|Title of Invention||
A FIBER COATED WITH A WATER BLOCKING MATERIAL
|Abstract||"A CALCINED OXIDE MATERIAL AND CATALYTIC COMPOSITION" A calcined oxide material having an X-ray diffraction pattern which includes the values shown in Table 3, and has micropores and surface area characteristics, determined by N2 adsorption desorption, of a total surface area of at least 400 m2/g and an external surface area of at least 350 m2/g. 11 JUL 2006|
|Full Text||FORM 2
THE PATENTS ACT 1970
[39 OF 1970]
[See Section 10 ; rule 13]]
"A CALCINED OXIDE MATERIAL AND CATALYTIC COMPOSITION"
BP OIL INTERNATIONAL LIMITED, a British company, of Britannic House, 1 Finsbury Circus, London EC2M 7BA, England.
The following specification particularly describes the nature of the invention and the manner in which it is to be performed:-
11 JUL 2006
This invention relates to an inorganic oxide, its process of preparation, catalysts which contain it and its use in hydrocarbon conversion processes such as isomerisation, dewaxing, isodewaxing processes and cracking processes.
Laminar materials such as clays which expand in the presence of water are capable, in suitable conditions, of being intercalated with organic and/or inorganic substances with the object of separating their lamellae in such a way that the forces which keep them together decrease drastically until they are so weak that agitation is capable of separating them i.e. dispersing them.
The present invention provides an oxide material which in its calcined form has an X ray diffraction pattern which includes the valu'es'shown in Table 3, and surface area
characteristics, determined by N2 adsorption desorption, of a microporous surface area of at least 20 m2g_1 and an external surface area of at least 350 m2g"' or contains micropores and has a total surface area of at least 400 m2g' e.g. at least 450m2/g and an external surface area of at least 350 e.g. at least 400m /g. The material, which is hereafter also called ITQ-6, has a microporous structure and elevated external surface area, capable of supporting Bronsted and Lewis acid centres and characterised by its X-ray diffraction pattern and its adsorption properties, and optionally its catalytic properties.
The present invention also provides a process for preparing an oxide material of the invention, which process comprises at least partially delaminating a product 1 having, after drying, an X-ray diffraction pattern as shown in Fig.2, with basal spacings and relative intensities as summarized in Table 2.
The product 1 is preferably a bulked (hereinafter also called swollen) laminar
composition, which is made by a process comprising contacting with a bulking swelling solution a precursor hereinafter called PRJEITQ6 which has an X-ray diffraction pattern as shown in Fig. 1 with basal spacings and relative intensities as summarized in Table 1.
The PREITQ6 is suitably made as a crystalline solid by a synthesis comprising mixing in an autoclave a source of tetravalent metal e.g. X as defined hereinafter, especially silicon, (optionally but preferably a source of a trivalent metal e.g. Y as defined hereinafter especially aluminium), at least one source of fluoride salt and hydrogen fluoride, and an organic nitrogen compound and water and maintaining an elevated temperature to allow crystallization into PREITQ6 to occur.
In a first stage towards production of ITQ6, the PREITQ6 may be made from the
source of silica, preferably the source of aluminium, source (or sources) of fluoride salt and HF, and an organic compound (an organic template) and water in suitable proportions. The source of silica may be e.g. a silica powder or an aqueous silica slurry, such as is sold under the Trade Mark "Aerosil", "Cabosil" or "Ludox", or tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS)
or any other silica source known for making alumino silicates. The source of aluminium may be e.g. an aluminium salt such as a water soluble salt thereof, especially with a strong acid, such as aluminium nitrate AI(N03)3 aluminium sulphate Al2(S04)3 or aluminium chloride AICI3, or aluminium oxide such as boehmite, pseudoboehmite, or any other aluminium source known for making alumino silicates. The fluoride salt is preferably a
water soluble salt, especially with a cation capable of thermal decomposition on
calcination, such as ammonium fluoride. The hydrogen fluoride may be separately as HF or combined with the fluoride salt e.g. as a bifluoride salt. The organic compound is usually nitrogenous e.g. with 1-4 especially 2-4 nitrogen atoms and in particular with 2-10 carbon atoms, especially 4-8 carbon atoms. The nitrogenous compound may be an
aliphatic diamine or triamine such as 1,4-diamino butane, ethylene diamine or may be a cycloaliphatic diamine or triamine such as l,4,diaminocyclohexane, but is preferably a heterocyclic compound with 1-3 ring nitrogen atoms and optionally 0-2 substituent amino groups. The heterorings which may be saturated or unsaturated, fused or unfused, may have 5 or 6 ring atoms, in particular with only carbon ring atoms and one or more nitrogen
ring atoms, e.g. 1 or 2, as in pyrrolidine, pyridine, piperazine or piperidine. The ring may carry 0-5 alkyl substituents e.g. of 1-6 carbons, such as methyl or ethyl, especially 2-4 in particular symmetrically disposed on the ring. Examples of such heterocyclic compounds
are 1,4-dimethyI piperazine, hexamethylenimine, pyrrolidine, pyridine or preferably 4-amino-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl piperidine. The ingredients used to make the PREITQ6 may be mixed in suitable proportions, e.g. with a silica to alumina molar ratio (especially a Si/Al atom ratio) of at least 5:1, e.g. 5-1000:1, such as 10-500:1 or 20-400:1 e.g. greater than 5:1, 10:1, 30:1 or 40:1 such as 30-500:1 (in particular for atom ratios of X:Y, especially Si.Al).
The amount of fluoride salt is usually such that the silica/NRtF molar ratio is 0.4-0.9 ;.g. 0.55-0.75 such as about 0.65 while the amount of hydrogen fluoride is usually such that the silica/HF molar ratio is 0.5-8, e.g. 1-3 such as about 2. The molar ratio of organic compound to silica is usually 0.3-3, such as 0.5-2 e.g. 0.7-1.5 or about 1.
The synthesis of the PREITQ6 can take place at temperatures between 80 and 250°C eg. 100 and 200°C, with the gel formed continually agitated and a duration of between 1 and 30 days e.g. 1 to 18 and preferably between 2 and 12 days during which the PREITQ6 is allowed to crystallize. The synthesis is preferably conducted under lutogenous pressure. At the end of that time there is a slurry, with pH between 9 and 10, containing a white solid reaction product which is usually washed with distilled water prior to filtration and is then dried, preferably at below 300°C, especially below 200°C or 100°C.
The product obtained, PRE1TQ-6, presents an X-ray diagram characteristic of a crystalline solid such as that in Figure 1, and has basal spacings and relative intensities as summarised in Table 1.
As is well known the actual values of d spacings of crystalline silicate materials may change slightly depending on factors such as crystal size, Si/Al ratio and level of hydration. Such changes are usually ±2% of the value. Thus a 12.71 Angstrom value in Table 1 is 12.71 ± 0.25 Angstrom, so the Table 1 values and those in subsequent Tables 2 and 3 can also be expressed as 12.71, 12.00, 7.31 etc., with the ±2% range being understood.
In this description, unless specified otherwise, the relative intensities of the X-ray diffraction peaks will be represented by the symbols and meaning that are stated below:
d weak 0-20% relative intensity
m.. medium 20-40%
f. strong 4.0-60%
mf. ..very strong 60-100%
Once PREITQ-6 has been obtained, this material is suspended in a solution causing the material to be bulked or swollen. The bulking solution which is usually aqueous, comprises a long-hydrocarbon-chain organic compound (a) which may possess a proton acceptor group, such as one with at least one oxygen or nitrogen atom, for example, a quaternary alkylammonium, an amine, or an alcohol with a number of chain carbons
which exceeds three especially at least 8, or a quaternary ammonium salt, and in addition the solution contains (b) a controlled quantity of a compound capable of supplying OH~ to the reaction medium, such as, for example, a quaternary alkylammonium hydroxide or an alkali metal hydroxide such as sodiunvhydroxide, until a pH exceeding 10 is reached. The organic compound (a) used may be any amine or compound of quaternary alkylammonium, e.g. octyl trimethyi ammonium, dodecyl trimethyi ammonium but preferably cetyltrimethylammonium (CTMA+OH") as hydroxide and/or chloride and/or bromide. The organic compound may contain 1-4 e.g. 1 long chain groups e.g. of 8-30 carbons such as 10-20 carbons e.g. cetyl or stearyl, and 3-0 e.g. 3 short chain hydrocarbon groups e.g. alkyl groups such as ones of 1-7 carbons e.g. methyl or ethyl.
The compound to supply hydroxide to the reaction medium is preferably organic e.g. an organic quaternary alkyl ammonium hydroxide especially with at least 1 e.g. 1-4 such as 4 alkyl groups of less than 8 carbons such as 1-4 e.g. methyl, ethyl, n-propyl or isopropyl or n-butyl; tetra alkyl ammonium hydroxides such as tetrapropyl ammonium hydroxide is preferred.
Once the bulking solution has been prepared, it is mixed with the PREITQ6
material described previously especially in a ratio by weight of bulking solution to PREITQ-6 of between 4 and 200:1 e.g. 10-50:1. The resulting suspension is maintained, with continual agitation, and preferably with reflux, at a temperature of between 20 and 120°C, and preferably between 40 and 120°C or 80-110°C, for a period of not less than 1
hour e.g. I-40hrs such as 7-25hrs until the bulked material is obtained. The product obtained is washed exhaustively with water and is dried at temperatures below 300°C and preferably below 150°C. Once it has been washed and dried, the bulked material
presents a characteristic X-ray diffraction pattern which is presented in Figure 2 and whose basal spacings and relative intensities are summarised in Table 2.
As explained above these d spacings can be expressed as e.g. 28.20, with +2% being understood.
The bulked material has separated lamellae,and the dispersion of the lamellae of the bulked material is then pursued. To this end, a suspension of the bulked material in water is prepared at a H20 / bulked material Weight ratio of between 4 and 200:1, and preferably between 10 and 100:1 such 20-60:1. This suspension is subjected to a process of controlled agitation to delaminate the bulked material at least partially. The delamination may be by mechanical means, e.g. strong agitation with a stirrer or other paddle wheel, use of electronics such as ultrasonics or spray drying or any other means known in the art for delamination, or by means of lyophilisation or a combination of any of these, for a period of between 0.5 and 100 hrs and, preferably between 1 and 20 hrs. At least partial delamination causes gelling which takes place in the system at the end of this treatment and contributes to increasing significantlythe difficulties of filtration. Usually flocculants such as acids e.g. HC1, acetic acid or HN03 are added in order to facilitate the recovery of the dispersed solid. After the delamination, and any subsequent
acid treatment, the product obtained usually undergoes a subsequent stage of hydrothermal (steam) calcination, and optionally a post calcination in the presence of fluorine or a fluorine compound or a treatment with a phosphorus compound. Thus the material obtained in the delamination, especially incorporating acid flocculation, may be dried e.g. at 80-150°C, and is subsequently calcined at temperatures between 300 and 800°C and, preferably between 400 and 600°C, giving rise to the product called ITQ-6. The material ITQ-6 presents an X-ray diffraction pattern as shown in Figure 3, with basal spacings and relative intensities summarised in Table 3.
As explained above, these d spacings can be expressed as e.g. 9.5, with ±2% being understood.
ITQ6 has a laminar character with the lamellae having a microporous internal structure with channels formed by rings of 8 and 10 membered T atoms. The surfaces of the lamellae have a higher external surface area compared to the PREITQ6. ITQ6 has unique structural properties in consequence of possessing both a microporous portion, and an increased external surface area. Table 4 summarises the values obtained by applying the BET equation to the values of the nitrogen adsorption isotherm for calcined ITQ6 compared to uncalcined PREITQ6 at the temperature of liquid nitrogen. In this Table it may be observed that the external surface area of ITQ-6 is eight times higher with respect to that corresponding to PREITQ-6.
In the Table 4, STOT is total surface area, SMIC is the microporous surface area, SEXT is the external surface area, VTOT is the total volume of the pores and VMIC is the volume of the micropores. In this Table 4 micropores are defined as pores with a diameter of less than 15A or 1.5nm.
The oxide material of the invention usually has a total surface area of at least 400 m2/g such as 400-700, e.g. 450-650, in particular 500 to greater than 600 such as 500-
650 m /g. Usually it has an external surface area of at least 350 m/g or at least 380 or at least 400m2/g, such as 400 to at least 540, e.g. 400-500 m2/g, Usually its microporous surface area is at least 20 m2/g but especially at least 40 m2/g, e.g. at least 45 or at least 50m2/g, such as 50-200 m2/g, e.g. 50-120 or 50-100 m2/g but especially at most 150 or at most 100 m2/g. The external (or internal) surface area may be determined directly or by difference between the total and internal (or external) surface areas respectively.
The oxide material of the invention called ITQ-6 usually has a chemical composition represented by the formula
(X02)n (Y203)m (HbOyvW where X represents a tetravalent element and Y a trivalent element, n is at least 5 and m may be substantially O or at least 0.5 and p is 0-3n, the atomic ratio between X and Y being preferably at least 5, and M represents a cation e.g. hydrogen and/or alkali metal e.g. sodium or alkaline earth metal e.g. calcium of valency v.
Preferably, X in X02 represents at least one tetravalent element selected from among silicon, germanium and, more specifically, silicon, and may optionally also contain titanium, mixed with Si and/or Ge.
Preferably, Y in Y203 represents at least one trivalent element selected from among aluminium, boron, iron, chromium and gallium, and more specifically aluminium.
n is preferably 5 to infinity e.g. 5-2000, such as 10-1000, 20-800, 60-200, such as 80-200 or 60-1000, while m may be 1-5 or preferably 1 but may be substantially zero (in which case the ITQ6 is substantially siliceous).
The microporous oxide of the invention has a structure usually consisting of tetrahedrons of oxygen and atoms of a tetravalent element e.g. X atoms with possibility of introducing surface acidity by the replacement of some X atoms in the lattice by atoms of trivalent metal e.g. Y atoms giving rise to a negatively charged framework which can be compensated by protons giving rise to Bronsted acidity, and/or high charge radius ratio cations such as Al giving rise to Lewis acidity.
The oxide material of the invention may be used as heterogeneous catalysts for organic reactions. The present invention also comprises a catalyst composition comprising the oxide material of the invention, e.g. ITQ6 together with a catalytically active transition metal e.g. of Group VA- VIA, VIIA, VIII especially V, Mo, W or Group VIII, e.g. Ni, Co, Ru, Rh, Pd or Pt or any combination of these; noble metals are
preferred. The amount of transition metal may be 0.001-50% such as 0.1-5% (expressed as metal) by weight of the composition such as 1-40% e/g/ 5-30% Group VIA metal and 0.05-10 e.g. 1-7% Group VTJI metal. The metalis preferably capable of fulfilling a catalytic hydrogenating function. The catalyst composition may be prepared by techniques well known in the art e.g. impregnation. The metal may be incorporated into
or deposited onto the oxide material in the catalyst composition. The catalyst
composition may also comprise a support, in particular a high surface area support e.g.
of total surface area at least 250m2/g, such as alumina, silica or silica/alumina. The metal
may be incorporated into the support or deposited onto the support.
The invention also provides a catalyst composition comprising the oxide material of the invention and a matrix, with which the oxide material is mixed; The matrix
material may be an active or inactive material and may be either synthetic or naturally occurring. Examples of matrix materials that may be employed in the catalyst composition of the invention include clays (e.g. bentonite and kaolin) and inorganic refractory oxides (e.g. silica, alumina, magnesia, titania, zirconia, silica-alumina, silica- magnesia, silica-titania, silica-zirconia, silica-thoria, silica beryllia as well as ternary compositions such as silica-alumina-thoria, silica-alumina-zirconia, silica-alumina-magnesia and silica-magnesia-zirconia). The relative proportions of the oxide material of
the invention and matrix material in the catalyst composition may vary widely. Thus, for example, the catalyst composition may comprise 0.5 to 95%, e.g. 1 to 80% of the oxide material and 5 to 99.5%, preferably 20 to 99% of matrix material, all percentages being by weight based on the combined dry weight of the present oxide material and the matrix. Preferably in the latter catalyst composition with matrix the oxide material is at least partially in acid form.
The catalyst compositions of the invention may be used in a number of hydrocarbon conversion processes. Among these are olefin e.g. alkene skeletal isomerization to branched alkenes and hydrocarbon, e.g. alkane, cracking without or
with hydrogen (hydrocracking), in particular with catalyst compositions in which the oxide material is at least partly in acid form, and in dewaxing and isodewaxing of hydrocarbons and in Fluid Catalytic cracking (FCC) operations for cracking hydrocarbons e.g. as an additive especially with catalyst compositions comprising the transition metal. Examples of alkenes isomerized are n-alkenes with 4-8 carbons, such as
n-butene and n-pentene, which form branched chain alkenes e.g. isobutene and
isopentene. The isomerizations are performed at elevated temperature e.g. at least 200°C, such as 200-500°C, or 300-500°C, and usually at pressures such as 1-10 bar. The hydrocarbon in the hydrocracking process may be a lighter boiling petroleum fraction such as kerosene or a heavier boiling fraction, such as a vacuum distillate or an
atmospheric distillate e.g. atmospheric or vacuum gas oil or a residual oil, and the
operation is performed at elevated temperatures e.g. at a temperature of at least 300°C e.g. 300-450°C and usually at elevated pressure e.g. 10-200 bar. VGO are preferred hydrocarbons for hydrocracking and these may be ones with less than 100 or 50ppm N e.g. HTVGO or ones with at least lOOppm or at least 0.05% N compounds, such as gas
oils which have not been hydrotreated to lower their N or S contents. The cracking may be performed in the presence or substantial absence of water vapour, e.g. in amount of 0-10% water (by weight of the hydrocarbon) e.g. 0 or 0.1-10% such as 0.1-1%.
The catalytic compositions of the invention may also be used in FCC operations e.g. with the composition as an additive in the reaction, as an FCC catalyst component or
as an additive thereto. FCC operations and catalysts are well known in the art. The catalyst may be in an upwardly or downwardly moving catalyst bed, as in Thermofor Catalytic Cracking or FCC processes. The FCC reaction, is usually performed at
elevated temperature, such as 400-900 e.g. 450-800 or 500-650°C and elevated pressure such as 1-10 or 2-7.5 bar, and a catalyst/feedstock weight ratio of 0.1-150:1 e.g. 20-100:1 for use with a moving catalyst.
The transition metal containing catalysts of the invention may also be used in the dewaxing of feed hydrocarbons and the isodewaxing of feed hydrocarbons involving isomerization of linear aliphatic hydrocarbons to branched hydrocarbons, with 1-4 branches. Examples of feed hydrocarbons are linear alkanes of 8-30 carbons such as 10-20 carbons, in particular in lube oil fractions.
The catalytic compositions of the invention can provide improved conversion of
feedstocks, or selectivity to the desired products, e.g. branched alkene from
isomerization, cracked fraction boiling at less than 410°C from hydrocracking operations,
and branched alkanes from the isodewaxing of hydrocarbons. For example in relation to
hydrotreating vacuum gas oil VGO, especially non hydrogenated VGO, selectivities to
kerosene and VGO are improved compared to use of known--hydrotreating catalysts.
The present invention is illustrated in the following Examples.
(i) preparation of the bulked laminar mixed oxide
This example describes the preparation of a laminar mixed oxide with an Si/Al atom ratio of 5:1 in the initial- gel. The laminar oxide was prepared by mixing in an
autoclave 10 grams of Si02 (Aerosil 200, Degwsa), 2.3 grams of AI2O3 (boehmite,
Catapal B, Vista Corp., with 73.7% of A1203), 9.2 grams of ammonium fluoride (NH4F,
Aldrich of 98% purity), 3.1 grams of hydrofluoric acid (HF, Aldrich at 49.8%
concentration), 26 grams of 4-amino-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine (Fluka of 98% purity)
and 27.9 grams of MiliQ deionised water. The synthesis gel obtained with pH between 8
and 9, was maintained in vigorous agitation for one hour at ambient temperature. The
resulting mixture was then introduced into autoclaves and maintained therein at 175°C for five days, at the end of which the resulting product was filtered and washed with 3 litres of deionised water to pH and basal spacings and relative intensities summarised in Table 1.
One gram (1 gr.) of the laminar material (PREITQ-6) obtained was exchanged with a solution prepared with 20 grams of CTMA+OH" (29% aqueous solution), 6 grams
of tetrapropylammonium hydroxide (TPA*OFT 40% aqueous solution) and 4 grams of deionised water. The suspension obtained was maintained, with reflux and vigorous agitation, for 16 hours at 95°C. Finally, the suspension was washed exhaustively with water until the liquid phase was separated from the solid obtained. The bulked laminar material (1.8 grams) presented a diffraction pattern summarised in Table 2. (ii) preparation of the calcined laminar material of the invention
Deionised water (75 ml) was added to the bulked laminar material (1.8 grams) obtained in example 1 (i) and the suspension obtained after vigorous agitation was subjected to ultrasonic treatment at a frequency of 50Hz and a power of 50 watts for 1
hour. Thereafter the solution was recovered by centrifuging (at 12000 rpm, for 20
minutes), a process which was repeated 4 times. Thereafter the solid material obtained was dried at 100°C for 16hr and was finally calcined at 580°C for 7 hours in the presence of air in order to give a material according to the present invention (1 gram) with a diffractogram diagram like that of Figure 3 with basal spacings and relative intensities
summarised in Table 3, with a specific surface area of 450 m2g-1 according to the BET method, 400 n2g"1 of which corresponds to external surface area, according to the data obtained by the t-plot method, using nitrogen as adsorbate. Example 2
The process followed in Example 1 was repeated except that the quantities of
reagents in stage (i) were varied in order to obtain a gel with an Si/Al atom ratio of 30:1. The oxide obtained at the end of stage (ii) possessed an X-ray diffraction pattern like that of Figure 3 and intensities as in Table 3, with a total area of over 500 m2g"' (namely 562m2g"1) and an external surface area exceeding 400 m2g_1 (namely 485m2g'1) and an internal surface area of 77m2g" Example 3
The process followed in Example 2 was repeated except that only one source of structural atoms namely silicon and oxygen was used in stage (i) and no added aluminium source, thus obtaining at the end of stage (ii) a purely siliceous oxide, without acidity, which gives rise to an X-ray diffraction pattern and relative intensities as in Figure 3 and
Table 3. This pure silica material possesses a total area exceeding 600 m2g~', between 80 and 90% of which corresponds to external surface area, and between 10 and 20% of which corresponds to internal surface area
The process followed in Example 1 was repeated except that the product suspension obtained after the ultrasonic treatment in (ii) was acidified with 6NHC1, to facilitate the flocculation of the solid in suspension before the separation of the liquid phase from the solid phase.
Once the oxide obtained had been calcined, it presented an X-ray diffraction pattern like that of Figure 3 with relative intensities comparable to those of Table 3, and a total specific surface area of 580 m2g"], 500 m2g of which corresponds to external surface area. Example 5
The process followed in Example 1 was repeated except that in stage (ii), following the ultrasonic treatment, the suspension was lyophiiised before the calcination treatment. Example 6
The first stage of the process described, in Example 1 was repeated to give a bulked laminar oxide presenting an X-ray diffraction pattern like thafrof Table 2.
As a second stage, deionised water (75ml for 1.8 gr. of the oxide material) was added and the system was maintained in continual agitation, using a Cowles type agitator, for 3hrs. The suspension obtained was acidified with 6NHCI (pH = 2) and was washed with water and centrifuged several times to a final pH > 6. Once it had been filtered, dried and calcined at 580°C, the lammar oxide obtained presented an X-ray diffraction pattern
like that of Table 3 and a total area of more than 500 m2g"' (>400 external area and >100 internal area). Example 7 catalytic experiments
A sample of ITQ-6 with an Si/Al atom ratio = 30:1 e.g. as made in Ex.2 was
subjected to the incorporation, by impregnation, with H2PtCI6 of 0.5% by weight of
platinum (expressed as metal). The final.material, after being calcined at 500°C for 3 hrs, was reduced in a fixed-bed reactor by passing H2 (300 ml.min"1) in the presence of hexadecane, the Eb/n-hexadecane molar ratio being 50:1. The reaction conditions were: 40 atmospheres of total pressure and reaction temperatures between 290°C and 370°C.
The reactor effluent was collected and analysed and the results obtained, which appear in Figures 4 and Table 5, show that the catalyst based on ITQ-6 is suitable for carrying out the isodewaxing of hydrocarbons. In Fig.4, the square, circle and triangle symbols show
the conversion , isomerisation and cracking values respectively.
All the percentages are expressed in moles. % Single branched, % two branched and % three branched in Table 5 means the
percentage of hydrocarbon products having 1, 2, or 3 branches on a linear chain. Examples 8-10 Catalysts
Commercial Catalysts A Commercial NiMo hydrotreating catalyst. B Commercial non noble metal mild hydrocracking catalyst (CoMo). C Commercial non noble metal second stage hydrocracking catalyst.
The three catalysts, supplied as pellets, were crushed and sieved to a particle size of 0.25-0.42 mm. Catalyst D
The process of Ex.2 was repeated. The calcined sample was ion exchanged using a 2M NH4CI solution (ml solution/g catalyst = 16) at 80°C for 2 hours. Then, the exchanged sample was filtered and washed to eliminated", and dried at 100°C for 12 hours.
After drying the exchanged sample it was blended with 20 wt% g-Al203 (Merck) and impregnated in 2 steps with Ni and Mo. The first impregnation step with 12 wt% M0O3 (as (NH4)6Mo7024"4H20, >99%, Merck), was done following the incipient wetness procedure. The impregnated sample was dried over silica gel for 12 hours and further dried at 100°C for 2 hours. Then it was impregnated in a second step with 3 wt%
NiO (as Ni(N03)2.6H20, >99%, Merck) using the incipient wetness method. Again, the sample was dried for 12 hours over silica gel and then at 100°C during 2 hours.
Finally the NiMo ITQ-6 was calcined in air flow (150 ml/min) using a temperature program of increasing it from room temperature to 500°C at 3°C/mins followed by maintenance at 500°C for 3hr, and then allowing it to cool to room temperature.
The final sample was pelletised, crushed and sieved to a particle size in the range of 0.25-0.42 mm.
The surface area and micropore size of the parent ITQ-6 and the final catalysts are given in Table 6. The external surface area of the ITQ6 was 576m2/g.
Table 6: BET surface area (m2/g).
Sample Total Micropore
ITQ-6 before impregnation . ,,598 22
NiMo/(ITQ-6 + 20 % gamma- AI2O3) 324 46
Two feedstocks oils C and D were used, namely Ca vacuum gas oil conventional untreated straight run vacuum gas oil (~3 70-53 0°C TBP cut) (VGO) of nitrogen content above 500ppm and D a straight run VGO (~370-530°C TBP cut) hydrogen pre-treated to The boiling range distribution of these oils by simulated distillation was as follows
VGO 0.1 0.0 7.5 9.1 83.1
HT-VGO 0.8 3.1 18.0 11.0 67.0
Reaction System and reaction conditions
The reactions have been carried out in a computer-controlled reaction system. The different feedstocks are stored in separated pots and heated at 60°C. They are introduced in the system by means of a piston pump and go through a preheater before entering a fixed-bed tubular reactor, heated by an electric furnace with three independent heating
zones. At the outlet of the reactor the liquid sample is collected in another pot, whilst the gases pass through a calibrated mass flow meter, used as a "gas totaliser". The reactions are performed at 60 bar, and the pressure is controlled by a Badger Meter Optipac valve.
The volume of catalyst used was 10 ml, and the feedstock flow was 10 ml/h giving a constant LHSV of 1.
A 4 ml bed (5 cm height) of inert CSi was used below the catalyst bed.
The following experiments have been carried out:
Hydrogen flow was 180 ml/min with gas rate of 1000 nm 3/m3andLHSV=l. l|D Before reaction the catalysts were presulphided in the liquid phase, using l%v/v Dimethyl disulphide DMDS in light straight run gas oil using the procedure:
(a) dry catalyst at 175°C for 2 hours, at 30 bar, in H2 flow (90 ml/min).
(b) start oil flow (40 ml/h during the first hour, then 20 ml/h), raise reactor (c)
(c) temperature to 230°C and hold until H2S breakthrough (>1000 ppm).
(d) raise reactor temperature to 300°C and hold overnight (~12 hours) with DMDS
Analysis of the different products.
The total amount of gases is measured using a calibrated flow controller. Hydrocarbon composition in the gas stream is determined with an flame ionisation .isonicationdetector (FID) after separation in a Plot-I2O3 capillary column. Hydrogen content is determined separately, using a molecular sieve column connected to a thermal conductivity detector. Concentration of H2S is obtained with a Pulsed Flame Photometric Detector (PFPD).
Simulated distillation is carried out using a WCOT Ultimetal 10 meter column
connected to an FED, following the D2887 ASTM procedure to give the following cuts:
> Elemental Analysis is used to determine the S and N content of the liquids. The
analyser has a sensitivity limit of 0.2 wt% S or N. RESULTS Blank Tests
In these tests, instead of catalyst, a 10 ml bed of CSi is introduced in the reactor.
Results are included in Table 7:
Tabled: Blank tests
After presulphiding the catalysts, the reaction was carried out at each temperature 15 and for each feedstock until steady state was reached. After stabilisation, conversion and yields were measured, and the reaction temperature was increased from 370°C, first to
390, then to 420°C, and samples of product were taken and analyzed. After this the mperature was returned at 370°C and samples of product taken and analyzed.
Table 8 shows the steady state results obtained reacting the VGO at 370, 390 and 10°C on the commercial catalysts A and C.
able 8: Comparison of NiMo hydrotreating catalyst (A) and CoMo mild hydrocracking italyst (B). Feedstock: Untreated straight run VGO.
Temperature profiles were checked along the catalytic bed, and the maximum
difference obtained at 420°C was a difference of 4°C.
The results obtained with the hydrotreated feedstock HTVGO are in Table 9. Table 9: Comparison of NiMo hydrotreating catalyst (A) and zeolitic second stage
hydrocracking catalyst (C). Feedstock: HTVGO.
Tables 10 and 11 compare the results obtained with the ITQ-6 catalyst D with those obtained with the hydrotreating catalyst A and mild hydrocracking catalyst B for
conversion of VGO on one hand, and with the results of the hydrotreating catalyst A and second stage hydrocracking catalysts C for conversion of HTVGO on the other.
The following conclusions can be drawn from the results in these Ex. 8-10 with the catalysts A-D at 3 temperatures and with 2 feedstock.
For the untreated VGO, and consideration of the Net Yield of Product * Net Conversion, the ITQ6 gave similar selectivity to naphtha production (bp 120-380) and diesel production (bp 120-380°C) compared to the catalysts A and B, but better selectivity to kerosene (bp 120-240°C) and lower selectivity to VGO (bp 380-410) (the latter being advantageous).
For the treated HTVGO, and the same considerations, the ITQ6 gave selectivities of the same order for naphtha, kerosene and diesel, and VGO compared to the hydrocracking catalyst C.
|Indian Patent Application Number||602/MUMNP/2005|
|PG Journal Number||42/2008|
|Date of Filing||13-Jun-2005|
|Name of Patentee||E.I. DU PONT DE NEMOURS AND COMPANY|
|Applicant Address||1007 MARKET STREET, WILMINGTON, DELAWARE 19898, USA.|
|PCT International Classification Number||H01B 7/28|
|PCT International Application Number||PCT/US99/27558|
|PCT International Filing date||1999-11-22|