|Title of Invention||
"PHARMACEUTICAL COMPOSITION FOR ORAL AND TOPICAL ADMINISTRATION."
|Abstract||A method of increasing viscosity of pharmaceutical formulation for oral or topical administration comprises the steps of combining; a) an effective amount of one or more hydrophobic active ingredients; b) 5 to 50% of one or more compounds selected from polyglycerol esters of fatty acids with 6-15 glycerol units ; c) 5 to 50% of one or more compounds selected from polyglycerol esters of fatty acids and / or unsaturated fatty acids with 2-22 glycerol units; d) 5 to 50% of one or more compounds selected from triglyceride macrogol glycerol esters, partial glycerides or fatty acids and concurrently the ration between components b) and d) is from 0.1 : 1 to 10:1; and wherein upon dilution with water 1:1 by volume the viscosity of the formulation increases by at least 5 times in comparison to the undiluted composition.|
|Full Text||PHARMACEUTICAL COMPOSITIONS FOR ORALAND TOPICAL
this invention relates to pharmaceutical formulations including, as the active ingredient, substances which arc poorly soluble in water, for example therapeutically active cyclosporins, taxoides and taxancs.
Cyclosporins are a group of monocyclic, poly-N-methyiated undecapeptides, which are naturally produced as secondary metabolites by certain fibrous fimgh especially of general Tolypocladium and Cylindrocarpon. Some therapeutically useful cyclosporin can be prepared by partial synthesis or by special fermentation procedures.
Ciclosoporin (Cyclosporin A) is the first natural substance having selective immunosuppressive effect on lymphoid cells, especially T lymphocytes. It also influences functions of other cells of the immune system to a great extent.
Systcmically administered cyclosporin is used therapeutically in organ transplantations or transplantations of bone-marrow. Cyclospoiin can be employed for treating a wide variety of autoimmune disease- with inflammatory eliology and also cis anti-parasitic agents.
Certain cyclosporins without immunosuppressive activity exhibit an inhibitor effect towards replication of the HIV-1 vims and can be employed in therapy for ucatment and prevention of AIDS or AIDS related complex. The group of cyclosporins also include chernomodulators useful for influencing cross resistance of tumour cells to cytostatics.
Bioavailability of cyclosporin is influenced, on one hand, by specific properties of this group of substances, but also by the composition and properties of the particular dosage form. Ah important role in formulating therapeutic compositions containing cyclosporin is played by their high Hpophilicity.
Solubility of these active substantia in water typically does not exceed 25 µg/ml which value is approximately 100 times lower than needed tor regular absorption in the organism. The marked lipophilicity of cyclosporin is evidenced by the values of their partition coefficients P in the system n-octanol/water. For cyclosporin, values of log P 2.08 to 2.99 have been reported.
To achieve acceptable bioavailability of cyclosporins formulations which are used in practice form dispersion systems and are characterised by the presence of a hydrophilic phase, a hydrophobic phase and a tensoactive component. The resulting dispersions are either classic emulsions or optically transparent microemuisions. Commercially available compositions for oral administration are known under the trade names Sandimunn Sandimunn®-Neora1, Consuprcn®, Implanta®, Imusporin® as described in GB-A-2015339, GB-A-2222770, CB-A-2270842 and GB-A-22787S0.
Modifications of the preceding systems, where the hydrophilic base is omitted and replaced by partial esters of fatty acids with polyols like propylene glycol, glycerol or sorbitol, are desciibed in GB-A-222SI9S-
DE-A-4322826 discloses, as the carrier system for drugs poorly soluble in water, a composition containing polyglyceryl esters of fatty, acids as a co-tenside to non-ionic tensides having HLB higher than 10, in the presence of a triacyl glycerol as the lipophilic component.
Formulations containing cyclosporins in a vehicle comprising propylene glycol, mixed mono-, di- and triglyceride and a hydrophilic tenside, disclosed in GB-A.-2248615, are typical rnicrocemulsion preconcentrates of the oil-in-water type.
According to biopharmaccutical classification, cyclosporins belong to class IV, ie substances whose solubility in water is bad and bioavailability is poor (G L Amidon, Biophamiaceutics Drug Classification and International Drug Regulation, Capsge) Library, Bornem 1996, p 15-30).
Taxoides are a group of natural substances isolated from some strains of Taxus. Taxoidet demonstate antineoplastic effects by influencing cellular mitosis. They are ditcrpenic substances containing taxmic cyclic grouping with a 4-membered oxitanic ring and an csteric side chain in position Cn, Natural paclitaxel and its semisynthetic decivative docetaxel are used for treatment of tumours, Taxanes are even less soluble in water than cyclosporins, immediately after preparation, pnclitaxel solubility in water ranges about 5 µg/ml, however, paclitaxel hydrates which arc formed on standing have an equilibrium concentration which is lower by an order of magnitude (0.3 - 0.6 µg/ml).
Compositions based on polyrdycerol acylesters arc known from the patent literature, eg WO98/05309. Pharmaceutical compositions for internal application containing cyclosporin as active ungredient and a carrier consisting of one or more partial
esters of fatty acids with di- to decaglycerol and partial peritaglycerol to pentadecaglycerol acylesters are disclosed. Compositions prepared this way enable a skilled person to make a dispersion of emulsion type with an average particle size about 1- 2 µm after dilution. The particles arc of spherical character as shown in Figure 1, However, achievement of high bioavailability remains a problem.
Similarly; WO97/26003 discloses use of polyglycerol acylesters. Besides the above mentioned polyglycerolesters, the vehicle contains glycerol monpacyiesters and optional substances selected from anhydrohexosdimetbyl derivatives and/or polyethylene glycerols. The formulation can also contain other substances which improve the stability of the vehicle and lipoamino acids which are suitable especially for topical products. These compositions provide slightly dispersing systems containing spherical particles.
Other systems utilising polyglyqerol esters with fatty acids fire microernulsions, In EP-A-670715 or EP-A-334777, esters of fatty acids with polyglycerols are used for pharmaceutical or cosmetic microernulsions or compositions forming mieroermilsions. As defined in eg Lachman ct al; Theory and Practice of Industrial Pharmacy, Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia 1970, p 463, a mieroemulsion is a clear dispersion of oil-in-water or water-in-oil having a size of dispersed particles in the range 100 - 600 A. Dispersed particles in a . microemulsion arc composed of nanodrops or mtcellar aggregates of the dispersed phase in the dispersion medium. The shape of dispersed particles is mostly spherical
Similarly, CZ-A-283516 describes use of polyglycero! acylesters as one of the components of vehicle which forms iyotropie liquid crystals in contact with an aqueous phase, In accordance with this specification and other patents (eg EP-A-314689 or EP-A-126751), only pharmaceutical compositions based on systems providing Iyotropie liquid crystnls are suitable and advantageous for formulations of biologically active substances which dissolve in the given system and/or have hydrophobic character. At the same time the capability of formation of a liquid crystal phase in vivo after application into the gastrointestinal tract is associated with high bioavailability of hydrophobic pharmaceutical compositions.
According to a draft of the article Cyclosporine Modified Capsules for USP 23, published in Phannaccopeial Forum Volume 24, Number 3, 1998, p 6155, high bioavailability of cyclosporin is caused by dispersion of a pharmaceutical composition in the form of a pre-concentrate after administration of it microemulsion into (11 tract, The
draft recommends to lest whether the dispersion arising after dilution of such composition provides particles of mean size 50 nm in the dispersed phase. This topic is discussed in several patents which however do not disclose use of poly glycerol esters of higher fatty acids.
According to a first aspect of the present invention a method of increasing viscosity of a pharmaceutical formulation for oral or topical administration comprises the steps of combining:
a) an effective amount of one or more hydrophobic active ingredients;
h) 5 to 50% of one or more compounds selected from polyglyccrol esters of
fatty acids of formula (1)
wherein n is an integer from 4 to 13 and R is H or CO.R' wherein R' is C8.22 saturated, unsaturated or hydroxyiated alkyl and wherein at least one group R is not hydrogen;
c) 5 to 50% of one or more compounds selected from polyglyccrol esters of
fatty acids and/or unsaturated fatty acids of formula (2)
wherein n is an integer from 0-10 and R = H or CO.R" wherein R" is C8-22 saturated, unsaturated or hydroxyiated alkyl. and wherein while at least one group R is not hydrogen;
d) 5 to 50% of one or more compounds selected from triglyceride macrog of
glycerol esters, partial glyecrides or fatly acids or microgol esters of tally acids in which
the average quantity of reacted ethylene oxide in the synthesis of those substances ranges
between 50 to 150 mols and concurrently the ratio between components b) and d) is from
01 1 to 10: 1;
wherein the above percentages are selected to total 100%; and wherein upon dilution with water 1:1 by volume the viscosity of the formulation increases by at least 5 times in comparison to the undiluted composition.
In preferred formulations a minimum number of excipients are used. This results in economy of manufacture and regulatory requirements. A single compound from each of groups b) to e) is preferred.
According to a second aspect of the present invention there is provided a pharmaceutical formulation for oral or topical administration including
a) an effective amount of one or more hydrophobic active ingredients;
b) 5 to 50% of one or more compounds selected from polyglycerol esters of fatty acids of formula (1)
wherein n is an integer from 4 to 13 and R is H or CO,R wherein R is C8.37 saturated, unsaturated or hydroxylated alkyl and wherein at least one group R is not hydrogen;
c) 5 to 50% of one or more compounds selected from polyglycerol esters of
fatty acids and/or unsaturated fatty acids of formula (2).
wherein n is an integer from 0-10 and R = H or COR" wherein R" is C8-22 saturated, unsaturated or hydroxylated alkyl, and wherein while at least one group R is not hydrogen;
d) 5 to 50% of one or more compounds selected from triglyceride macrogo!
glycerol esters, partial glycetidcs or fatty acids or macrogol esters of fatty acids in which
the average quantity of reacted ethylene oxide in the synthesis of these substances ranges
between 50 to 150 mols and concunently the ratio between components b) and d) is from
0.1 : 1 to 10: 1;
wherein the above percentages are selected to total 100%,
and wherein upon dilution with water 1:1 by volume the viscosity of the
fformulation increases by at least 5 times in comparison to the undiluted composition.
The invention also provides use of a formulation in accordance with the second
aspect of thts invention fot preparation of a dosage form for administration of a class IV
It has been surprisingly found out that high bioavailability of cyclosporins and taxanes after oral application can be achieved using a system neither based on liquid crystals nor a microemulsion. It was also found that a system prepared in accordance with the present invention does not result in a dispersion of the emulsion type. Unexpectedly it has been found that particles which arc formed spontaneously or almost spontaneously on mixing of the phases have a non-spherical character. At the same time, no sign of anisotropic grouping of molecules was found even if the panicles formed exhibited a dramatic increase in viscosity. From these findings it appears that it is a dispersion in water of particles having gel-like properties.
In this specification particles of gel-like character are to be understood as those whose stable shape or conformation in the dispersion is non-spherical. Non-spherical particles are those having at least two different perpendicular dimensions.
In this specification a gel emulsion (GEM) is to be understood as a dispersion of particles of gel character in an aqueous phase,
A pre-concentrate of gel emulsion (PRO-GEM) is to be understood as a composition which results in a gel emulsion after dilution or in contact with an aqueous phase.
The formation of gel particles is caused by interaction between a bydrophilic gelator(an agent which causes formation of gel) and a lipophilic gel-creating phase. Such a composition may contain components which participate in the formation of a particulate gel structure and which facilitate spontaneous dispersion in an aqueous medium. It may also contain components which ensure oxidative or microbial stability, mask the taste, adjust, the appearance or facilitate dissolution of active ingredients in the mixture. The composition may also contain components which adjust viscosity.
Pharmaceutical compositions in accordance with the present invention may be used to formulate active substances from class IV according to the btophannaceutical classification. Also advantages are obtained when substances- from class II and 111 are
According to a third aspect of the present invention a pharmaceutical formulation for oral or topical administration comprises
H) 0.1 to '30.0 % of one or mote hydrophobic active ingredients;
b) 0,1 to 60,0 % of one or more gelators selected from the group consisting of: fatty acid esiers of polyglyeerol;
c) 0.1 to 60.0 % of one or more gel-creating substances selected from the group consisting of: esters of potyglycerol with fatty acids and/or unsaturated fatty alcohols;
d) 1.0 to 60 % of one or more co-gelator substances selected from the group consisting of: macrogol glyccrolesters of fatty acids, macrogal glycerolcsters of vegetable oils, mactogol esters of fatty acids, mono- and di- maerogol esters of mono-, di-and tri- acylglycerols.
e) 5.0 to 30 % of one or more C2 to C4 alcohols;
wherein the above percentages are selected to total 100%;
and wherein upon dilution with water the formulation fomis-a dispersion of polymorphous gel particles having a dimension of 0.2 to 500 µm.
Percentages and amounts used in this specification are by weight unless indicated otherwise.
In preferred formulations the ratio of a : c and/or a : e is in the range 0.001: 1 to 10:1.
In contrast particles in liquid-liquid emulsions are generally spherical in shape. Panicles of the present invention may have a substantial proportion, for example more than half with a non-spherical shape, for example an ellipsoid, rod-like or string-like shape. Preferably more than half of the particles by weight are elongate having a length more than twice their width or diameter. Formulations of this invention may have a particle size distribution with a median dimension in the range 1 to 100 µm preferably 5 to 20 µm. Formulations may contain individual particles- with a dimension up to 10 µm or mote, for example- 20 to 50 µm.
The formulations of the present invention may be made by mixing for example my manual stirring or shaking in vitro. Liquid formulations may be mixed with water, milk or other drink before: administration. Higher speed striting is less convenient but may be used, particularly to give smaller particle sixes, for example about 200 nm if desired.
Dosage forms comprising a gel-emulsion procorcentrate, eg in capsules, are mixed with aqueous phase in the Gl tract. Sufficient shear forces arc applied in the GI tract to form the polymorphous particles of the present invention.
Pharmaceutical compositions in accordance with the present invention may be characterised in that after dilution by mixing with an aqueous phase in ratio from approx 1 : 5 (composition : aqueous phase) to approx 1 ; 100, a dispersion of gel particles in water with mean size of particles between 0,2 - 500 µm is obtained. Such dispersion may be referred to as a gel emulsion (GEM).
Gel emulsion pre-concentrates (PRO-GEM) may he administered in the form of a pre-concentrate or in single-dose dosage forms such as capsules.
Component a) includes biologically active ingredients which are insufficiently soluble in water for conventional formulation and so their bioavailability is low. According to this biophannaceutical classification, these arc substances of group 2 and 4, with low water solubility, These substances include immunosuppressives, antitumour chemotherapeutical agents, substances influencing saccharide metabolism, peptides and lipids, agents influencing the calcium channel, non-steroidal antiflogistics and vitamins.
Immunosuppressives are hydrophobic compounds and include N-meihylated cyclic undecapeptides. Cyclosporins are preferably used, especially cyclosporin (also known as Cyclosporin or Cyclosporin A), [Nva]2 - ciclosporin (cyclosporin G) and [Melle]4 - ciclosporin, Non-immunosuppressive cyclosporins can also be used, eg [3'ketoMBint]1-[Val]2-ciclosporin. Various pharmacopoeias have referred to these compounds using different spellings. In this specification these compounds and derivatives thereof are conveniently referred to by the name cyclosporin. Other immunosuppressives can be used too, eg macrolides produced by grampositivc Streptomyces bacteria (rapamycine, tacrolimus) or their derivatives.
Anti tumour chemotherapeutic agents include taxanes, preferably dooetaxcl or
Other biologically active ingredients which may be formulated in accordance with this invention may be selected from: diclofenac, ibuprofen, nifedipine, triamcinolone, tocopherol etc. In accordance with the present invention, the compositions can contain as much as 30% of the active ingredient.
Component b) which may be considered as n gelator is selected from polyglycerol esters of fatty acids, of general formula (I)
where n is an integer from 4 - 13 and R = H or CO.R1 wherein R1 is C8-22 saturated, unsaturated or hydroxylated alkyl and wherein at least one group R is not hydrogen.
Preferred components b) are polyglyccrol esters and partial esters of medium or long chain fatty acids. These preferably have a HLB value not less than 10.
Polyglyccrol esters with fatty acids are generally prepared by either partial or full esterificatton of polyglycerols by corresponding fatty acids or trans-esterification of vegetable oils with polyglycerol. Each polyglycerol monoester may be characterised by a saponification number. The level of polymerization is best indicated by the hydroxyl number. Polyglycerol esters with HLB value greater than about 10 may be considered to be hydrophilic Polyglycerol esters with a HLB value less than about 9 may be considered lipophilic. Substances suitable for the components b) include the following:
Polyglycerol-6-monolaurate 6 14..5
Polyglycery 1-10-monolaurate 10 15.5
Polyglyceryl- l0-monomyristate 10 14.0
Polyglyceryl-10-monostearate 10 12.0
Polyglyceryl-10-mono-dioleate 10 11.0
Polyglyceryl-10-diisostearate 10 10.0
Polyglyceryl-6-ntonoinyristate 6 11.0
Polyglyccryl-8-monoolcate 8 11.0
Polyglyceryl-10-monooleaie 10 12.0
The above mentioned polyglycetpls esteis are available from Nikko Chemicals Co under the trade name NIKKOL®, Durkce Foods under the rmde name SANTONE® and from Th. Goldscbmidt under the trade mark ISOLAN® or Abitec Corp under the trade name CAPROL®. Commercially available polyglyceryl esters may be mixtures containing predominantly the named ester or a mixture of esters having equivalent properties as determined for example by the hydroxy 1 value.
Polyglyeerols esters of components b) and c) for use in the compositions of this invention preferably meet the following purity requirements:
acid no = max 6; heavy metals content = max 10 ppm; water content = max 2%; content of Na salts of fatty acids = max 2% (as Na stearate); total ash = max 1%.
Preferred gelator compounds b) are selected from polyglyceryl esters of C12-22 saturated, unsaturated or hydoxylated fatty acids including myristate, laurate, oleates, stearate, linoleate and linolate. Cl6-22 acids are especially preferred. Most preferably C16-18, that is stearate, oleatcs, laurate, linoleate and linolate, Mixrures may be used. Gleate esters or mixtures thereof are most preferred.
Triglyceryl esters of these acids, in which N = 1, have been found to be particularly suitable, especially for formulation of cyclosporins.
Component c), which may be considered as a gehereating substance, is selected from polyglycerol esters of fatty acids and/or unsaturated fatty alcohols, and is preferably of general formula (2)
wherein n is an integer from 0 -10 and R - H or CO.R" wherein R" is C8-22 saturated, unsaturated or hydroxylated alkyl, and wherein while at least one group R is not hydrogen.
Preferred components c) are polyglycerol esters and partial esters of fatty acids and/or fatty alcohols. Preferred components c) have a HLB value not greater than 9. Substances suitable for components c) include the following:
Name (INCI) Number of glycerol units HLB
Poly.glyeeryl-3-monooleate 3 6.5
Polygiycery]-6-dioleate 6 8.5
Polyglyceryl-30-tetraoleate 10 6.2
Polyglyceryl-l0-decaoleate 10 3.5
Polyglyccryl-2-monostearate 2 5.0
Polyglyceryl-10-pentastearale 10 3.5
The above mentioned polyglycerols esters arc available from Nikko Chemicals Co under the name NIKKOL®; or Abitec Corp under the trade name CAPROL®
Preferred components c) include gel-creating substances selected from polyglycerol esters of fatty acids and/or unsaturated fatty alcohols is in accordance with the present invention a substance especially selected from C8-22 unsaturated fatty alcohols, Preferably oleyl alcohol (9-octadecen-l ol) can be used for example meeting the following purity requirements:
Mr = 268,49; refractive index =1,458 - 1,460; acid no Preferred gel-creating components c) are selected from polyglyccryl esters of C8-22 saturated, unsaturated or hydroxylated fatty acids, including myristatc, laurate, oleates, stearate, linoleatc and linolate. C8-18 acids are preferred, C8-16 acids being more preferred, including lauratc, oieates and rnyristatc. Mixtures may be employed. Oteate is the most preferred.
Polyglyeeryl-10-esters of these acids in which N - 8, have been found to be particularly suitable, especially for formulation of cyclosporins.
Component d), which may he considered to be a co-geator, may be selected from macrogolglycerol esters of futty acids. These include esters of C8-22 saturated or unsaturated fatty acids with maerogol glycerols.
Especially preferred are macrogol glycerols with vegetable oils eg ricine oil, both hydrogenated and unhydragenated, almond or maize oil They arc generally prepared by reaction of vatious quantities of ethylene oxide and the appropriate type of oil tinder
known conditions. Especially preferred arc the following substances characterised by the number of reacted ethylene oxide mols (1 + m + n + x + y + z) and HLB value.
rnacrogol(1540) ricine-oleic glyceride 35 12-14
macrogoi(1760) hydrogenated ricinoolejc glyceride 40 12.5-16
macrogol(2200) hydrogenated ricine-oleic glyceride 50 13.5
macrogol(2640) hydrogenated ricine-oleic glyceride 60 14.5
macrogol(3520) hydrogenated ricine-oleic glyceride 80 15
macrogol(4400) hydrogenated ricinc-oleic glyceride 100 16.5
macrogol(2640 almond-oleic glyceride 60 15
niaciogol(2640) maizc-oleic glyceride 60 15
Characteristic physical and chemical parameters of the above mentioned substances are:
acid no 2; hydroxyl no = 40 - 60; iodine no 40 - 70; water content (* for rnacrogol(1540) ricine-oleic glyceride = 28 - 32).
These substances arc commercially available under the trade names eg Cremophor®, Nikkol®, Simulsol®, Mapeg®, Crovol®.
Special mixed mono and d- macrogolcstcrs of mono-, di- and triacylglycerol commercially available under the limit: name Gelucircde are also preferred. Especially preferred products arc available under the name Gelucire® 50/1.3 and 44/14. Preferred physicochemical properties are
Alternative compositions preferred for use as compound d) are macrogotesfers of fatty aoids eg macrogol(660)-12-hydroxystearate commercially available under the trade name Solutol® HS 15 having an acid no Component d), is usually present in the compositions in an amount of 1 - 60 %, preferably in the range 5 - 50 % and most preferably 15 - 50% and most preferably 15 - 40 %.
Component e) is selected from C2 - C4 alkanols, preferably ethyl alcohol of pharmaceopocial quality. Alternative alkanols include isomers of propenol and buterol. Mixtures may be employed. In topical applications, propan-2-ol, or 2-methyl-l-propatiol, are preferred.
Other exceptants which can be employed in. compositions.of the present invention are those which influence physicochemical and microbial stability (eg antioxidants, antimicrobial additives sucb as tocopherol, methyl paraben), organoleptic properties (eg taste correctors based on natural or nature identical aromas) or physical properties which may limit processing (eg viscosity or melting point). The following can be included among such substances: water or other pbarmaceutically acceptable solvents, hydrophilic colloids eg selected from derivatives of cellulose, chitosans, alginate, polycarbophile etc.
Compositions based on a gel pre-concentrate may be characterised in that they disperse into panicles of gel character primarily of irregular shape after application into an aqueous medium. High bioavailability of such compositions is associated with bioadhesion. As a result of their ampbilicity these particles are less liable to coalescence and may be homogenously dispersed in an aqueous inedium. In contact with a lipophilic surface they remain on the surface and so provide a sufficient concentration gradient to enable drug penetration through the membrane due to their viscosity and adhesivity.
The invention is farther described by means of example but not in any limitative sense with reference to the accompanying drawings of which:
Figure 1 is a photomicrograph of n dispersion in accordance with WO98/05309;
Figure 2 is a photomicrograph of a dispersion in accordance with the present invention;
Figure 3 is a graph showing blood levels of cyclosporin in Example 6; and
Figures 4 to 8 are photomicrographs of further dispersions in accordance with this invention.
Cyclosponine-Containing Solution for Oral or Topical Application
The following ingredients were employed.
a) cyclosporin A 3600 g
b) polyglycerol-10-inono-dioleate 1700 g
c) olcyl alcohol 7200 g
d) macrogol(l 760) hydrogenated ricine-olcic glyecride 14400 g
c) etbanol 4000 g
f) D-a-tocopherol 180 g
Composition a) was mixed with compositions c) and c) The whole mixture was then homogenized until the active ingredient was dissolved. Then, compositions b) and d) and any other auxiliary ingediens were added. After complete homogenizjiion the resulting solution was filtered through a hydrophobic membrane GVHP (Millipore) of porosity 0.2 - 5.0 um into a gasproof vessel under an inert atmosphere. When required for use the filtered solution was packed under an inert atmosphere into 50 ml bottles equipped with gas-proof stoppers.
Hard Gelatin Capsules of Size "Elongated 0"
The following ingredients were employed.
a) cyclosporin A 50.0 mg
b) polyglyceryl 10-monooleate 100.0 mg
c) polyglyceryl-3-monoolcate 150 mg
d) macrogol(2640) hydrogenated ricine-olcic glyceride 140,0 mg
e) ethanol 80.0 mg
The fill for hard gelatin capsules was prepared using working procedure identical to that of Example 1 and filled into hard gelatin capsules of st?,c "HO".
Cyclosporins Containing Solution for Oral Application
The following ingredients were employed.
a) cyclosporin 5.00 g
b) polyglyerol(10) oleale 9.50 g
c) polyglyceryl(3) oleate 15.50 g
d) POE(40) hydrogenated castor oil 11.00 g (macrogol(1760) hydrogenated ricine-oleic glycelide)
e) absolute cthanol 6.00 g
Components were mixed and homogenised until the active mgredicnt was dissolved, fallowed by filtration and packaging in 50 ml bottles as described in Example, 1, to provide nn oral solution with 100 mg/ml dosage
Soft Gelatin Capsules
The following ingredients were employed.
Composition of Fill:
a) cyclosporin 100,00 mg
b) polyglyccrol(10) oleates 210,00 mg
c) polyglycerol(3) oleates 350,00 mg
d) POE(40) bydrogenatcd castor oil 315,00 mg
e) ethanol 135,00 mg
The fill for soft gelatin capsules was prepared by a procedure similar to that of Example 1. The gelatin capsules were prepared by mixing purified water, glycerol, sorbitol and gelatin. Homogenisation of the solution, addition of the colouring agents and production of 100 mg dosage capsules in conventional manner.
Soft Gelatin Capsules of Size Oblong 20:
The following ingicdients were employed.
a) cyclosporin A 100.0 mg
b) polyglyccryl-6-monolaurato 120.0 mg
c) polyglyceryl-10-tetraoleate 410.0 mg
d) Gelucire 50/13 300.0 mg
c) ethanol 170.0 mg
The fill for soft gelatin capsules was prepared by a procedure ideutical to that of Example 1. The fill was filtered into a 20 1 stainless-steel vessel compped with a gasproof stopper. The fill was kept in insert atmosphere between filtration and encapsulation.
Encapsulation was carried out using a conventional procedure into standard type of gelatin mixture.
Exam pie. 6
Hard HPMC Capsuls (Shionod Qualicaps) of Size 3:
The following ingredients were employed.
a) cyclosporin A 25.0 mg
b) polyglyceryl-10-myristatc 50,0 mg
c) poIyglyccryl-10-peniastcarate 70.0 mg
d) macrogoi(2640) almond-oleic giyecride 75.0 mg
e) ethanol 30.0 mg
Composition a) was mixed with compositions c) and b). The mixture was heated to 40 - 50°C and homogenised until composition a) was dissolved. Then, composition d) was added. Finally, composition c) was added. The mixture was continuously mixed. The temperature of the mixture did not exceed 60°C during preparation. After complete dissolution and bomogemzaiion of all ingredients the product is filtered through a pre-filter and filled into hard cellulose capsules (eg supplied by Syntapharm) of size 3,
VisualisationOf Gel .Emulsion
Pre-concentrates in accordance with patent application WO98/05309 Example 1 and as disclosed in Example 1 of this invention were each diluted with water in ratio 3 : 20 (product: water) and dispersed on ;i laboratory shaker (IKA HS - B20) for 10 minutes at temperature 25 ± l0C. Pictures of the dispersed samples were taken by means of a COHU camera connected to an optical microscope. The pictures were evaluated by means of software LUCIA™ (Laboratory Imaging Inc). Photomicrography of a dispersion of the emulsion type in accordance with WO98/05.009 is shown in Figure 1. Photomlcrography
of a dispersion of the type of gel emulsion arising from a pre-conccntrate according to
Example 1 of the present invention is represented by Figure 2.
Verification of Bioavailability of Medicinal Products on Base of Pre-concemrate of Gel Emulsion.
The composition according to Example 1 was compared with the commercially available microernulsion product Neoral® oral solution. The composition according to Example 1 was given clinical code L363, Neoral® oral solution was tested under code L352.
Pharmacokinetics were compared after single-dose administration of 100 mg cyclosporine to five beagle dogs in a two-phase experiment. Males of 12 - 36 months of age and weight 9 -15 kg were fed using a standard pellet diet in quantity 300 g per day with water ad libitum. The product was administered after 18 hour fasting. Blood samples were collected from the antebrachial vein in intervals of 0,1, 2, 3,5, 8, 12 and 24 hour. The blood samples were stabilised using complexone and kept in a refrigerator until analysis was performed by non-specific radioimmunoassay. Comparison of mean bioavailabilities represented by mean values of cyclosporin A blood concentration is shown in Figure 3. It is clear from the comparison that bioavailability of products based on a gel emulsion prc-concentrate which created a dispersion of non-spherical particles of mean size 0.2 - 500 um after dilution with water, was comparable or higher than that of products forming microernulsion of average size of particles about 100 nm.
Fills for Soft Gelatin Capsules Containing Paclitayel:
The following ingredients were employed.
a) paclitaxel 78.75
b) palyglyceryl-l0-mono-dioleate 205.00 mg
c) polyglyceryl-3-monooleate 129.50 mg
c) oleyl alcohol 205,00 mg
d) macrogol(l 760) hydrogenated ricinc-oleic glyceridc 302.00 mg
e) ethanol 129.50 mg
Composition of Soft Gelatin Capsules
The following ingredients were employed.
a) paclitaxel 78.75 mg
a) [3'ketoMBmt]1-[Val]2-cyclosporin 52.50 mg
b) polyglyceryl-10-mono-dioleate 187.50 mg
c) oleyl alcohol 187.50 mg
c) polyglyceryl-3-monooleate 1 12.50 mg
d) macrogol(1760) hydrogenated ricinc-oleic glyceride 302.00 mg
e) ethanol 129.50 mg
FILL for Soft Gelatin Capsules Containing Nifedipine
The following ingredients were employed,
a) nifedipine 20.00 mg
b) polyglyceryl-10-mono-dioleate 205.00 mg
c) polyglyceryl-3-monooleate 129.50 mg
c) oleyl alcohol 205.00 mg
d) macrogol(1760) hydrogenated ricitte-oleic glyceridc 302.00 mg
e) cthanol 129.50 mg
Example 12 -17
Table 1 gives further examples of preparations illustrating the invention. The method of preparation was identical to that of Example 1.
Example No/Component A B C C D E
10 10.0 19.0 19.0 12.0 28.0 22.0
11 10.0 23.0 19.0 15.0 28.0 5.0
12 10.0 13.0 19.0 8.0 28.0 20.0
13 0.1 5.0 19.9 15.0 50.0 10,0
14 10.0 37.0 19.0 12.0 10.0 12.0
'15 10.0 1.0 19.0 30.0 28.0 12.0
16 0.1 21.1 — 34.7 31.1 13.0
17 30.0 10.0 15.0 6.0 22.0 17/0
The following raw materials were used in Examples 10 - 17:
A cyclosporin A
B polyglyceiyl-10-mono-dioleate (mixture of mono & dioleates)
C -oleyl alcohol
D -macrogol(l760) hydrogenated ricine-oleic glyceride
Assessment of Bioavailability and Size Distribution of Particles
A bioavailability study on 12 healthy volunteers was compared bioavailability of two different formulations in soft gelatine capsules each containing 100 mg of cyclosporins (Formulation A-GEM101 and Formulation B-GEM304). These gave a dispersion within the range 1-150 µm with Noreal® 100 mg capsules (Formulation C). Visual observation of the novel drug delivery system and precise evaluation of the particle size distributions were carried out.
Based on the visual observation the novel system was referred to as GEM (Gel based Emulsion).
Composition of Cyclosporin Containing Capsule Fills: Formulation A - GEM 101:
a) cyclosporin A 1020 g
b) polyglyceiyl-10 monoolcate: 2 010 g
c) polyglyecryl-3-monoolcate 3 380g
d) macrogol (1760) hydrogenated ricine-oleic glyceride 3 000 g
e) ethanol 1 330 g
Formulation B -GEM 304;
a) cyclosporin A. 1 020 g
b) polygIyceryl-10-inonooleate 2 630 g
c) polyglyccryl-3-monooleate 1580g
c) oleyl alcohol 1105g
d) macrogol (1760) hydrogenated ricine-oleic glyceride 2 450 g
e) ethanol 1300g
Particle Size Distributions
The particle size distributions of the novel GEM formulations were valuated using a Mastersizer Micro, version 2.18 (Malvern Instruments Ltd). Histograms of particle size distribution of Formulation A (GEM101) and Formulation B (304) showed that the effective diameter of Formulation A (resp, B) deduced from the histogram was 92.05 ,µm (36.23 µm).
Bioequivalence Study Design
An open-label, randomised 3-period crossover study was designed for 12 healthy Caucasian male volunteers, 18 - 45 years of age and with body weights ± 10% of their ideal weights. The test medications and the reference medication were administered in a randomised sequence as single oral doses in the fasted condition. Each dose contained 200 mg cyclosporin (two capsules of 100 mg). The duration of the washout period between treatments was at least 7 days. In each study period, 14 blood samples were to he taken before administration and 20,40,60 rnin, and 1.5, 2, 2,5, 3,4, 5, 6, 8, 12 and 24 hours after administration. Adverse events were monitored during the entire study.
Blood was taken from the anteeubital vein into EDTA plastic tubes (Sarstedt Monovettes). The samples were deep-frozen (-20 °C).
Cyclosporins whole blood concentrations were determined by means of a specific R1A. AUC(0-1)and Cmax were defined as the primary variables for the evaluation of bioavailability, AUC(0-1) Cmax, 11/2, were secondary variables.
From the concentration/time data of the patent compound, the pharmacokinetic parameters were determined for each individual data set by means of non-compartmental analysis using TopFit 2.0.
Cmax and tmax were to be taken directly from the observed concentration-time data. The elimination rate constant (kel) was calculated by log-linear least squares regression analys is of the terminal part of the plasma concentration-time curve. The area under the concentration-time curve (AUCO-t) was calculated up to the last measurable concentration-time point (t) by the linear trapezoidal rule. Extrapolation to infinity (AUCO-t, AUC0-8) was done by dividing the last observed concentration by elimination rate constant.
Visualisation of Different Formulations
Different shapes of particles can be obtained by dispersal of formulations disclosed in this application. The following compositions when diluted gave dispersions of polymorphous gel particles. The visualisation technique was as described in Example 5.
Formulations A and B from Example 18 were visualized. A discrepancy between the measured (Mastersizer Micro: example 18) and observed particle sizes was caused by use of different dispersal techniques arid by averaging of the measured values.. .Whilst the sample measured by Mastersizer Micro is continuously mixed by high speed mixer, a sample observed by an optical microscope was softly shaken by hand before putting, under optical microscope.
The following formulations were also observed and visualised:
a) cyclosporin A 9,5 %
b) polyglyceryl-10-monooleate 40.0%
c) polyglycerol-3-isostearate 10.0 %
d) macrogol (1760) hydrogenated ricine-olcic glyceride 28.0 %
e) ethanol 12.5%
a) cyclosporin A 10.0 %
b) pulyglycery-10-monolaumte 10.0 %
c) polyglyccrol-3-oteate 40-0 %
d) macrogol (1760) hydrogenated ricine-oleic glycer tile 28.0 %
c) ethanol 12.0%
a) cyclosporin A 10,0%
b) pol yglyceryl-10-monolaurate 27.0 %
c) polyglycerol-3-heptaoleate 31 .0 %
d) macrogol (1760) hydrogenated ricinc-oleic glyceride 20,0 %
e) ethanol 12i0 %
Assessment of viscosity of arising gel phages.
Compositions disclosed in this specification may exhibit an increase in viscosity in contact with water or aqueous solutions. This feature is particularly important for ensuring bioavailability of an active substance incorporated in such formulation. The viscosities of compositions from Examples 18 and 19 evaluated experimentally.
The rheological properties of chosen compositions were studied on a rotary viscometer Brookfield DV-111 under constant conditions (temperature = 30°C, spindle SC A - 27 ,ultrathermostat Brookfield TC 500, Rheocalc program, 1.3 version).
A standard dilution was used to compare the ability to form a gel phase. Bach sample was diluted 1 : 1 (by volume) with water. The viscosity of the diluted sample was evaluated using an up/down symmetric rheological program. All diluted samples were found to be non-Newtonian liquids. Undiluted samples had characteristics of standard (Newtonian) liquids. The samples were compared at the same Shear Rate, Findings arc summarised in the table below:
Rheologlcal parameters ters at the constant Shear Rate = 1.70 sec-1:
Formulation Shear Stress Viscosity
(dilution status) (N/m2) (mPa.s)
Formulation A (undiluted) 0.34 200
Formulation A(diluted) 3.91 2300
Formulation C (diluted) 6.97 4100
Formulation D (diluted) 17.2 10100
Formulation B (diluted) 1.53 900
It was conclude that viscosity of the novel systems could be increased by at least 5x when contacted with water or aqueous solution. Such viscosity increases may have positive impact on the adhesion of the nascent phase and consequently provide an improved bioavailability.
1. A pharmaceutical formulation for oral or topical administration including
a) 0.1 to 30.0% of one or more hydrophobic active ingredients;
b) 0.1 to 60.0% of one or more gelators selected from polyglycerol esters of fatty acids of formula (1)
wherein n is an integer from 4 to 13 and R is H or CO.R' wherein R' is C8-22 saturated, unsaturated or hydroxylated alkyl and wherein at least one group R is not hydrogen; having a HLB value not less than 10;
c) 0.1 to 60.0% of one or more gel-creating substances selected from polyglyceryl-3-esters of oleic acid, having an HLB value not greater than 9;
d) 1.0 to 60.0% of one or more co-gelator substances selected from triglyceride macrogol glycerol esters, partial glycerides or fatty acids or macrogol esters of fatty acids in which the average quantity of reacted ethylene oxide in the synthesis of these substances ranges between 50 to 150 mols and concurrently the ratio between component b) and d) is from 0.1:1 to 10:1;
wherein the above percentages are selected to total 100%;
and wherein upon dilution with water the formulation forms a dispersion of polymorphous gel particles having a dimension of 0.2 to 500µm.
2. A formulation as claimed in claim 1 further comprising 5.0%-30% of one or more C2 to C4 alcohols.
3. A formulation as claimed in 2 wherein the alcohol is ethanol.
4. A pharmaceutical formulation as claimed in claim 2 or 3, wherein the ratio of a:c and/or a:e is in the range 0.001:1 to 10:1.
5. A formulation as claimed in any preceding claim wherein R' is C16-18 saturated or unsaturated alkyl.
6. A formulation as claimed in claim 5, wherein R is selected from the group consisting of oleates, linoleate stearate, linolate, myristate, laurate and mixtures thereof.
7. A formulation as claimed in claim 6, where component b) is selected from: polyglyceryl-10-esters of fatty acids.
8. A formulation as claimed in any preceding claim, wherein component d) is macrogol glycol hydrogenated castor oil.
9. A formulation as claimed in any preceding claim, wherein component b) is selected from: polyglyceryl-10-easters of oleic acid; component c) is selected from polyglyceryl-3-esters of oleic acid; and component d) is macrogol (1760) glycerol hydrogenated castor oil.
10. A formulation as claimed in any of claims 2 to 9, wherein the component a) is selected from cyclosporin especially cyclosporin A, cyclosporin D or cyclosporine G, wherein the ratio of components a:c+e is 1.001:1 to 1.5:1.
11. A formulation as claimed in any preceding claim, wherein the component a) is selected from taxanes, especially docataxel or paclitaxel, wherein the ratio between components " a:c+e is 1.001:1 to 1.5:1.
12. A formulation as claimed in any preceding claim, wherein the component a) includes at least one substance selected from the group comprising cyclosporins and at least one substance selected from the group comprising taxanes.
13. A formulation as claimed in any preceding claim, further including excipients to modify the physical, chemical, microbial stability, organoleptic or physical processing properties of the formulation.
14. A pharmaceutical dosage form comprising a gelatin capsule containing a formulation as claimed in any preceding claim.
A method of increasing viscosity of pharmaceutical formulation for oral or topical administration comprises the steps of combining; a) an effective amount of one or more hydrophobic active ingredients; b) 5 to 50% of one or more compounds selected from polyglycerol esters of fatty acids with 6-15 glycerol units ; c) 5 to 50% of one or more compounds selected from polyglycerol esters of fatty acids and / or unsaturated fatty acids with 2-22 glycerol units; d) 5 to 50% of one or more compounds selected from triglyceride macrogol glycerol esters, partial glycerides or fatty acids and concurrently the ration between components b) and d) is from 0.1 : 1 to 10:1; and wherein upon dilution with water 1:1 by volume the viscosity of the formulation increases by at least 5 times in comparison to the undiluted composition.
|Indian Patent Application Number||IN/PCT/2002/00241/KOL|
|PG Journal Number||36/2007|
|Date of Filing||18-Feb-2002|
|Name of Patentee||IVAX PHARMACEUTICALS S.R.O.|
|Applicant Address||OPAVA-KOMAROV, OSTRAVSKA 29, INDICATION NO.305, POSTAL CODE:747 70, THE CZECH REPUBLIC.|
|PCT International Classification Number||A61K 47/14|
|PCT International Application Number||PCT/GB00/03161|
|PCT International Filing date||2000-08-17|