|Title of Invention||
“A PROCESS OF EXTRACTING PURE FOOD & PHARMA GRADEPOWDER LECITHIN FROM CRUDE LECITHIN DERIVED FROMVEGETABLE OIL SEEDS SUCH AS SOYABEANS
|Abstract||A process of extracting food & pharma grade powder lecithin from crude lecithin comprising the steps of - i. Subjecting the crude lecithin/vegetable oil seeds into a jet mixer containing a solvent wherein the solvent acts as washing of crude lecithin as well as utilized for breaking of the agglomerates of particles of the crude lecithin into small particles during stirring of jet mixer : ii. Subjecting the resultant output of step (a) above into an impeller mixer of desired stirring rate set before to achieve shear stress in the fluid of step (at; iii. Decanting the resultant fluid of step (b) after clear setting of materials : iv. Subjecting the decanted liquid to vacuum separation for removal of solvent; v. Subjecting the mass of step (d) for 1" & 2nd wash with suitable solvent; vi. Subjecting the mass of step (e) to compounding with anticaking agent, bleaching & preservative and stirring and further allowing for decantation to separate liquid & solid products ; vii. Putting the solid products in to a vacuum drier for removal of solvent & moisture; viii. Packing the dried powder in a dehumidifier room. ix. Further sending the liquid paste to a fractionating column to make liquid lecithin.|
|Full Text||THE PATENTS ACT, 1970
(SECTION 10) Rule 13
THE PROCESS OF EXTRACTING FOOD 6B PHARMA GRADE POWDER AND CRUDE LECITHIN DERIVED FROM VEGETABLE OIL SEEDS
SUCH AS SOYABEAN
SONIC BIOCHEM EXTRACTIONS LTD., A Limited Company under the Companies Act, 1956, having its office at 38, Patel Nagar, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India, PIN 452 001.
The following specification particularly describes and ascertains the nature of this invention and the manner in which it is to be performed :-
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This invention relates to the extraction of Food & Pharma Grade Powder and Liquid Lecithin from the vegetable oilseeds. More particularly the extraction of the Liquid Lecithin is from the crude Lecithin derived from the vegetable oilseeds such as soya beans and the like. Soybean is a natural crop having multifarious uses for the human beings. It had its origin in U.S.A. and was developed in INDIA around 1980 because of its slindyness and high oil yield and its uses in improving nitrogen contents of the land. The crop had very good growth and the major portion was developed in M.P. which accounts for 70% and the rest developed in Rajasthan and some parts of Vidharba in Maharashtra. Size of crop is about 125 lac tons per year which yields 25 lacs tons of oil.
Soybean is a natural boon to humanity and it contains oils, proteins, Phospholipids, vitamin E (tocopherols) and fatty acids. Till now conventionally in India the crop is being used only for refinery process are not being used for any value addition process although these contain valuable fractions.
Our R&D unit has developed the process and technology of extraction, fractionation and purification of food and pharma grade Lecithin.
Lecithin is a naturally occurring group of phospholipids that is found in nearly every living cell. Though the word lecithin is derived from the Greek lekothos, which means "yolk of an egg", the primary commercial source of lecithin cornes from the soybean. The food industry has long recognized lecithin for its use as a lipophilic emulsifier for use in products like margarine and chocolate. But lecithin can be more than that. Modified, or refined, lecithins have become an invaluable ingredient in today's processed food industry. The provide important surface active properties to a variety of foods such as instant drink mixes, infant formulae, meat sauces and gravies, dispersible oleoresins, pan releases, chewing gum and fat replacer systems. Lecithin is as natural as soybean oil. It is being actively researched for its relationship to good, long-term health. Today's health-conscious consumers are spending increasing amount of time reading lables, looking for healthy ingredients. Food processors are finding that lecithin is just such a lable-friendsly ingredient. And for those who have modified their eating habits to include fewer eggs, less meat and more fruits and vegetables, lecithin is a rich source of polyunsaturated fats and is cholesterol-free.
Lecithin is usually found associated with fats and is mainly obtained from oil seeds such as soyabeans and also from the yolk of eggs. Lecithin is a complex mixture of a variety of components and its composition varies with its origin; hence its physical and chemical properties also vary. The most interesting constituent of lecithin is the group of phospholipids which have in their molecule a lipophilic component and a phosphoric acid containing hydrophilic component. The constitutional formula of the main components and the proportion of the various phospholipids in some lecithin preparations are to be found in the following figure.
Different forms of phospholipids have different X which are given as under:
Name of Phospholipid Name of X-OH
Phosphatidic Acid Water
The fatty acid composition of lecithin is interesting for both physiological and technological reasons. The fatty acids of soya lecithin consist of up to 60% essential unsaturated acids 53-57% linoleic acid, 6-7% linolenic acid and only about 20-24% saturated acids (palmitic acid 17-21%, stearic acid 4-6%) Egg lecithin contain about 50% saturated and 50% unsaturated fatty acids of which oleic acid is 33-37% and linolenic acid 12-17%.
Unrefined lecithin with or without the associated lipids, is a typical member of the group of water - in oil emulsifiers which means that it can, in some instances, combined with other emulsifiers, hold together upto 50% water in a cream. Its properties as a dispersing agent recommend it as an additive for preventing settling in suspensions. The potential uses of lecithin are substantially increased through a controlled fractionation, since in this way it is possible to produce, for example alcohol-soluble compounds and emulsifiers of the oil-in water type. It is also possible to produce water-soluble preparations by combination with surfactants and certain surface-active substances.
As natural substances the phospholipids have optimum solubility in the neutral to slightly alkaline range of PH values. The phospholipids greatly influence the solubility of other compounds and through their combination with other substances, it is possible to change a partial water dispersibility into true water solubility.
Phospholipids influence the suppleness of the skin and the elasticity of the sin and hair. Though its ability to form complexes it combines with stearins, proteins and carbohydrates to form products with changed physical properties. It softens hair, gives it a shine, prevents too severe an extraction of lipids, gives hair more body and reduces its electrostatic charge. The transport of phospholipids from the blood to the skin and the synthesis of phospholipids in the skin itself have been observed. The phospholipids have a function in the control of the pH value of the skin, since enzyme systems specific to the skin and other effects lead to the release of free fatty acids. The cell membrane,
whose function is to control stimuli, maintain osmotic pressure and control the metabolism, consists of lipoprotien whose lipid content consists mainly of phospholipids. Phospholipids increase the respiration of the skin. Using a Warburg apparatus it was found on rat skin that there was a doubling of the uptake of oxygen after lecithin had been applied. On the skin, phospholipids form thin monomolecular or oligomolecular films which have emollient properties and protect the skin against defatting by detergents. The high content of essential fatty acids make the vegetable phospholipids useful as additives wherever skin diseases and eczemas are being treated with unsaturated fatty acids. Since it is only the fatty acids with cis double bonds that are required for this purpose, the fatty acids of the phospholipids are superior to those of a triglyceride or the free fatty acids since, when they are exposed to energy, such as sunlight, they are less rapidly sterically isomerised. The stabilization of the fatty acids that is achieved make the lecithins recommended additives for suntan preparations, fully dissolved in oils and sprays or as an emulsifier in emulsions. In dermatological investigations into an oil-in-water emulsion containing o.4% phospholipids, it was found that of 15 patients suffering from psoriasis who were treated, 10 showed considerable improvement & 4 some improvement.
Lecithin is used in cleansing preparations because of its emollient properties and because it stops the drying out when exposed to weather or detergents. In skin cleansers and soaps it protects the skin and to some extent stabilizes the lather and emulsion.
Creams for cleaning and protecting the skin, face lotions and skin lotions containing lecithin protect the epidermis, particularly against drying, maintain its natural PH value and produce a barrier against contamination and inflammation.
In combination with anionic and cationic surfactants the phospholipids have a lather action, give a major refatting of the skin considered very important by beauticians, produce skin suppleness and prevent too severe an extraction of the skin lipids. Bath oils with added lecithin are easy to rub into the skin. It was essentially because of its lecithin content that quite early on egg yoke was used to produce hair shampoos, since it not only promotes and stabilises emulsion formation and lathering by the lecithin present also generally forms complexes with stearings and protiens which obviously have a positive effect on hair. The skin protective effect even in a slightly alkaline range is particularly interesting for hair dyes and a cleanser, above all where the person working professionally with these preparations tends to suffer from skin allergies and irritation. In hair shampoos and particularly in permanent waving materials the phospholipids act with the proteins to strengthen the hair, it treats seborrheoic calp, reduces the electrostatic charge on hair, and protects the skin of the head against too severe extraction. The protective, softening and shine properties of lecithin recommend it for use in other products of this group such as hair lacquers, hair sprayers, hairdressings and permanent waving materials. Skin diseases are frequently linked with anomalies in lipid of lever metabolism and there is already a traditional field of use for lecithin in dietetics and
pharmacy. Lecithin and lecithin fractions are natural products whose use may be harmed by a lack of knowledge of their physical and chemical properties. There are available preparations, which are soluble in water, ethanol and isopropanol, yet, the solubility dispersibility and emulsification properties may be greatly influenced by other additives. In a positive manner this may be expressed in clear solubility in oil or water and in a negative manner by the formation of precipitates and cloudiness. In using lecithin there is a question of the uniformity of batches supplied at different times. Though these frequently quite large fluctuations in composition, with commercial products, properties are only comparable in a general way from batch to batch. The odour is also of interest. Undamaged pure lecithin has a characteristic odour which is easily disguised with perfume. Its bacteriological storage stability depends on the method of production and the water content but in cosmetics containing lecithin there is no need for extra preservative above the usual standard. Together with natural antioxidants such as tocopherol, lecithin forms a good antioxidant particularly because of its ability to complex heavy metals, and its free amino groups, which have a reducing action. Lecithin is naturally occurring group of phospholipids, which is obtained from soybean as "Gums". Food industry recognized its importance in long back as important ingredient. It is a natural nutrient, source of unsaturated fatty acids 86 is cholesterol free.
Lecithin Powder has got following composition of phospholipids and other compounds:
Phosphatidylcho) ine 20-22%
Phosphatide Acid 5-7%
Complexed sugars 8%
Minor Phospholipids 8-10%
Thus lecithin is a vital, multifunctional, active substance used in manufacturing a variety of food Products, Cosmetics, Pharmaceuticals and Animal Feeds.
Also, being an excellent natural nutrient, it has been actively researched around the world for its relationship to good health. In fact, in the light of its bio-chemical, nutritional value and therapeutic role, lecithin has been recommended to manufacturers in the preparation of various Food, Cosmetic, Pharmaceutical and Animal-Feed formulations.
On account of its emulsifying, wetting and dispersing properties, Lecithin is now an invaluable multipurpose ingredient in today's FOOD industry. It provides essential processing function in a range of food products such as instant drink mixes, non-dairy creams, whole-milk powders, meat sauces and gravies, margarine, chocolate, bakery goods, chewing gums, ice-creams, candy-based products, macaroni, noodles, salad oil, medical, dietary, instant and dehydrated Foods, animal feeds and edible fats and oils.
It is also used as a viscosity - reducing antispattering, conditioning and lipotropic agent and as a surface-active agent, emollient and antioxidant as well.
Lecithin's effectiveness and proof of performance has been vindicated by the Cosmetic industry to the full. Used as a surface-active agent, antioxidant and synergist, it also acts as an emulsifier, stabilizer, conditioning and softening agent. As a dispersing agent for pigments, it is also used for its adhesive and fixative effects and emollient properties in hair applications and treatments. Further more, lecithin is put to use as a refatting agent, as a perfume base, a skin-pH controller and moisture regulator, even in skin diseases and eczema due to high content of essential fatty acids.
Lecithin is also a vital ingredient for making skin creams and lotions, shampoos and hair-treatments, toilet, liquid and bar soaps. It has proved highly effective in top-quality creams salves, suntan creams, baby and childcare products as well.
Lecithin has been used as emulsifier, stabilizer and wetting agent in the pharmaceuticals industry; e.g., in antibiotic dispersions and in emulsions for intravenous alimentation. Lecithin is used especially as a dietary source of polyene phosphatidylcholine, required in lipid metabolism including enzymes systems involved in cholesterol metabolism, for the turnover of fats in the liver and as a precursor of brain acetylcholin neurotransmitter. Lecithin is also used in lever disorders, in cardiovascular diseases, in neurologic diseases associated with impaired acetylcholine functions, in skin disorders involving deranged lipid metabolism; e.g., psoriasis in telangiectasia, in nervous tension derived from protracted physical fatigue and in skin diseases and eczema due to high content of essential fatty acids. Also as a source of choline in treatment of Alzheimer's disease, demential and various extrapyramidal disorders and as a pulmonary surfactant in the treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome.
In animal Feeds , Lecithin is an emulsifier, wetting and dispersing agent, caloric source, anti-oxidant, surfactant, source of choline, organically combined phosphorous and inositol, and lipotropic agent.
It enhances antibody production. It is a milk replacer for calves and for veal production, in mineral feeds, poultry feeds, fish feeds, pet foods and feed for fur-bearing animals. Lecithin is also a dietary source of Phosphatidylcholine which is required in lipid metabolism including enzyme systems involved in cholesterol metabolism.
Thus according to his invention , the process of extracting pure lecithin powder from liquid lecithin comprising the steps of
i. subjecting the crude Lecithin for washing into Jet Mixer having a solvent with simultaneous stirring achieving reduction of particle size;
ii. then subjecting the resultant output at step (I) above into an impeller
mixer with simultaneous stirring to achieve shear stress in the fluid; iii. decanting the resultant product for a predetermined period for dear
settling ; iv. removing the solvent having the contaminated oils in the decanter by
vacuum separation; v. resultant mass obtained from step (iv) above being subjected to second
wash with another solvent to recover Phosphatidylcholine from the said
mass; vi. subjecting the resultant material to compounding with anticaking agent,
bleaching 8B preservative against and then allowing for decantation again to
separate liquid and solid products one side and the powder portion to a
vacuum drier; vii. lastly subjecting the liquid portion obtained from the decanter to
fractionating column where additive ingredients as base are being added to
make pure liquid Lecithin.
According to another feature of this invention in the process the jet mixer uses Gear pump to achieve reduction of particle size of the material under processing by breaking up the agglomerates of the particles with solvent.
According to yet another feature, in the process blades of the impeller mixer are maintained at higher peripheral velocity to achieve higher sheer rate and finally to have shear stress in the fluid.
According to yet another feature, in the process the decantation is carried for 30 minutes only, allowing for the settlement of the material.
The invention will now be described in greater details giving the various steps of process of the lecithin from the crude lecithin.
The crude lecithin from the oil refineries is fed into the Jet mixer that contains a solvent for washing by using gear pump. A proper ratio of the material and solvent is maintained. This jet mixer is specially designed in such a way that a reduction of particle size of this material can be achieved by breaking up the agglomerates of particles with solvent. In this case a major factor is the magnitude of fluid shear required. Blades at the bottom of the vessel scoop the batch upward at higher peripheral velocity or speed. The higher the peripheral velocity of the impeller, the higher is the shear rate and shear stress in fluid. The rotational speed to meet a desired particle splitting is a complex function of the impeller, baffle and vessel dimensions, particle size distribution, particle density, concentrations, liquid density and viscosity. The jet impeller is having four baffles to minimize the problem of vortex.
After two hours of stirring, the material is kept for 30 minutes for settlement. The upper portion of the solvent containing contaminated oils is removed by vacuum. After first wash, once again another solvent is added for second wash to recover the Lecithin powder from the mass, that is present in the jet mixer. During second wash, the material is compounded with anticaking agent, bleaching and preservative agents. After one hour stirring is stopped and the
solvent is removed from the mass (powder) with the help of of decanter. The decanter consists of solid wall bowl with a horizontal axis of rotation. The bowl is conical and cylindrical combination of the two. Centrifugal force causes the liquid surface to be essentially parallel to the axis of rotation. Feed is introduced through a concentric tube to an appropriate point in bowl. The solid and liquid particles separating here continuously and powder is sent to the vacuum dryer. After removing complete solvent and moisture, the powder is drawn from the vacuum dryer and sent to the packaging cell in dehumidifier room. The liquid from decanter is sent to fractionating column where some ingredients are added to make liquid lecithin. In this process chillers, solar systems are required to maintain proper operating conditions.
1. A process of extracting food & pharma grade powder lecithin from crude
lecithin comprising the steps of -
i. Subjecting the crude lecithin/vegetable oil seeds into a jet mixer containing a solvent wherein the solvent acts as washing of crude lecithin as well as utilized for breaking of the agglomerates of particles of the crude lecithin into small particles during stirring of jet mixer :
ii. Subjecting the resultant output of step (a) above into an impeller mixer of desired stirring rate set before to achieve shear stress in the fluid of step
iii. Decanting the resultant fluid of step (b) after clear setting of materials ;
iv. Subjecting the decanted liquid to vacuum separation for removal of solvent;
v. Subjecting the mass of step (d) for 1st & 2nd wash with suitable solvent;
vi. Subjecting the mass of step (e) to compounding with anticaking agent, bleaching & preservative and stirring and further allowing for decantation to separate liquid & solid products ;
vii. Putting the solid products in to a vacuum drier for removal of solvent & moisture;
viii. Packing the dried powder in a dehumidifier room.
ix. Further sending the liquid paste to a fractionating column to make liquid lecithin.
2. A process as claimed in step (a) of claim 1, wherein the jet mixer uses gear pump to achieve reduction in particle size of the material.
3. The process as claimed in step (b) of claim 1 wherein blades of the impeller mixer are maintained at higher peripheral velocity to achieve higher shear rate and to have desired shear stress fluid.
4. The process as claimed in step (b) of claim 1, wherein the jet impeller is provided with four baffles to minimize the problem of vertex.
5. A process of extracting powder lecithin from crude lecithin substantially as herein described in the complete specification.
Date : 25.10.06 Signature
|Indian Patent Application Number||1178/MUM/2004|
|PG Journal Number||30/2008|
|Date of Filing||03-Nov-2004|
|Name of Patentee||SONIC BIOCHEM EXTRACTIONS LTD|
|Applicant Address||38, PATEL NAGAR, INDORE, MADHYA PRADESH, PIN-452 001|
|PCT International Classification Number||A61K 31/43|
|PCT International Application Number||N/A|
|PCT International Filing date|