|Title of Invention||
A BAR SOAP HAVING STIFFENING MEMBER WRAPPED LATERALLY ON THE BAR
|Abstract||a bar soap having a stiffening member wrapped laterally of the bar around at least a longitudinal extend of bar, said stiffening member comprising a stiff a sheet material having at least respective outer surface thereof each provided by a plastic material.|
|Full Text||FORM -2
THE PATENTS ACT, 1970 ( 39 OF 1970 )
COMPLETE SPECIFICATION ( See Section 10 )
1. TITLE OF INVENTION
2. HINDUSTAN LEVER LIMITED, a company incorporated under the Companies Act, 1913, of Hindustan Lever house, 165/166 Backbay Reclamation, Mumbai - 400 020, State of Maharashtra, an Indian Company.
The following specification particularly describes the nature of the invention and the manner in which it is to be performed.
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This invention relates to soap wrappers and, in particular, to a bar of soap wrapped by at least a stiffening member and to a package comprising the bar of soap, the stiffening member and a wrapper entirely surrounding each of the bars 5 of soap and the stiffening member.
This application has been divided out from patent application No. 435/BOM/98 relating to "Soap Wrappers".
In the past a considerable effort has been placed into 10 developing special fungicide containing papers and stiffener board for wrapping soap. As cellulose, which is the major constituent of paper, is an excellent growth medium for mould particularly under moist warm conditions, the use of a fungicide (known in the USA as an "antimicotic") is 15 essential in soap packaging to prevent spoilage. These
compounds serve as "fungistats"; they prevent the onset of mould growth.
Unfortunately the number of fungicides that can be safely 20 used for soap wrapping are limited at least because some are very toxic to man. In addition moulds can become resistant to fungicides after prolonged exposure which necessitates changing the fungicide about every 7 years. Carbendazim and Thiabendazole have been used in the past but are now 25 ineffective under tropical conditions and a significant amount of development resource has been necessary by the paper makers in developing a suitable second generation fungicide. This has required a long programme of tests and screening, which, after moulds have become resistant again, 30 would need to be repeated if this procedure for avoiding mould growth continues to be adopted.
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It is known to use a film of plastics material to wrap soap. In particular, in a known package of a bar of soap, the soap is wrapped by a conventional paper stiffener and the soap and stiffener wrapped entirely by a film wrapper which is a 5 laminated film comprising two layers each of an oriented polypropylene. The concern is however that this approach only addresses the appearance of the bar, which is enhanced by the high gloss of plastics films. It makes no difference to the problem of mould attack as the continued use of a 10 conventional stiffener board will still make the stiffener susceptible to attack.
Mould attack is accelerated by warm moist conditions and as a soap bar contains free water when first wrapped, the 15 wrapper and stiffener are initially very wet. With paper wrappers this equilibrates relatively quickly as water is lost rapidly through the paper and the folded-over, glued ends of the wrapper.
20 We find that if a bar of soap has, wrapped around at least a longitudinal extent thereof, a stiffening member, at least respective outer surfaces of which are each provided by a plastics material, then mould growth on and within it can be entirely avoided.
Similarly, if, additionally, a wrapper, wrapped around each of the bar of soap and stiffening member, comprises a film material having at least respective outer surfaces thereof each provided by a plastics material, mould growth on and
30 within it can be entirely eliminated.
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Moreover, as shown with reference to the attached graph 1, since only the folded ends of the wrapper provide a route for moisture escape the rate of water loss is considerably decreased to provide a desired amount of water within the 5 bar. On the other hand the film wrapper of plastics material gives a very effective moisture barrier.
In particular, in microbiological laboratory tests using moulds which are shown to be resistant to Carbendazim both 10 films of plastics material and boards coated with plastics material have been tested for mould attack and both were found to be completely resistant.
Thus, according to one aspect, the present invention 15 provides a bar of soap having, wrapped, laterally of the bar, around at least a longitudinal extent of the bar, a stiffening member comprising a stiff sheet material having at least respective outer surfaces thereof each provided by a plastics material. 20
Preferably, the stiffness of the stiffening member is at least 3 Taber Stiffness Units in each of the longitudinal (machine) and transverse (cross) directions, and more preferably at least 8 Taber Stiffness units in at least the 25 machine direction.
The stiffening member preferably has a grammage (weight per
2 unit area) of 100 to 200g/m , and preferably has a thickness
of 50 to 250um, more preferably 160 to 180um. 30
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Indeed, we find that, even with a "double board" stiffener coated with plastics material, fungus did not encroach through the edges.
5 According to another aspect, the invention provides a package comprising a bar of soap and packaging material, which packaging material comprises a stiffening member wrapped, laterally of the bar, around at least a longitudinal extent of the bar, which stiffening member
10 comprises a stiff sheet material having at least respective outer surfaces thereof each provided by a plastics material; and a wrapper, wrapped around, in a manner such as entirely to surround, each of the bar of soap and stiffening member, which wrapper comprises a film material having at least
15 respective outer surfaces thereof each provided by a plastics material.
At least each outer surface of the stiffening member is preferably provided by a thermoplastics material. For
20 example, the sheet material of the stiffening member may be a laminate having a core layer of a paper board and respective outer layers each comprising a layer of thermoplastics material, preferably each having a respective thickness, independently of one another, of from 5 to 35um.
25 However, more preferably, the entire sheet is of a
thermoplastics material, which may contain from 5 to 30%, preferably 10 to 25%, more preferably about 20%, by weight of the total weight of the stiffening member, of a filler or blowing agent, or total of filler and blowing agent.
30 Typically, the filler is an inert inorganic filler such as talc or clay. Such fillers provide improved stiffness.
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The thermoplastics material of the stiffening member sheet material is preferably selected from polypropylene, polystyrene, acrylic/butadiene/styrene copolymer and polyethylene terephthalate. 5
It is especially preferred that the stiff sheet material is free from memory so that it does not unfold from a roll on which it was stored and so that it can be folded around the bar of soap, preferably around the entire peripheral
10 longitudinal surface, of the soap bar, after which the
stiffening member will remain in the folded condition so as to define a sleeve surrounding the bar of soap. Preferably, longitudinal ends of the bar of soap are not surrounded by the stiffening member, so that the bar of soap can be easily
15 removed for use.
The wrapper may be a film material comprising a paper core coated on each surface with a plastics material. However, preferably the wrapper is a film material which is entirely 20 of plastics material, more preferably thermoplastics material.
The film material of the wrapper preferably has a thickness of from 5 to 50pm.
Preferably, the wrapper, when wrapped around the bar of soap and stiffening member, has edge portions in overlapping relationship with one another. This allows those edge portions to be secured to one another. This can be achieved
30 by application of an adhesive between various respective opposite surface regions, for example, by coating the
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adhesive at various regions of the edge portions, folding the wrapper and applying pressure. However, preferably, edge portions are secured to one another by heat sealing so that at least outer layers of the film material of the 5 wrapper are preferably of heat sealable plastics material. Moreover, the edge portions are preferably kept free of printing material etc.
Thus preferably, the film material of the wrapper comprises 10 at least one layer of a biaxially oriented polypropylene capable of heat sealing. More preferably the film is a laminate of a biaxially oriented polypropylene layer with a low density polyethylene film.
15 Preferred examples of alternative constructions of the wrapper are:
(a) a laminate of a heat sealable film an internal
face of which may bear print material and between which a
20 laminating, for example hot melt, adhesive is applied;
(b) a special BOPP film which is capable of heat
25 (c) a laminate of a PET, nylon or low density
polyethylene film adhered, for example with a hot melt adhesive, to a heat sealable film.
A package according to the invention containing a soap bar 30 can be produced by a method comprising the steps of:
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folding around at least a longitudinal extent of the bar of soap a stiffening member so that the stiffening member is wrapped laterally around the bar;
wrapping each of the bar of soap and stiffening member 5 with a wrapper in a manner such as entirely to surround each of the bar of soap and stiffening member and provide overlapping edge portions of the wrapper;
and 10 adhering together, preferably by heat sealing, at least respective parts of the overlapping edge portions to secure the wrapper in position.
The stiffening member is preferably formed by casting a 15 molten film of thermoplastics material such as polypropylene or polystyrene.
Typically a soap wrapping system of a package embodying the invention may comprise: 20
1. A wrapper which can be entirely of plastics material or
of paper coated with plastics material. It is preferred
that the finished wrapper should be heat sealable on both
sides for high speed machines; however, a hot-melt adhesive
25 can be used for sealing in slower wrapping lines.
2. A stiffener which can be either 100% plastics material,
a filled plastics film or paper or board coated on both
sides with a plastics material.
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Especially preferred examples of both wrappers and stiffeners which can provide a "mould proof" soap packaging are as follows:
5 Wrapper Materials
1. Biaxially orientated, coextruded polypropylene
(BOPP) films 15 - 35um in thickness, surface printed and
lacquered with areas of edge portions to be sealed to one
10 another being free of ink and varnish.
2. BOPP films of 15 - 35um thickness, reverse printed
and extrusion coated over the ink with 12 - 35um low density
polyethylene (LDPE) or linear low density polyethylene
15 (LLDPE), or mixtures thereof. Instead of a homopolymer of LDPE or LLDPE, a copolymer containing each of these can be used for coating. Moreover, such a homopolymer or copolymer may contain additionally from 2 - 10% ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymer units, especially in the LDPE to improve
3. Two or more BOPP films of 10 35um thickness
laminated together preferably with heat-sealable surfaces
front and back. Print may be sandwiched between the layers
25 of film.
4. BOPP film of 10 - 35um thickness laminated to LDPE
or LLDPE film of 10 - 50um thickness. Combinations of LDPE
and LLDPE in the film can be used and the addition of 2 -
30 10% ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer to the LDPE film can improve sealing.
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5. 100% high density polyethylene film of 10 - 50um thickness surface printed and lacquered with the seal areas being free from ink and varnish.
5 Stiffener materials
1. Cast films entirely (100%) of plastics material or
cast films produced from plastics material filled with inert
inorganic fillers or blowing agents to increase stiffness.
10 Examples of this type of film are 50 - 250um polypropylene, polystyrene, acrylic/butadiene/styrene or PET. Fillers such as talc or clay may be present at 10 - 30%.
2. Boards coated both sides with 5 - 35um
15 polyethylene. Combinations of LDPE and LLDPE can be used. Board quality is not critical with white lined chipboard,
Duplex, Triplex or 100% bleached or unbleached Kraft boards
being suitable in weights from 100 - 200 g/m .
20 The above respective wrapper and stiffener materials can be used in any combination with one another.
It is especially preferred that the wrapper system be entirely paper free.
Preferred embodiments of the invention will now be described with reference to the following Examples and accompanying graphical representation of weight loss due to loss of moisture during a period subsequent to wrapping of a freshly
30 prepared soap bar.
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Examples A to H
The following wrapping systems were tested for fungicidal
growth and weight loss.
Example Wrapper 3 Stiffener 4 Sealing
A BOP1 5 Paper Part seal
B 1 BOP 5 Paper No seal
C BOP1 5 Paper Hermetic seal
D BOP1 Plastic Part seal
E BOP1 Plastic Hermetic seal
F 2 5 Paper 5
Paper Part seal
G 2 5 Paper 5 Paper No seal
H 2 5 Paper 5
Paper Hermetic seal
A biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOP) wrapper
consisting of a laminate of two layers of BOP having printed material between them, an outer layer of wrapper having a 10 melt index greater than that of the inner layer for hot-melting during heat sealing and the outer layer having a coating of an acrylic polymer to further assist heat sealing.
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A wrapper having a paper core laminated with an acrylic
based varnish forming an outer layer and a hot melt layer of
a wax material forming an inner layer.
Respective stiffeners of paper and a plastics material
5 each have a stiffness value, when measured as described
below, in the longitudinal (machine) direction of 15 Taber Stiffness Units and in the transverse (cross) direction of 3
Taber Stiffness Units.
After wrapping of a freshly made bar of soap, the ends of
10 the wrapping paper were either left unfolded (no seal),
folded and held together by application of a holding tape
(part seal) or folded and held together with sufficient tape
to provide a hermetic seal (full seal).
The stiffeners of paper and the wrappers having a paper
15 core were pretreated with Carbendazim as a fungicide.
The above mentioned stiffness values were determined using a Digital Taber V-5 Stiffness Tester (model 150-D) on ten samples each cut to a size of 40 mm x 70 mm, five cut in the 20 transverse and five in the machine direction. Before
testing, the samples were preconditioned at 23°C/50% RH for twenty four hours. For the significance of the Taber Stiffness Units, see TAPPI Standard T489 om-86.
25 Each of the above wrappers and stiffeners was assessed for its resistance to fungicidal growth. The method of assessment was as follows.
As a medium for promoting the growth of moulds, a Sabouraud 30 Dextrose Agar was employed. This consists of a mixture of
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mycological peptone (commercially available from Oxoid Ltd., England as Oxoid L40) (10g), dextrose (40g) and agar (15g). This mixture is commercially available from Oxoid Ltd in powder (CM40) or table (CM42) form. For use, it is mixed 5 with 1000 ml of distilled water and autoclaved for twenty minutes at 110°C and cooled to give a growth medium having a pH of 5.6.
Small squares of test packaging material were cut using 10 scissors dipped in alcohol, flamed and cooled. The squares were placed right side up and upside down onto the surface of poured petri dishes of Sabourauds dextrose agar using flamed, alcohol dipped tweezers.
15 Using a sterile pipette, 0.1 ml of mould inoculum
(approximately 10 spores ml ) were dispensed onto the
centre of the square of packaging. Using a sterile plastic "hockey stick", the inoculum was spread evenly over the surface of the agar and the packaging material. 20
The petri dishes were incubated at 28°C for one week and the level of fungal growth on the packaging material and the agar assessed visually.
25 The following key was used for the visual assessment.
0 = no growth
10 = slight growth
20 = light, patchy growth
30 = moderate growth over whole sample
30 40 = heavy growth over most of sample
SO = completely overgrown
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As controls for comparison, Sabourauds dextrose agar without packaging materials and Sabourauds dextrose agar with preservative-free paper squares were included in the test. These plates showed a reading of 50, but each of the 5 stiffness and wrappers in Examples A to H showed 0 (zero) fungal growth.
The results of these tests showed that when using wrappers and stiffeners of plastics material, zero fungal growth was 10 achievable without the need for pretreatment with
Carbendazim fungicide; contrast the stiffeners and wrappers of paper for which such pretreatment was necessary.
After wrapping respective freshly prepared sample bars of 15 soap with the packaging systems of Examples A-H, the samples were stored at 37°C and 70% RH and weighed regularly to determine the weight loss (g) due to loss of moisture,. The results obtained are shown in Fig. 1.
20 As can be seen, those samples wrapped with a wrapper of plastics material suffered far less moisture loss over a period of 60 days than the samples wrapped with paper, even though the paper had been covered on respective sides with acrylic and wax coatings.
1. A bar of soap having a stiffening member wrapped laterally of the bar, around at least a longitudinal extent of the bar, said stiffening member comprising a stiff sheet material having at least respective outer surfaces thereof each provided by a plastics material.
2. A bar as claimed in claim 1, wherein the stiffness of the stiff sheet material is at least 3 Taber Stiffness Units in each of the longitudinal and transverse directions.
3. A bar as claimed in claim 1 or claim 2, wherein the stiffening member has a weight per unit area of from 100 to 200 g/m2.
4. A bar as claimed in any preceding claim, wherein at least each outer surface of the stiff sheet material is a thermoplastics material.
5. A bar as claimed in claim 4, wherein the entire sheet material is of thermoplastics material.
6. A bar as claimed in claim 5, wherein the thermoplastics material contains from 5 to 30% by weight of the total weight of the stiffening member of a filler and/or blowing agent.
7. A bar as claimed in claim 5, wherein the thermoplastics material contains an inert inorganic filler.
8. A bar as claimed in claim 7, wherein the inert inorganic filler is talc or clay.
9. A bar as claimed in any one of claims 5 to 8, wherein the stiff sheet material has a thickness of from 50 to 250um.
10. A bar as claimed in any one of claims 5 to 9, wherein the thermoplastics material is selected from polypropylene, polystyrene, acrylic/butadiene/styrene copolymer and polyethylene terephthlate.
11. A bar as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein the stiff sheet material is a laminate having a core layer of a paper board and respective outer layers each comprising a layer of thermoplastics material.
12. A bar as claimed in claim 11, wherein the paper board has a weight per unit area of from 100 to 200 g/m2.
13. A bar as claimed in claim 11 or claim 12, wherein the respective thicknesses of the layers of thermoplastics material are each, independently of one another, from 5 to 35um.
14. A bar as claimed in any one of claims 11 to 13, wherein the thermoplastics material of each layer is a polyethylene.
15. A bar as claimed in claim 14, wherein the thermoplastics material of each bar is a low density polyethylene.
16. A bar as claimed in claim 15, wherein the thermoplastics material of at least one said layer is a linear low density polyethylene.
17. A bar as claimed in any preceding claim, wherein the stiff sheet material is free from memory.
18. A bar as claimed in any preceding claim, wherein the stiffening member entirely surrounds at least the said longitudinal extent of the bar so as to define a sleeve of the stiff sheet material.
19. A bar as claimed in any preceding claim wherein the bar and the stiffening member are entirely surrounded by a wrapper wrapped around the bar and the stiffening member which wrapper comprises a film material having at least respective outer surfaces thereof each provided by a plastics material.
20. A bar as claimed in claim 19, wherein the film material has a thickness of from 5 to 50um.
21. A bar as claimed in claim 19 or claim 20, wherein the wrapper has edge portions in overlapping relationship and secured to one another.
22. A bar as claimed in claim 21, wherein the respective edge portions are heat sealed to one another.
23. A bar as claimed in any one of claims 19 to 22, wherein the entire film material is of theromplastics material.
24. A bar as claimed in claim 23, wherein the film is a laminate of the biaxially oriented polypropylene capable of heat sealing.
25. A bar as claimed in claim 24, wherein the film is a laminate of the biaxially oriented polypropylene layer with a low density polyethylene film.
26. A method of wrapping the bar of soap of any preceding claim to provide a bar thereof, which method comprises the steps of folding around at least a longitudinal extent of the bar of soap a stiffening member so that the stifffening member is wrapped laterally around the bar;
wrapping each of the bar of soap and stiffening member with a wrapper in a manner such as entirely to surround each of the bar of soap and stiffening member and provide overlapping edge portions of the wrapper; and
adhering together, at least respective parts of the overlapping edge portions to secure in position the wrapper.
27. A method as claimed in claim 26, wherein the step of adhering together the edge portions is carried out by heat sealing.
Dated this 26th day of March 2003.
Dr. Sanchita Ganguli Of S. MAJUMDAR & CO. Applicants" Agent
|Indian Patent Application Number||310/MUM/2003|
|PG Journal Number||43/2007|
|Date of Filing||27-Mar-2003|
|Name of Patentee||HINDUSTAN UNILEVER LIMITED|
|Applicant Address||HINDUSTAN LEVER HOUSE 165/166 BACKBAY RECLAMATION MUMBAI - 400 020 MAHARASHTRA INDIA|
|PCT International Classification Number||A61K 7/50|
|PCT International Application Number||N/A|
|PCT International Filing date|