequences of the recA gene are available for many bacterial species including five species of streptococci, it was possible to choose sequences well conserved within the genus Streptococcus but distinct from the recA sequences for other bacterial genera. When there were mismatches between the recA gene sequences
30 from the five Streptococcus species, an inosine residue was incorporated into the primer (Annex V). The selected primers, each containing one inosine and no degenerescence, were specific and ubiquitous for Streptococcus species (Table 7). This PCR assay amplified all of the 22 strcptococcal species tested. However, the Streptococcus-specific assay did not amplify DNA from 3 out of 9 strains of S. mutans and 1 out of 3 strains of S. salivarius. There was no amplification with genomic DNA from other bacterial genera (Table 7).
EXAMPLE 5:
Nucleotide sequencing of DNA fragments. The nucleotide sequence of a portion of the tuf genes from a variety of bacterial or fungal species was determined
by using the didcoxynuclcolidc chain termination sequencing method (Sanger et al., 1977, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 74:5463-5467). The sequencing was performed by using an Applied Biosystems automated DNA sequencer (model 373A) with their PRISM™ Sequenase® Terminator Double-stranded DNA Sequencing Kit (Perkin-Elmer Corp., Applied Biosystems Division, Foster City, CA). The sequencing strategy does not discriminate tufA and tufB genes because the sequencing primers hybridize efficiently to both bacterialtuf genes. These DNA sequences are shown in the sequence listing (SEQ ID Nos: 118 to 146). The presence of several degenerated nucleotides in the various tuf sequences determined by our group (Table 13) corresponds to sequence variations between tufA and tufB.
Oligonucleotide primers and probes selection. Oligonucleotide probes and amplification primers were selected from the given proprietary DNA fragments or database sequences using the Oligo™ program and were synthesized with an automated ABI DNA synthesizer (Model 391, Perkin-Elmer Corp., Applied Biosystems Division) using phosphoramidite chemistry.
EXAMPLE 6:
Labeling of oligonucleotides for hybridization assays. Each oligonucleotide was 5" end-labeled with y-32p (dATP) by the T4 polynucleotide kinase (Pharmacia) as described earlier. The label could also be non-radioactive.
Specificity test for oligonucleotide probes. All labeled oligonucleotide probes were tested for their specificity by hybridization to DNAs from a variety of bacterial and fungal species selected from Tables 4, 5 and 6 as described earlier. Species-specific or genus-specific probes were those hybridizing only to DNA from the microbial species or genus from which it was isolated. Oligonucleotide probes found to be specific were submitted to ubiquity tests as follows.
Ubiquity test for oligonucleotide probes. Specific oligonucleotide probes were then used in ubiquity tests with strains of the target species or genus including, reference strains and other strains obtained from various countries and which are representative of the diversity within each target species or genus. Chromosomal DNAs from the isolates were transferred onto nylon membranes and hybridized v/ith labeled oligonucleotide probes as described for specificity tests. The batteries of isolates constructed for each target species or genus contain reference ATCC strains as well as a variety of clinical isolates obtained from various sources. Ubiquitous 3J5 probes were those hybridizing to at least 80% of DNAs from the battery of clinical isolates of the target species or genus.
EXAMPLE 7:
Same as example 6 except that a pool of specific oligonucleotide probes is used l|0 for microbial identification (i) to increase sensitivity and assure 100% ubiquity or (ii)
identify simultaneously more than one microbial species and/or genus. Microbial identification could be performed from microbial cultures or directly from any clinical specimen.
EXAMPLE 8:
Same as example 6 except that bacteria or fungi were detected directly from clinical samples. Any biological sample was loaded directly onto a dot blot apparatus and cells were lysed in situ for bacterial or fungal detection and identification. Blood samples should be heparizined in order to avoid coagulation interfering with their convenient loading on a dot blot apparatus.
EXAMPLE 9:
PCR amplification. The technique of PCR was used to increase the sensitivity and the rapidity of the assays. The sets of primers were tested in PCR assays performed directly from bacterial colonies or from a standardized bacterial suspension (see Example 10) to determine their specificity and ubiquity (Table 7). Examples of specific and ubiquitous PCR primer pairs are listed in Annex VI.
Specificity and ubiquity tests for amplification primers. The specificity of all selected PCR primer pairs was tested against DNAs from a variety of bacterial and fungal species selected from Tables 4, 5 and 6 as described earlier. Primer pairs found specific for each species or genus were then tested for their ubiquity to ensure that each set of primers could amplify at least 90% of DNAs from a battery of isolates of the target species or genus. The batteries of isolates constructed for each species contain reference ATCC strains and various clinical isolates from around the world which are representative of the diversity within each species or genus.
Standard precautions to avoid false positive PCR results should be taken (Kwok and Higuchi, 1989, Nature, 239:237-238). Methods to inactivate PCR amplification products such as the inactivation by uracil-N-glycosylase may be used to control PCR carryover.
EXAMPLE 10:
Amplification directly from bacterial or yeast cultures. PCR assays were performed either directly from a bacterial colony or from a bacterial suspension, the latter being adjusted to a standard McFarland 0.5 (corresponds to approximately 1.5 x 108 bacteria/mL). In the case of direct amplification from a colony, a portion of a colony was transferred using a plastic rod directly into a 20 uL PCR reaction mixture
containing 50 inM KC1, 10 mM Tris-HCl (pH 9.0), 0.1% Triton X-100, 2.5 mM MgCl2, 0.4 \\Nl of each primer, 200 uM of each of the four dNTPs and 0.5 unit of
Tag DNA polymerase (Promega) combined with the TaqStart™ antibody (Clontech 0 Laboratories Inc.). For the bacterial suspension, 1 liL of the cell suspension was
added to 19 p.L of the same PCI! reaction mixture. For the identification from yeast cultures, 1 µL of a standard McFarland 1.0 (corresponds to approximately 3.0 x 108 bacteria/mL) concentrated 100 times by centrifugation was added directly to the PCR reaction. This concentration step for yeast cells was performed because a McFarland 0.5 for yeast cells has approximately 200 times fewer cells than a McFarland 0.5 for bacterial cells.
PCR reactions were then subjected to thermal cycling (3 min at 95°C followed by 30 cycles of 1 second at 95°C for the denaluration step and 30 seconds at 55°C for the annealing-extension step) using a PTC-200 thermal cycler. PCR amplification l(j) products were then analyzed by standard agarose gel (2%) electrophoresis. Amplification products were visualized in agarose gels containing 0.25 jig/mL of ethidium bromide under UV at 254 mn. The entire PCR assay can be completed in approximately one hour.
Primer sequences derived from highly conserved regions of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene were used to provide an internal control for all PCR reactions. Alternatively, the internal control was derived from sequences not found in microorganisms or in the human genome. The internal control was integrated into all amplification reactions to verify the efficiency of the PCR assays and to ensure that significant PCR inhibition was absent. The internal control derived from rRNA was also useful to monitor the efficiency of the bacterial lysis protocols. The internal control and the species-specific or genus-specific amplifications were performed simultaneously in multiplex PCR assays.
EXAMPLE 11: "
Amplification directly from urine specimens. For PCR amplification performed directly from urine specimens, 1 |iL of urine was mixed with 4 uL of a lysis solution containing 500 mM KC1, 100 mM tris-HCl (pH 9.0), 1% triton X-100. After incubation for at least 15 minutes at room temperature, 1 µL of the treated urine specimen was added directly to 19 u.L of the PCR reaction mixture. The final concentration of the PCR reagents was 50 mM KC1, 10 mM Tris (pH 9.0), 0.1% Triton X-100, 2.5 mM MgCl2, 0.4 uM of each primer, 200 uM of each of the four
dNTPs. In addition, each 20 u,L reaction contained 0.5 unit o£Taq DNA polymerase (Promega) combined with the TaqStart™ antibody (Clontech Laboratories Inc.).
Strategics for the internal control, PCR amplification and agarose gel detection of the amplicons are as previously described in example 10.
EXAMPLE 3 2:
Detection of antibiotic resistance genes. The presence of specific antibiotic resistance genes which are frequently encountered and clinically relevant is identified

s-i.sing the PCR amplification or hybridization protocols described previously. Specific oligonucleotides used as a basis for the DNA-based tests are selected from the antibiotic resistance gene sequences. These tests, which allow the rapid evaluation of bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents, can be performed either directly from 5) clinical specimens, from a standardized bacterial suspension or from a bacterial colony and should complement diagnostic tests for the universal detection of bacteria as well as for the species-specific and genus-specific microbial detection and identification.
10 EXAMPLE 13:
Same as examples 10 and 11 except that assays were performed by multiplex PCR (i.e. using several pairs of primers in a single PCR reaction) to reach an ubiquity of 100% for the specific targeted pathogen(s). For more heterogeneous microbial species or genus, a combination of PCR primer pairs may be required to detect and
identify all representatives of the target species or genus.
Multiplex PCR assays could also be used to (i) detect simultaneously several microbial species and/or genera or, alternatively, (ii) to simultaneously detect and identify bacterial and/or fungal pathogens and detect specific antibiotic resistance genes either directly from a clinical specimen or from bacterial cultures.
2(J For these applications, amplicon detection methods should be adapted to
differentiate the various amplicons produced. Standard agarose gel electrophoresis could be used because it discriminates the amplicons based on their sizes. Another useful strategy for this purpose would be detection using a variety of fluorescent dyes emitting at different wavelengths. The fluorescent dyes can be each coupled with a specific oligonuclebtidc linked to a fluorescence quencher which is degraded during amplification to release the fluorescent dyes (e.g. TaqMan™, Perkin Elmer).
EXAMPLE 14:
Detection of amplification products. The person skilled in the art will appreciate that alternatives other than standard agarose gel electrophoresis (Example 10) may be used for the revelation of amplification products. Such methods may be based on fluorescence polarization or on the detection of fluorescence after amplification (e.g. Amplisensor™, Biotronics; TaqMan™, Perkin-Elmer Corp.) or other labels such as biotin (SHARP Signal™ system, Digene Diagnostics). These methods are quantitative and may be automated. One of the amplification primers or an internal oligonucleotide probe specific to the amplicon(s) derived from the species-specific, genus-specific or universal DNA fragments is coupled with the fluorescent dyes or with any other label. Methods based on the detection of fluorescence are particularly suitable for diagnostic tests since they are rapid and flexible as fluorescent dyes emitting at different wavelengths are available.


EXAMPLE
Species-specific, genus-specific, universal and antibiotic resistance gene amplification primers can be used in other rapid amplification procedures such as the ligase chain reaction (LCR), transcription-mediated amplification (TMA), self-sustained sequence replication (3SR), nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA), strand displacement amplification (SDA), cycling probe technology (CPT) and branched DNA (bDNA) or any other methods to increase the sensitivity of the test. Amplifications can be performed from isolated bacterial cultures or directly from any clinical specimen. The scope of this invention is therefore not limited to the use of the DNA sequences from the enclosed Sequence Listing for PCR only but rather includes the use of any procedures to specifically detect bacterial DNA and which may be used to increase rapidity and sensitivity of the tests.
EXAMPLE 16:
A test kit would contain sets of probes specific for eachmicrobial species or genus as well as a set of universal probes. The kit is provided in the form of test components, consisting of the set of universal probes labeled with non-radioactive labels as well as labeled species- or genus-specific probes for the detection of each pathogen of interest in specific types of clinical samples. The kit will also include test reagents necessary to perform the pre-hybridization, hybridization, washing steps and hybrid detection. Finally, test components for the detection of known antibiotic resistance genes (or derivatives therefrom) will be included. Of course, the kit will include standard samples to be used as negative and positive controls for each hybridization test:
Components to be included in the kits will be adapted to each specimen type and to detect pathogens commonly encountered in that type of specimen. Reagents for the universal detection of bacteria will also be included. Based on the sites of infection, the following kits for the specific detection of pathogens may be developed:
-A kit for the universal detection of bacterial or fungal pathogens from all clinical specimens which contains sets of probes specific for highly conserved regions of the microbial genomes.
-A kit for the detection of microbial pathogens retrieved from urine samples, which contains 5 specific test components (sets of probes for the detection of Enterococcus faecium, Enteroccus species, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus species and Candida albicans).
-A kit for the detection of respiratory pathogens which contains 3 specific test components (sets of probes for the detection of Staphylococcus species, Enterococcus species and Candida albicans).
-A kit for the detection of pathogens retrieved from blood samples, which contains 10 specific test components (sets of probes for the detection of Streptococcus species, Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus species, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Enterococcus species, Enterococcus faecium, Neisseria species, Neisseria meningitidis, Listeria monocytogenes and Candida albicans). This kit can also be applied for direct detection and identification from blood cultures.
-A kit for the detection of pathogens causing meningitis, which contains 5 specific test components (sets of probes for the detection of Streptococcus species, Listeria monocytogenes, Neisseria meningitidis, Neisseria species and Staphylococcus species).
-A kit for the detection of clinically important antibiotic resistance genes which contains sets of probes for the specific detection of at least one of the 26 following genes associated with antibiotic resistance: bla/em b!arrob, blashv, blaOxa, blaZ, aadB, aacCl, aacC2, aacCS, aacA4, aac6"-Ha, ermA, ermB, ermC, mecA, van A, vanB, vanC, sat A, aac(6")-aph(2"), aad(6"), vat, vga, msrA, su I and int.
-Other kits adapted for the detection of pathogens from skin, abdominal wound or any other clinically relevant infections may also be developed.
EXAMPLE 17:
Same as example 16 except that the test kits contain all reagents and controls to perform DNA amplification assays. Diagnostic kits will be adapted for amplification by PCR (or other amplification methods) performed directly either from clinical specimens or from microbial cultures. Components required for (i) universal bacterial detection, (ii) species-specific and genus-specific bacterial and/or fungal detection and identification and (iii) detection of antibiotic resistance genes will be included.
Amplification assays could be performed either in tubes or in microtitration plates having multiple wells. For assays in plates, the wells will contain the specific amplification primers and control DNAs and the detection of amplification products will be automated. Reagents and amplification primers for universal bacterial detection will be included in kits for tests performed directly from clinical specimens. Components required for species-specific and genus-specific bacterial and/or fungal detection and identification as well as for the simultaneous antibiotic resistance genes detection will be included in kits for testing directly from bacterial or fungal cultures as well as in kits for testing directly from any type of clinical specimen.
The kits will be adapted for use with each type of specimen as described in example 16 for hybridization-based diagnostic kits.
EXAMPLE 18:
It is understood that the use of the probes and amplification primers described in this invention for bacterial and/or fungal detection and identification is not limited to clinical microbiology applications. In fact, we feel that other sectors could also benefit from these new technologies. For example, these tests could be used by industries for quality control of food, water, air, pharmaceutical products or other products requiring microbiological control. These tests could also be applied to detect and identify bacteria or fungi in biological samples from organisms other than humans (e.g. other primates, birds, plants, mammals, farm animals, livestock and others). These diagnostic tools could also be very useful for research purposes including clinical trials and epidemiological studies.
This invention has been described herein above, and it is readily apparent that modifications can be made thereto without departing from the spirit of this invention. These modifications are under the scope of this invention, as defined in the appended claims.
Data obtained for 270 isolates collected at the Centre Hospitalier de l"Universite Laval (CHUL) during a 5 month period (May to October 1995).
2
Data from 10 hospitals throughout Canada representing 941 gram-negative bacterial isolates. (Chamberland et al, 1992, Clin. Infect. Dis., 15:615-628).
Data from a 20-year study (1969-1988) for nearly 4000 isolates (Eykyn et al., 1990, J. Antimicrob. Chemother., Suppl. C, 25:41-58).
4
Data recorded by the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NN1S) from 80 hospitals (Emori and Gaynes, 1993, Clin. Microbiol. Rev., 6:428-442).
5 ...
Coagulasc-ncj".ativc sfaphylococci. 6
NI, not included. This survey included only gram-negative species. 7
NR, incidence not reported for these species or genera. 8
In this case, 1 7.4 stands for other gram-negative bacterial species.
a All primer pairs are specific in PCR assays since no amplification was observed with DNA from the bacterial and fungal species other than the species of interest listed in Tables 4, 5 and 6.
b Ubiquity was tested by using reference strains as well as strains from throughout the world, which are represenlatite of the diversity within each target species or genus.
c For all primer pairs, PCR amplifications performed directly from a standardized microbial suspension (MacFarland) or from a colony were all specific and ubiquitous.
d PCR assays performed directly from blood cultures, urine specimens or cerebrospinal fluid. NT, not tested.
e The four L. monocytogenes strains undetected arc not clinical isolates. These strains were isolated from food and are not associated with a human infection.
f The bacteria] species tested include all those clinically relevant for each genus (Tables 4 and 5). All of these species were efficiently amplified by their respective genus-specific PCR assay, except for the Staphylococcus-specific assay, which does not amplify S. sciuri.
S The Streptococcus-specific PCR assay did not amplify 3 out of 9 strains of5. mutatis and 1 out of 3 strains of S. salivarius.
h The primers selected for universal bactenal detection do not amplify DNA of non-bacterial origin, including human and other types of eukaryotic genomic DNA.
1 For the universal amplification, the 95 bacterial species tested represent the most clinically important bacterial species listed in Tables 4 and 5. The 12 strains not amplified are representatives of genera Corynebaclerium (11 species) and Stenotrophomonas (1 species).
SEQUFJNCE LISTING
(1) GENERAL INFORMATION:
(i) APPLICANTS: BERGERON, Michel G.
PICARD, Francois J. OUELLETTE, Marc ROY, Paul H.
(ii) TITLE OF THE INVENTION: SPECIES-SPECIFIC, GENUS-SPECIFIC AND UNIVERSAL DNA PROBES AND AMPLIFICATION PRIMERS TO RAPIDLY DETECT AND IDENTIFY COMMON BACTERIAL AND FUNGAL PATHOGENS AND ASSOCIATED ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE GENES FROM CLINICAL SPECIMENS FOR DIAGNOSIS IN MICROBIOLOGY LABORATORIES
(iii) NUMBER OF SEQUENCES: 174 (iv) CORRESPONDENCE ADDRESS:
(A) ADDRESSEE: GOUDREAU GAGE DUBUC & MARTINEAU WALKER
(B) STREET: 800, PLACE-VICTORIA SUITE 3400
(C) CITY: MONTREAL
(D) STATE: QUEBEC
(E) COUNTRY: CANADA
(F) ZIP: H4Z 1E9
(v) COMPUTER READABLE:
(A) MEDIUM TYPE: FLOPPY DISK, 1.4 Mb
(B) COMPUTER: AST VISION 5U
(C) OPERATING: WINDOWS NT 4.0
(D) SOFTWARE: MICROSOFT WORD 97
(vi) CURRENT APPLICATION DATA:
(A) APPLICATION:
(B) FILING DATE:
(C) CLASSIFICATION:
(vii) PRIOR APPLICATION DATA:
(A) APPLICATION: 08/743,637
(B) FILING DATE: NOVEMBER 4, 1996
(viii) ATTORNEY/AGENT INFORMATION:
(A) NAME: ALAIN M. LECLERC
(B) REGISTRATION NUMBER: J2482-2
(ix) TELECOMMUNICATION INFORMATION: +(A) TELEPHONE: (514) 397-7675

2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 1:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 22 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(vi) ORIGINAL SOURCE:
(A) ORGANISM: Enterococcus faecium
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 1: TGCTTTAGCA ACAGCCTATC AG 2 2
2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 2:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 21 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(vi) ORIGINAL SOURCE:
(A) ORGANISM: Enterococcus faecium
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 2: TAAACTTCTT CCGGCACTTC G 21
2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 3:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 21 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(vi) ORIGINAL SOURCE:
(A) ORGANISM:" Listeria monocytogenes
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 3: TGCGGCTATA AATGAAGAGG C 21
2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 4:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 21 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(vi) ORIGINAL SOURCE:
(A) ORGANISM: Listeria monocytogenes
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 4: ATCCGATGAT GCTATGGCTT T 21
2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 5:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 21 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(vi) ORIGINAL SOURCE:
(A) ORGANISM: Neisscria meningitidis
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 5: CCAGCGGTAT TGTTTGGTGG T 21
2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 6:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 21 bases
(B) TYPE": Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(vi) ORIGINAL SOURCE:
(A) ORGANISM: Neisseria meningitidis
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 6: CAGGCGGCCT TTAATAATTT C 21
(2)INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 7:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 3 0 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA (vi) ORIGINAL SOURCE:

(A) ORGANISM: Staphylococcus saprophyticus (xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 7: AGATCGAATT CCACATGAAG GTTATTATGA 3 0
(2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 8:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 3 0 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(vi) ORIGINAL SOURCE:
(A) ORGANISM: Staphylococcus saprophyticus
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 8: TCGCTTCTCC CTCAACAATC AAACTATCCT 3 0
(2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 9:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 2 3 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(vi) ORIGINAL SOURCE:
(A) ORGANISM: Streptococcus agalactiae
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 9: TTTCACCAGC TGTATTAGAA GTA 23
(2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 10:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 2 3 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(vi) ORIGINAL SOURCE:
(A) ORGANISM: Streptococcus agalactiae
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 10: GTTCCCTGAA CATTATCTTT GAT 2 3

(2)INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 11:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 2 6 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(vi) ORIGINAL SOURCE:
(A) ORGANISM: Candida albicans
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 11: CAAGAAGGTT GGTTACAACC CAAAGA 26
2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 12:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 2 6 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(vi) ORIGINAL SOURCE:
(A) ORGANISM: Candida albicans
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 12: AGGTCTTACC AGTAACTTTA CCGGAT 26
(2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 13:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 22 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 13: TACTGACAAA CCATTCATGA TG 22
(2)INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 14:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 21 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear

(li) MOLECULE TYPE: DMA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 14: AACTTCGTCA CCAACGCGAA C 21
(2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 15:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 2 0 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 15: CTGGCGCGGT ATGGTCGGTT 2 0
(2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 16:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 22 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 16: GCCGACGTTG GAAGTGGTAA AG 2 2
(2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 17:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 2 5 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 17:
CCGTGTTGAA CGTGGTCAAA TCAAA 2 5
(2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 18:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 2 5 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 18: TRTGTGGTGT RATWGWRCCA GGAGC 2 5
(2)INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 19:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 2 5 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 19: ACAACGTGGW CAAGTWTTAG CWGCT 2 5
(2)INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 20:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 2 5 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 20: ACCATTTCWG TACCTTCTGG TAAGT . 25
(2)INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 21:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 23 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 21: GAAATTGCAG GIAAATTGAT TGA 23
(2)INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 22:
(i) SEQUENCE ClIARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 2 3 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear

(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 22: TTACGCATGG CITGACTCAT CAT 2 3
(2)INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 23:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 2 3 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION; SEQ ID NO: 23: ACIKKIACIG GIGTIGARAT GTT 2 3
(2)INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 24:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 2 3 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 24: AYRTTITCIC CIGGCATIAC CAT 2 3
(2)INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 25:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 10 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 25: TCGCTTCTCC 10
2)INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 26:
(i ) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 600 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Double
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(2)INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 31:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 421 base pairs
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Double
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(iv) ORIGINAL SOURCE:
(A): ORGANISM: Neisseria meningitidis
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 31: ATGAAAGTAG GTTTCGTCGG CTGGCGCGGT ATGGTCGGTT CGGTTTTGAT
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 2 0 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 38: CGCAGTGTTA TCACTCATGG 2 0
(2)INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 39:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 2 0 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 39: CTGAATGAAG CCATACCAAA 2 0
(2)INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 40:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 2 0 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 40: ATCAGCAATA AACCAGCCAG 2 0
(2)INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 41:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 2 0 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
i) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 41:
"GAG CGATAACAGC . 2 0
"ION FOR SEQ ID NO: 42:

"(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 2 0 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 42: CTCATTCAGT TCCGTTTCCC 2 0
(2)INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 43:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 2 0 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 43: CAGCTGCTGC AGTGGATGGT 2 0
(2)INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 44:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 2 0 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 44: CGCTCTGCTT TGTTATTCGG 20
(2)INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 45:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 2 0 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 45: TACGCCAACA TCGTGGAAAG 2 0
(2)INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 46:

(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 2 0 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 46:-TTGAATTTGG CTTCTTCGGT 2 0
(2)INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 47:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 2 0 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 47: GGGATACAGA AACGGGACAT 2 0
(2)INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 48:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 20 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 48: TAAATCTTTT TCAGGCAGCG 2 0
(2)INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 49:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 2 5 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 49: GATGGTTTGA AGGGTTTATT ATAAG 25
(2)INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 50:
-76-
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 2 5 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 50: AATTTAGTGT GTTTAGAATG GTGAT 2 5
(2)INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 51:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 21 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 51: ACTTCAACAC CTGCTGCTTT C 21
(2)INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 52:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 21 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 52: TGACCACTTT TATCAGCAAC C 21
(2)INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 53:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 2 0 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 53: GGCAATAGTT GAAATGCTCG 2 0
(2)INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 54:

(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 20 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 54: CAGCTGTTAC AACGGACTGG 2 0
(2)INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 55:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 20 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 55: TCTATGATCT CGCAGTCTCC 20
(2)INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 56:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 2 0 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 56: ATCGTCACCG TAATCTGCTT 20
(2)INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 57:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 20 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 57: CATTCTCGAT TGCTTTGCTA 2 0
(2)INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 58:

•(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 2 0 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 58: CCGAAATGCT TCTCAAGATA 2 0
(2)INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 59:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 2 0 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 59: CTGGATTATG GCTACGGAGT 2 0
(2)INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 60:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 2 0 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 60: AGCAGTGTGA TGGTATCCAG 2 0
(2)INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 61:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 20 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 61: GACTCTTGAT GAAGTGCTGG 2 0
+(2)INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 62:

(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 20 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 62: CTGGTCTATT CCTCGCACTC 2 0
(2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 63:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 2 0 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 63: TATGAGAAGG CAGGATTCGT 2(3
(2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 64:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 2 0 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 64: GCTTTCTCTC GAAGGCTTGT 2 0
(2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 65:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 2 0 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 65: GAGTTGCTGT TCAATGATCC 2 0
(2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 66:

(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 20 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 66: GTGTTTGAAC CATGTACACG 2 0
(2)INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 67:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 2 0 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 67: TGTAGAGGTC TAGCCCGTGT 2 0
(2)INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 68:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 2 0 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 68: ACGGGGATAA CGACTGTATG 2 0
(2)INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 69:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 2 0 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 69: ATAAAGATGA TAGGCCGGTG 2 0
(2)INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 70:

(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 20 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 70: TGCTGTCATA TTGTCTTGCC 2 0
(2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 71:
(i.) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 2 0 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 71: ATTATCTTCG GCGGTTGCTC 20
(2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 72:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 20 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 72: GACTATCGGC TTCCCATTCC 2 0
(2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 73:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 2 0 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 73: CGATAGAAGC AGCAGGACAA 20
(2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 74:

(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 2 0 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 74:
CTGATGGATG CGGAAGATAC 2 0
(2)INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 75:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 21 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 75: GCCTTATGTA TGAACAAATG G 21
(2)INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 76:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 2 3 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE"TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 76: GTGACTTTWG TGATCCCTTT TGA 2 3
(2)INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 77:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 2 0 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ. ID NO: 77: TCCAATCATT GCACAAAATC 2 0
(2)INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 78:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 2 0 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 78: AATTCCCTCT ATTTGGTGGT 2 0
(2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 79:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 2 0 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 79: TCCCAAGCCA GTAAAGCTAA 2 0
(2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 80:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 2 0 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 80: TGGTTTTTCA ACTTCTTCCA 2 0
(2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 81:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 2 0 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 81: TCATAGAATG GATGGCTCAA 2 0
(2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 82:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 2 0 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(Xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 82: AGCTACTATT GCACCATCCC 2 0
(2)INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 83:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 22 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TO POLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 83: CAATAAGGGC ATACCAAAAA TC 22
(2)INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 84:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 2 2 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 84: CCTTAACATT TGTGGCATTA TC 22
(2)INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 85:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 22 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 85: TTGGGAAGAT GAAGTTTTTA GA 22
(2)INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 86:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 22 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 86: CCTTTACTCC AATAATTTGG CT 22
(2)INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 87:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 20 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 87: TTTCATCTAT TCAGGATGGG 2 0
(2)INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 88:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 2 0 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE "TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 88: GGAGCAACAT TCTTTGTGAC 2 0
(2)INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 89:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 20 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 89: TGTGCCTGAA GAAGGTATTG 2 0
(2)INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 90:

(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 2 0 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 90: CGTGTTACTT CACCACCACT 2 0
(2)INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 91:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: (A) LENGTH: 2 3 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDWESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 91: TATCTTATCG TTGAGAAGGG ATT 23
(2)INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 92:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 22 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE "TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 92: CTACACTTGG CTTAGGATGA AA 22
(2)INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 93:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 24 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 93: CTATCTGATT GTTGAAGAAG GATT 24
(2)INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 94:

(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 24 ba.MOM
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 94: GTTTACTCTT GGTTTAGGAT GAAA
(2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 95:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: • (A) LENGTH: 2 2 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 95: CTTGTTGATC ACGATAATTT CC 22
(2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 96:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 22 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE "TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 96: ATCTTTTAGC AAACCCGTAT TC 2 2
(2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 97:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 27 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 97: AACAGGTGAA TTATTAGCAC TTGTAAG 2 7
(2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 98:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 27 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 98: ATTGCTGTTA ATATTTTTTG AGTTGAA 2 7
(2)INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 99:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 19 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 99: GTGATCGAAA TCCAGATCC 19
(2)INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 100:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 19 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 100: ATCCTCGGTT TTCTGGAAG 19
(2)INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 101:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 19 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 101: CTGGTCATAC ATGTGATGG 19
(2)INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 102:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: (A) LENGTH: 19 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 102: GATGTTACCC GAGAGCTTG 19
(2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 103:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 2 0 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 103: TTAAGCGTGC ATAATAAGCC 2 0
(2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 104:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 20 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single ¦
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE"TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 104: TTGCGATTAC TTCGCCAACT 2 0
(2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 105:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 2 0 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 105: TTTACTAAGC TTGCCCCTTC 2 0
(2)INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 10 6:

(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 2 0 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 106: AAAAGGCAGC AATTATGAGC 2 0
(2)INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 107:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: (A) LENGTH: 2 9 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 107: AAYATGATIA CIGGIGCIGC ICARATGGA 29
(2)INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 108:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 2 3 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE "TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 108: CCIACIGTIC KICCRCCYTC RCG 23
(2)INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 109:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 2 9 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 109: CARYTIATHG TIGCIGTIAA YAARATGGA 2 9
(2)INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 110:
(2)INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 149:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 882 base pairs
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Double
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(vi) ORIGINAL SOURCE:
(A) ORGANISM: Bacteroides fragilis
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 14 9: ATGGTTACTG GTGCTGCTCA GATGGACGGT GCTATCATTG TAGTTGCTGC 5 0
(2)INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 172:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 2 6 bases (B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 172: TARTCIGTRA AIGCYTCIAC RCACAT (2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 173:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 21 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single
(D) TOPOLOGY: Linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 173: TCTTTAGCAG AACAGGATGA A
(2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 174:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 2 0 bases
(B) TYPE: Nucleic acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS: Single (D) TOPOLOG Y : liner
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 174: GAATAATTCC ATATCCTCCG
WE CLAIM :
1. A diagnostic kit for the detection and/or quantification of the
nucleic acids of any combination of the microbial species and/or genera selected from the group consisting of Enterococcus faecium, Listeria monocytogenes, Neisseria meningitidis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Candida albicans, Enterococcus species, Neisseria species, Staphylococcus species, Streptococcus species and Candida species, comprising:
(i) a container adapted to contain any suitable combination of probes or primers capable of forming a specific and ubiquitous hybridization complex with the nucleic acids of microbial species or genera, and derived from anyone of;
SEQ ID NO. 26 and a complementary sequence thereof, for determining the presence or amount of Enterococcus faecium;
SEQ ID NO. 27 and a complementary sequence thereof, for determining the presence or amount of Listeria monocytogenes;
SEQ ID NO. 28 and a complementary sequence thereof, for determining the presence or amount of Neisseria meningitidis;
SEQ ID NO. 29 and a complementary sequence thereof, for determining the presence or amount of Staphylococcus saprophyticus;
SEQ ID NO. 30 and a complementary sequence thereof, for determining the presence or amount of Streptococcus agalactiae;
SEQ ID NO. 120 and a complementary sequence thereof, for determining the presence or amount of Candida albicans;
SEQ ID NO. 131 to 134 and a complementary sequence thereof, for determining the presence or amount of Enterococcus species;
SEQ ID NO. 31 and a complementary sequence thereof, for determining the presence or amount of Neisseria species;

SEQ ID NO. 140 to 143 and a complementary sequence thereof, for determining the presence or amount of Staphylococcus species;
SEQ ID NO. 32 to 36 and a complementary sequence thereof, for determining the presence or amount of Streptococcus species; and
SEQ ID NO. 120 to 124 and a complementary sequence thereof, for determining the presence or amount of Candida species.
2. A diagnostic kit as claimed in claim 1, wherein said primers are
pairs of primers selected from the group consisting of:
SEQ ID NOs. 1 and 2 for detecting Enterococcus faecium;
SEQ ID NOs. 3 and 4 for detecting Listeria monocytogenes;
SEQ ID NOs. 5 and 6 for detecting Neisseria meningitidis;
SEQ ID NOs. 7 and 8 for detecting Staphylococcus saprophyticus;
SEQ ID NOs. 9 and 10 for detecting Streptococcus agalactiae;
SEQ ID NOs. 11 and 12 for detecting Candida albicans;
SEQ ID NOs. 13 and 14 for detecting Enterococcus species;
SEQ ID NOs. 15 and 16 for detecting Neisseria species;
SEQ ID NOs. 17 to 20 for detecting Staphylococcus species; and
SEQ ID NOs. 21 and 22 for detecting Streptococcus species.
3. A diagnostic kit for the universal bacterial detection comprising :
(i) a container adapted to contain a pair of primers having a
sequence of at least 12 nucleotides in length capable of forming a hybridization complex with the nucleic acids of any bacterium and with the sequences defined in SEQ ID Nos. 23 and 24.

4. A diagnostic kit as claimed in claim 3, wherein the pair of primers has the sequence defined in SEQ ID NOs. 23 and 24.
5. A diagnostic kit for the universal fungal detection comprising:
(i) a container adapted to contain a pair of primers having a
sequence of at least 12 nucleotides in length capable of forming a hybridization complex with the nucleic acids of any fungus and with the sequences defined in SEQ ID No. 109 and 172.
6. A diagnostic kit as claimed in claim 5, wherein the pair of primers has the sequence defined in SEQ ID NOs. 109 and 172.
7. A. diagnostic kit as claimed in claim 1 or 2, comprising primers or probes for the universal detection of bacteria and/or fungi.
8. A diagnostic kit as claimed in claim 7, wherein said universal primers are any suitable combinations of those as claimed in any one of claims 3 to 6.
9. A diagnostic kit as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 7 comprising primers or probes for the detection of any antibiotic resistance gene.-
10. A diagnostic kit as claimed in claim 9, wherein the antibiotic resistance gene is any one of:
blatem, blaShv, blarOd, blaoxa, blaZ, aadB, aacC1, aacC2, aacC3, aac6"-lla, aacA4, aad(6"), vanA, vanB, vanC, msrA, satA, aac(6")-aph(2"), vat, vga, ermA, ermB, ermC, mecA, int and sul.
11. A diagnostic kit as claimed in claim 10, wherein the primers are pairs of primers selected from the group consisting of:
SEQ ID NOs 37 to 40 for the detection of blatem; SEQ ID NOs 41 to 44 for the detection of blashv;
SEQ ID NOs 45 to 48 for the detection of blarOd, SEQ ID NOs 49 and 50 for the detection of Waoxa; SEQ ID NOs 51 and 52 for the detection of blaZ; SEQ ID NOs 53 and 54 for the detection of aadB; SEQ ID NOs 55 and 56 for the detection of aacC1; SEQ ID NOs 57 to 58 for the detection of aacC2; SEQ ID NOs 59 to 60 for the detection of aacC3; SEQ ID NOs 61 to 64 for the detection of aac6"-lla; SEQ ID NOs 65 and 66 for the detection of aacA4; SEQ ID NOs 173 and 174 for the detection of aad(6"); SEQ ID NOs 67 to 70 for the detection of vanA; SEQ ID NOs 71 to 74 for the detection of vanB; SEQ ID NOs 75 and 76 for the detection of vanC; SEQ ID NOs 77 to 80 for the detection of msrA; SEQ ID NOs 81 and 82 for the detection of satA; SEQ ID NOs 83 to 86 for the detection of aac(6")-aph(2"); SEQ ID NOs 87 and 88 for the detection of vat; SEQ ID NOs 89 and 90 for the detection of vga; SEQ ID NOs 91 and 92 for the detection of ermA; SEQ ID NOs 93 and 94 for the detection of ermB; SEQ ID NOs 95 and 96 for the detection of ermC; SEQ ID NOs 97 and 98 for the detection of mecA; SEQ ID NOs 99 to 102 for the detection of int; and SEQ ID NOs 103 to 106 for the detection of sul.
12. A diagnostic kit as claimed in any one of claims 1-11,
comprising reagents for nucleic acid hybridization and reagents for the detection of hybridization complexes.

13. A diagnostic kit as claimed in claim 12, comprising a negative control sample and/or a positive control sample.
14. An in vitro method for obtaining tuf sequences from any bacterium directly from a test sample or a bacterial culture, which comprises the following steps:
a) treating said sample with an aqueous solution containing a pair of primers having a sequence selected within the nucleotide sequences defined in SEQ ID Nos: 107 and 108, a part thereof having at least 12 nucleotides in length, a sequence complementary thereto, and a variant thereof, one of said primers being capable of hybridizing selectively with one of the two complementary strands of said bacterial tuf gene that contains a target sequence, and the other of said primers being capable of hybridizing with the other of said strands so as to form an extension product which contains the target sequence as a template;
b) synthesizing a extension product of each of said primers, said extension product containing the target sequence, and amplifying said target sequence, if any, to a detectable level; and
c) detecting the presence and/or amount of said amplified target sequence; and
d) determining the nucleotide sequence of the said amplified target sequence by using any DNA sequencing method.
15. An in vitro method for obtaining tuf sequences from any fungus directly from a test sample or a fungal culture, which comprises the following steps:
a) treating said sample with an aqueous solution containing a pair of primers having a sequence selected within the nucleotide sequences defined in

SEQ ID Nos: 109 and 172, a part thereof having at least 12 nucleotides in length, a sequence complementary thereto and a variant thereof, one of said primers being capable of hybridizing selectively with one of the two complementary strands of said fungal tuf gene that contains a target sequence, and the other of said primers being capable of hybridizing with the other of said strands so as to form an extension product which contains the target sequence as a template;
b) synthesizing a extension product of each of said primers, said extension product containing the target sequence, and amplifying said target sequence, if any , to a detectable level; and
c) detecting the presence and/or amount of said amplified target sequence; and
d) determining the nucleotide sequence of the said amplified target sequence by using any DNA sequencing method.
16. An in vitro method for detecting the presence or amount of nucleic
acids of a microorganism selected from Enterococcus faecium, Listeria monocytogenes, Neisseria meningitidis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Candida albicans, Enterococcus species, Neisseria species, Staphylococcus species, Streptococcus species and Candida species, in a test sample suspected to contain said microorganism wherein each of said nucleic acid comprises a selected target region hybridizable with probes or primers that are specific and ubiquitous for said microorganism, said probes or primers comprising at least one single stranded nucleic acid which nucleotidic sequence has at least twelve nucleotides in length capable of hybridizing with the nucleic acids of said microorganism and with any one of: SEQ ID NO. 26 and a complementary sequence thereof, for determining the
presence or amount of Enterococcus faecium;

SEQ ID NO. 27 and a complementary sequence thereof, for determining the presence or amount of Listeria monocytogenes;
SEQ ID NO. 28 and a complementary sequence thereof, for determining the presence or amount of Neisseria meningitidis;
SEQ ID NO. 29 and a complementary sequence thereof, for determining the presence or amount of Staphylococcus saprophyticus;
SEQ ID NO. 30 and a complementary sequence thereof, for determining the presence or amount of Streptococcus agalactiae;
SEQ ID NO. 120 and a complementary sequence thereof, for determining the presence or amount of Candida albicans;
SEQ ID NO. 131 to 134 and a complementary sequence thereof, for determining the presence or amount of Enterococcus species;
SEQ ID NO. 31 and a complementary sequence thereof, for determining the presence or amount of Neisseria species;
SEQ ID NO. 140 to 143 and a complementary sequence thereof, for determining the presence or amount of Staphylococcus species;
SEQ ID NO. 32 to 36 and a complementary sequence thereof, for determining the presence or amount of Streptococcus species; and
SEQ ID NO. 120 to 124 and a complementary sequence thereof, for determining the presence or amount of Candida species.
17. The method as claimed in claim 16, wherein said primers are
pairs of primers selected from the group consisting of:
SEQ ID NO. 1 and 2 for detecting Enterococcus faecium;
SEQ ID NO. 3 and 4 for detecting Listeria monocytogenes;
SEQ ID NO. 5 and 6 for detecting Neisseha meningitidis;
SEQ ID NO. 7 and 8 for detecting Staphylococcus saprophyticus;
SEQ ID NO. 9 and 10 for detecting Streptococcus agalactiae;

SEQ ID NO. 11 and 12 for detecting Candida albicans; SEQ ID NO. 13 and 14 for detecting Enterococcus species; SEQ ID NO. 15 and 16 for detecting Neisseria species; SEQ ID NO. 17 to 20 for detecting Staphylococcus species; and SEQ ID NO. 21 and 22 for detecting Streptococcus species.
18. A method as claimed in claim 16 or 17, comprising the universal detection of the nucleic acids of any bacterium or fungus.
19. A method as claimed in claim 18, wherein the nucleic acids of any bacterium is detected by using primers or probes comprising at least one single stranded nucleic acid which nucleotide sequence has at least 12 nucleotides in length capable of hybridizing with the nucleic acids of said any bacterium and with any one of SEQ ID NOs. 118, 119 and 125 to 171 and a complementary sequence thereof.
20. The method as claimed in claim 19, wherein the primers are a pair of primers having the nucleotide sequence defined in SEQ ID NO. 23 and 24.
21. A method as claimed in claim 18, wherein the nucleic acids of any fungus is detected by using primers or probes comprising at least one single stranded nucleic acid which nucleotide sequence has at least 12 nucleotides in length capable of hybridizing with the nucleic acids of said any fungus and with any one of SEQ ID NOs. 120 to 124 and a complementary sequence thereof.
22. The method as claimed in claim 21, wherein the primers are a pair of primers having the nucleotide sequence defined in SEQ ID NO. 109 and

172.
23. A method as claimed in any one of claims 16 to 20, comprising
the detection of the nucleic acids of a bacterial resistance gene.
24. The method as claimed in claim 23, wherein said bacterial
resistance gene is selected from blatem, blashv, blarOd, bla0Xa, blaZ, aadB, aacC1, aacC2, aacC3, aac6"-lla, aacA4, aad(6"), vanA, vanB, vanC, msrA, satA, aac (6")-aph(2"), vat, vga, ermA, ermB, ermC, mecA, int and sul.
25. The method as claimed in claim 24, wherein the primers are
pair of primers having a sequence selected from:
SEQ ID NOs 37 to 40 for the detection of b\atem; SEQ ID NOs 41 to 44 for the detection of blashv, SEQ ID NOs 45 to 48 for the detection of b\ama, SEQ ID NOs 49 and 50 for the detection of blaoxa; SEQ ID NOs 51 and 52 for the detection of blaZ; SEQ ID NOs 53 and 54 for the detection of aadB; SEQ ID NOs 55 and 56 for the detection of aacC1; SEQ ID NOs 57 to 58 for the detection of aacC2; SEQ ID NOs 59 to 60 for the detection of aacC3; SEQ ID NOs 61 to 64 for the detection of aac6"-lla; SEQ ID NOs 65 and 66 for the detection of aacA4; SEQ ID NOs 173 and 174 for the detection of aad(6"); SEQ ID NOs 67 to 70 for the detection of vanA;
,
SEQ ID NOs 71 to 74 for the detection of vanB; SEQ ID NOs 75 and 76 for the detection of vanC; SEQ ID NOs 77 to 80 for the detection of msrA; SEQ ID NOs 81 and 82 for the detection of satA; SEQ ID NOs 83 to 86 for the detection of aac(6")-aph(2"); SEQ ID NOs 87 and 88 for the detection of vat; SEQ ID NOs 89 and 90 for the detection of vga; SEQ ID NOs 91 and 92 for the detection of ermA; SEQ ID NOs 93 and 94 for the detection of ermB; SEQ ID NOs 95 and 96 for the detection of ermC; SEQ ID NOs 97 and 98 for the detection of mecA; SEQ ID NOs 99 to 102 for the detection of int; and SEQ ID NOs 103 to 106 for the detection of sul.
26. The method as claimed in any one of claim 16 to 25, which is performed directly from a test sample.
27. The method as claimed in any one of claim 16 to 25, which is performed directly from a test sample consisting of a bacterial and/or fungal culture or suspension.
28. The method as claimed in any one of claim 16 to 25, wherein said nucleic acids are amplified by a method selected from the group consisting of:
a) polymerase chain reaction (PCR),
b) ligase chain reaction (L.CR),
c) nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA),
d) self-sustained sequence replication (3SR),
e) strand displacement amplification (SDA),

f) branched DNA signal amplification (bDNA),
g) transcription-mediated amplification (TMA), h) cycling probe technology (CPT),
i) nested PCR, and j) multiplex PCR.
29. The method as claimed in any one of claim 16 to 25, wherein said nucleic acids are amplified by PCR.
30. The method as claimed in any one of claim 16 to 25, wherein the PCR protocol achieves within one hour under uniform amplification conditions the determination of the presence of said nucleic acids by performing for each amplification cycle an annealing step of thirty seconds at 45-55°C and a denaturation step of only one second at 95°C without any time specifically allowed to an elongation step.
31. A nucleic acid of at least 12 nucleotides in length capable of hybridizing specifically and ubiquitously with any one of the following nucleotide sequences and with the nucleic acids of the following corresponding microbial targets:
SEQ ID NO. 26 and complementary sequence thereof for the detection of the
nucleic acids of Enterococcus faecium,
SEQ ID NO. 27 and complementary sequence thereof for the detection of the
nucleic acids of Listeria monocytogenes,
SEQ ID NO. 28 and complementary sequence thereof for the detection of the
nucleic acids of Neisseria meningitidis,
SEQ ID NO. 29 and complementary sequence thereof for the detection of the
nucleic acids of Staphylococcus saprophyticus,
SEQ ID NO. 30 and complementary sequence thereof for the detection of the

nucleic acids of Streptococcus agalactiae,
SEQ ID NO. 31 and complementary sequence thereof for the detection of the
nucleic acids of Neisseria species,
SEQ ID NO. 32 to 36 and complementary sequence thereof for the detection of
the nucleic acids of Streptococcus species;
SEQ ID NO. 110 and complementary sequence thereof for the detection of
nucleic acids of the blaOxa gene,
SEQ ID NO. 111 and complementary sequence thereof for the detection of
nucleic acids of the blaZ gene,
SEQ ID NO. 112 and complementary sequence thereof for the detection of
nucleic acids of the acc6"-lla, gene,
SEQ ID NO. 113 and complementary sequence thereof for the detection of
nucleic acids of the ermA gene,
SEQ ID NO. 114 and complementary sequence thereof for the detection of
nucleic acids of the ermB gene,
SEQ ID NO. 115 and complementary sequence thereof for the detection of
nucleic acids of the ermC gene, and
SEQ ID NO. 117 and complementary sequence thereof for the detection of
nucleic acids of the vanC gene.
32. An oligonucleotide having the nucleotide sequence of any one of SEQ ID NOs: 1 to 25, 49 to 52, 61 to 64, 71, 73 to 76, 91 to 96, 107 to 109 and 172.
33. A recombinant plasmid comprising a nucleic acid as claimed in claim 31.
34. A recombinant host cell which has been transformed by a

recombinant plasmid as claimed in claim 33.
36. A recombinant host cell as claimed in claim 34, wherein said host is Escherichia coli.
37. The diagnostic kit as claimed in any one of claims 1, 2, and 7 to 11, comprising primers and/or probes for the detection of a plurality of said microbial species and/or genera.
38. The diagnostic kit as claimed in claim 37, comprising probes or primers capable of forming a specific and ubiquitous hybridization complex with the nucleic acids of Enterococcus faecium, Listeria monocytogenes, Neisseria meningitidis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Candida albicans, Enterococcus species, Neisseria species, Staphylococcus species, Streptococcus species and Candida species, wherein said probes or primers are derived from:
SEQ ID NO. 26 and a complementary sequence thereof, for determining the presence or amount of Enterococcus faecium;
SEQ ID NO. 27 and a complementary sequence thereof, for determining the presence or amount of Listeria monocytogenes;
SEQ ID NO. 28 and a complementary sequence thereof, for determining the presence or amount of Neisseria meningitidis;
SEQ ID NO. 29 and a complementary sequence thereof, for determining the presence or amount of Staphylococcus saprophyticus;
SEQ ID NO. 30 and a complementary sequence thereof, for determining the presence or amount of Streptococcus agalactiae;
SEQ ID NO. 120 and a complementary sequence thereof, for determining the presence or amount of Candida albicans;

SEQ ID NO. 131 to 134 and a complementary sequence thereof, for determining the presence or amount of Enterococcus species;
SEQ ID NO. 31 and a complementary sequence thereof, for determining the presence or amount of Neisseria species;
SEQ ID NO. 140 to 143 and a complementary sequence thereof, for determining the presence or amount of Staphylococcus species;
SEQ ID NO. 32 to 36 and a complementary sequence thereof, for determining the presence or amount of Streptococcus species; and
SEQ ID NO. 120 to 124 and a complementary sequence thereof, for determining the presence or amount of Candida species.
The present invention discloses a diagnostic kit for the detection and/or quantification of
the nucleic acids of any combination of the microbial species and/or
genera selected from the group consisting of Enterococcus faecium,
Listeria monocytogenes, Neisseria meningitidis, Staphylococcus
saprophyticus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Candida albicans, Enterococcus
species, Neisseria species, Staphylococcus species, Streptococcus
species and Candida species, comprising :
a container adapted to contain any suitable combination of probes or
primers capable of forming a specific
and ubiquitous hybridization complex
with the nucleic acids of microbial
species or genera, and derived from
anyone of;
SEQ ID NO. 26 and a complementary sequence thereof,
for determining the presence or amount of Enterococcus faecium:
SEQ ID NO. 27 and a complementary sequence thereof,
for determining the presence or amount of Listeria monocytogenes;
SEQ ID NO. 28 and a complementary sequence thereof,
for determining the presence or amount of Neisseria meningitidis;
SEQ ID NO. 29 and a complementary sequence thereof,
for determining the presence or amount of Staphylococcus saprophyticus;
SEQ ID NO. 30 and a complementary sequence thereof,
for determining the presence or amount of Streptococcus agalactiae;
SEQ ID NO. 120 and a complementary sequence
thereof, for determining the presence or amount of Candida albicans;

Documents:

00020-kol-2003-abstract.pdf

00020-kol-2003-assignment.pdf

00020-kol-2003-claims.pdf

00020-kol-2003-correspondence.pdf

00020-kol-2003-description (complete).pdf

00020-kol-2003-form 1.pdf

00020-kol-2003-form 18.pdf

00020-kol-2003-form 2.pdf

00020-kol-2003-form 3.pdf

00020-kol-2003-gpa.pdf

00020-kol-2003-letter patent.pdf

00020-kol-2003-reply f.e.r.pdf

20-KOL-2003-CERTIFIED COPIES(OTHER COUNTRIES).pdf

20-KOL-2003-CORRESPONDENCE 1.1.pdf

20-KOL-2003-CORRESPONDENCE 1.3.pdf

20-KOL-2003-CORRESPONDENCE.pdf

20-KOL-2003-FOR ALTERATION OF ENTRY IN THE PATENT REGISTER.pdf

20-KOL-2003-FORM 27-1.1.pdf

20-KOL-2003-FORM 27.pdf

20-KOL-2003-FORM-27.pdf

20-KOL-2003-OTHERS 1.1.pdf

20-KOL-2003-PA.pdf


Patent Number 212093
Indian Patent Application Number 20/KOL/2003
PG Journal Number 46/2007
Publication Date 16-Nov-2007
Grant Date 15-Nov-2007
Date of Filing 20-Jan-2003
Name of Patentee INFECTIO DIAGNOSTIC (I.D.I.) INC.
Applicant Address 2050, BOULEVARD RENE LEVESQUE OUEST, 4 IEME ETAGE, STE-FOY QUEBEC, CANADA G1V2K8
Inventors:
# Inventor's Name Inventor's Address
1 PICARD FRANCOIS J 2908, RUE PINGUET,APP.4, STE-FOY, QUEBEC, CANADA G1V 1K7
2 ROY PAUL H 28, RUE CHARLES GARNIER, LORETTEVILLE, QUEBEC, CANADA G2A 2X8
3 BERGERON MICHEL G. 2069, RUE BRULARD, SILLERY, QUEBEC, CANADA GIT 1G2
4 OUELLETTE MARC 975, RUE CASOT, QUEBEC, CANADA G1S 2Y2
PCT International Classification Number A 61 B 5/20, 6/02
PCT International Application Number N/A
PCT International Filing date
PCT Conventions:
# PCT Application Number Date of Convention Priority Country
1 NA