|Title of Invention||
|Abstract||A turbine comprising a turbine wheel having radial blades (11) and supported in a housing (1) for rotation about an axis (12), an annular inlet passageway (4) extending radially inwards towards the turbine wheel, the inlet passageway (4) being defined between first and second facing annular walls (5,6), an annular array of vanes (10) extending across the inlet passageway (4), each vane (10) having a trailing edge (10a) extending adjacent the turbine wheel blades (11) characterised in that the trailing edge (10a) of each vane (10) notch is provided with at least one notch (14) intermediate its ends.|
|Full Text||FORM 2
THE PATENTS ACT 1970
[39 OF 1970]
[See Section 10, rule 13]
" A TURBINE USEFULL IN INTER ALIA A TURBOCHARGER
FOR AN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE"
HOLSET ENGINEERING CO. LIMITED, of St. Andrews Road, Huddersfield,
HD1 6RA, England,
The following specification particularly describes the nature of the invention and the manner in which it is to be performed:-
The present invention relates to a turbine, and in particular to a turbine of a type suitable for use in a turbocharger for an internal combustion engine.
In known turbochargers, the turbine stage comprises a turbine chamber within which a turbine wheel is mounted, an annular inlet passageway arranged around the turbine chamber, an inlet arranged around the inlet passageway, and an outlet passageway extending from the turbine chamber. The passageways and chambers communicate such that pressurised exhaust gas admitted to the inlet chamber flows through the inlet passageway to the outlet passageway via the turbine chamber. A turbine wheel with radially extending blades is mounted in the turbine chamber and is rotated by the gas.
It is also well known to trim turbine performance by providing vanes, referred to as nozzle vanes, in the inlet passageway so as to deflect gas flowing through the inlet passageway towards the direction of rotation of the turbine wheel.
Turbines may be of a fixed or variable geometry type. Variable geometry turbines differ from fixed geometry turbines in that the size of the inlet passageway can be varied to optimise gas flow velocities over a range of mass flow rates so that the power output of the turbine can be varied to suit varying engine demands. In the most common type of variable geometry turbine each vane is pivotable about its own axis extending across the inlet passageway (typically aligned with a point approximately halfway along the length of the vane) and a vane actuating mechanism is provided which is linked to each of the vanes and is displaceable in a manner which causes each of the vanes to pivot in unison so that the trailing edge of each vane (i.e. that edge closest the turbine wheel) moves towards or away from an adjacent vane to vary the cross-sectional area available for the incoming gas as well as the angle of approach of the gas to the turbine wheel. Such arrangements are generally referred to as swing vane variable geometry turbines.
In another common type of variable geometry turbine, one wall of the inlet passageway is defined by a moveable wall member, generally referred to as a nozzle ring, the position of which relative to a facing wall of the inlet passageway is adjustable to control the width of the inlet passageway. For instance, as the volume of
gas flowing through the turbine decreases the inlet passageway width may also be decreased to maintain gas velocity and optimise turbine output. In some cases the nozzle vanes are fixed in position but extend through slots in a moveable nozzle ring and in others the vanes extend from a moveable nozzle ring into slots provided on the facing wall of the inlet passageway.
In variable geometry turbines with a movable nozzle ring, it is known to provide for "over-opening" of the nozzle ring by withdrawing it beyond the nominal full width of the inlet passageway to retract the vanes at least partially from the inlet passageway and thereby increase the maximum inlet passageway flow area and gas flow rate. In a modification of this system, it is also known to provide a cut-out at the end of the nozzle vanes remote from the nozzle ring. This reduces the length of the trailing edge of the nozzle ring and the height of the nozzle vane over a portion of its width (the height of the vane being the distance it extends from the nozzle ring). There is thus a region at the end of each vane which has a reduced width and which is brought into the inlet passageway as the nozzle ring is over-opened to increase the area of the inlet passageway.
Whatever the form of the turbine the nozzle vanes are stationary in the sense that they do not rotate with the turbine wheel. This leads to a well known problem caused by the interaction of the rotating wheel blades with a stationary pressure field resulting from the nozzle ring. That is, the periodic nature of this interaction can, at certain rotational speeds, correspond to the resonant frequency of the blades in one or more of their modes of vibration and set up oscillations in the blades. The vibrating strain imposed on the turbine blades can cause significant damage to the blades.
It is an object of the present invention to obviate or mitigate the above problem.
Accordingly, there is provided a turbine comprising a turbine wheel having radial blades and supported in a housing for rotation about an axis, an annular inlet passageway extending radially inwards towards the turbine wheel, the inlet passageway being defined between first and second facing annular walls, an annual array of vanes extending across the inlet passageway, each vane having a trailing edge extending adjacent the turbine wheel blades characterised in that the trailing edge of each vane notch is provided with at least one notch intermediate its ends.
According to the present invention there is provided a turbine comprising a turbine wheel having radial blades and supported in a housing for rotation about an axis, an annular inlet passageway extending radially inwards towards the turbine wheel, the inlet passageway being defined between first and second facing annular walls, an annular array of vanes extending across the inlet passageway, each vane having a trailing edge extending adjacent the turbine wheel blades, wherein the
trailing edge of each vane deviates from a straight line over at least a portion of its length defined between its ends.
The deviation, which may be provided in the form of a discontinuity in the trailing edge or a curvature in the trailing edge, disturbs the pressure fields generated by the vanes and in particular reduces the vibrations which can cause damage to the turbine blades.
Preferred features of the present invention will be appreciated from the following description.
Specific embodiments of the present invention will now be described, by way of example only, with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:
Figures la, lb and lc are schematic cross-sectional illustrations of part of a known variable geometry turbine.
Figures 2a, 2b and 2c illustrate modification of the turbine of Figures la to lc in accordance with one embodiment of the present invention.
Figure 3 is a schematic cross-section through part of a second known variable geometry turbine construction but modified in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention.
Figure 4 is a schematic cross-section through part of a fixed geometry turbine modified in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention.
Referring to Figure 1, this is a schematic section through part of a known variable geometry turbine which comprises a turbine housing 1 defining a volute or inlet chamber 2 to which gas from an internal combustion engine (not shown) is delivered. The gas flows from the inlet chamber 2 to an axial outlet passageway 3 via an annular inlet passageway 4 defined on one side by the radial face of a nozzle ring 5 and on the other side by an annular shroud plate 6 which covers the opening of an annular recess 7 defined in the opposing wall of the housing 1. The nozzle ring 5 is slidably mounted within an annular cavity 8 provided in the turbine housing 1, and is sealed with respect thereto by sealing rings 9. The nozzle ring 5 supports a circumferential array of nozzle vanes 10 which extend from the face of the nozzle ring 5 across the inlet passageway 4. Each vane 10 is cut away at its end remote from the nozzle ring 5 defining a trailing edge 10a and a reduced width portion 10b. Although
not visible in the figures, in section the vane will typically have an airfoil profile tapering towards the trailing edge 10a.
In use, gas flowing from the inlet chamber 2 to the outlet passageway 3 passes over a turbine wheel 11 which rotates about an axis 12 and thereby applies torque to a turbocharger shaft 13 which drives a compressor wheel (not shown). The speed of the turbine wheel 11 is dependant upon the velocity of the gas passing through the annular inlet passageway 4. The vanes 10 are angled to begin turning the gas in the direction of rotation of the turbine wheel. For a fixed rate of flow of gas, the gas velocity is a function of the width of the inlet passageway 4, which can be adjusted by controlling the axial position of the nozzle ring 5 (i.e. by moving it back and forth as indicated by the arrow 14). Movement of the nozzle ring 5 may be controlled by any suitable actuation means. For instance, the nozzle ring 5 may be mounted on axially extending pins (not shown) the position of which is controlled by a stirrup member (not shown) linked to a pneumatically operated actuator (not shown). Since the actuator system may take a variety of conventional forms no particular actuator mechanism is illustrated or described in detail.
In Figure la the nozzle ring is shown in a closed position at which the width of the inlet passageway 4 is reduced to a minimum. In this position it will be seen that the ends of the nozzle vanes 10 abut the housing 1 within the recess 7, to reduce width portion 10b of each vane being entirely received within the recess 7.
Figures lb and lc show the nozzle ring in fully open and "over open" positions respectively. In the position illustrated in Figure lb it will be seen that the nozzle ring 5 is withdrawn part way into the cavity 8 so that the face of the nozzle ring 5 is flush with the wall of the housing and the inlet passageway 4 is at its maximum width. To maximise efficiency the length of the trailing edge 10a of each vane is sufficient to extend across the inlet passageway 4 when the inlet passageway is fully open as illustrated in Figure 2a. Hence, in this position only the reduced width portion 10b of each vane is received within the recess 7.
The swallowing capacity of this particular design of variable geometry turbine can however be increased by further withdrawing the nozzle ring 5 into the cavity 8 so that the reduced width portion 10b of each vane is at least partially retracted from the recess 7 to lie within the inlet passageway 4. This reduces the total vane area
obstructing gas flow through the inlet passageway 4 allowing increased gas flow. The maximum flow position is that illustrated in Figure lc.
As mentioned in the introduction to this specification, a known problem encountered in vaned turbocharger designs is that pressure waves generated as tips of the turbine wheel blades 11 sweep past the trailing edge of the vanes 10 they interact with a stationary pressure field generated by the vanes 10 which can induce resonant vibrations in the blades 11 leading to stress damage and blade failure.
Figures 2a to 2c correspond to Figures la to lc but illustrate a modification of the blade profile in accordance with the present invention. Specifically, a discontinuity is provided in the otherwise straight profile of the trailing edge 10a of each vane in the form of a notch 14 located intermediate the ends of the trailing edge 10a. The notch 14 disturbs and broadens out the pressure field so that the turbine blades experience a less sharp pressure fluctuation as they pass through the wake and thus the excitation of the blades is reduced. This effectively reduces the strain damage to the turbine blades. Since any given mode of vibration can be encountered over a range of inlet passageway widths (since the excitation is dependent on several parameters such as mass flow rate, temperature and pressure of the gas in addition to the passage width) the notch 14 is positioned to provide influence over as greater range of running conditions as possible. Hence, it can be seen from seen from Figures 2a and 2b that the notch is positioned so as to be located in the inlet passageway 4 between the minimum and maximum inlet passageway widths. In the over open position illustrated in Figure 2c the notch is withdrawn into the cavity 8 within the housing 1 but at this stage the cutaway portion 10b of the each vane is exposed in the inlet passageway 4 which also has some effect on disturbing the pressure field and reducing strain on the turbine wheel blades 11.
Referring now to Figure 3, this shows a similar modification made to an otherwise conventional swing vane turbine comprising a turbine wheel 15 rotatable about an axis 16 within a housing defining an annular inlet passageway 17 between housing walls 18 and 19. As with the embodiment described above, exhaust gases flow into the inlet passageway 17 in a radially inwards direction to drive the turbine wheel. Mounted within the inlet passageway 17 is an annular array of vanes 20 each of which has a respective integral axle 21 that projects through the inlet walls 18 and
19. A crank 22 is provided at one end of the axle 20 which in use is coupled to an actuator (not shown) via a pin 23 to provide controlled rotation of the vanes 20 about the respective axles 21. With this type of variable geometry turbine the area of the inlet passageway 17 is varied by pivoting each vane 21 about its own axle 20 to bring the trailing edge 21a of each vane closer to its neighbour thus narrowing the flow passage 17. In accordance with the present invention a discontinuity is provided in the trailing edge 21a of each vane intermediate its ends to disturb the pressure field generated as the turbine wheel 15 rotates and thereby reduce vibration and damage to the turbine blades. As with the embodiment of the invention described above, the discontinuity in this embodiment is provided by way of a notch 24 formed in the trailing edge 2la.
Figure 4 illustrates application of the invention to a typical fixed geometry turbocharger provided with inlet vanes. Once again, the turbine comprises a turbine wheel 25 rotatable about an axis 26 within a housing defining an inlet passageway 27. Fixed vanes 28 extend across the inlet passageway 27 which in accordance with the present invention are provided with a notch 29 in their trailing edges 28a.
In each of the above embodiments of the invention the discontinuity provided to disturb the pressure fields takes the form of a notch provided in an otherwise continuous trailing edge. It is anticipated that the precise positioning, profile and size of the notch (i.e. its width and depth) can have a significant effect on the disruption of the wake and that the skilled person will be able to optimise these features of the notch to suit any particular application. Thus, the notch position, shape and size may vary significantly from that illustrated. Similarly, it may be advantageous to provide more than one discontinuity (e.g. more than one notch - possibly of different sizes/shapes in the trailing edge) in certain applications.
The same effect may also be achieved by profiling the trailing edge of each vane so as to deviate from a straight line for at least part of its length in ways other than by forming a notch in the edge. For instance, the trailing edge could be curved either in a circumferential direction relative to rotation of the turbine wheel (effectively by varying the camber of each vane along its length), or in a radial direction, or a combination of both. Such curvature could be provided along the whole length of the trailing edge of each vane or along only a portion or portions of
its length. Moreover, such curved edges could be combined with other discontinuities, such as notches as described above.
It will be appreciated that the invention can be applied to any turbine incorporating an array of vanes adjacent the area swept out by the turbine wheel blades and is not limited to the particular constructions and geometries described above. Other possible modifications of the invention will be readily apparent to the appropriately skilled person..
1. A turbine comprising a turbine wheel having radial blades (11) and supported in a housing (1) for rotation about an axis (12), an annular inlet passageway (4) extending radially inwards towards the turbine wheel, the inlet passageway (4) being defined between first and second facing annular walls (5,6), an annular array of vanes (10) extending across the inlet passageway (4), each vane (10) having a trailing edge (10a) extending adjacent the turbine wheel blades (11) characterised in that the trailing edge (10a) of each vane (10) notch is provided with at least one notch (14) intermediate its ends.
2. A turbine as claimed in claim 1, wherein portions of the trailing edge (10a) of each vane on either side of said notch (14) at least substantially lie on the same straight line.
3. A turbine as claimed in claim 2, wherein said line is substantially parallel to lines defined by tips of the turbine wheel blades (11).
4. The turbine as claimed in claim 1, wherein the trailing edge (10a) of each vane (10) is curved along at least a portion of its length in a circumferential and/or radial direction relative to the axis of rotation (12) of the turbine wheel.
5. A turbine as claimed in any preceding claim, comprising a plurality of notch (14) in the trailing edge of each vane (10).
6. A turbine as claimed in any preceding claim, wherein the geometry of the inlet passageway (4) is variable.
7. A turbine as claimed in claim 6, wherein the first wall is defined by a moveable wall member (5) which is moveable relative to the facing wall (6) to vary the width of the inlet passageway (4).
8. A turbine as claimed in claim 7, wherein the vanes (10) are supported by the moveable wall member (5) and said facing wall (6) is provided with a recess (7) or recesses to receive ends of the vanes (10).
9. A turbine as claimed in claim 7, wherein the moveable wall member is slotted to receive said vanes which extend from the facing wall.
10. A turbine as claimed in claim 6, wherein each vane (20) is rotatably mounted about a respective axis extending across the inlet passageway (17), each vane (20) being coupled to an actuator which is displaceable to cause the vane to pivot about said axis within the inlet passageway (17).
11. A turbine, substantially as herein before described, with reference to the accompanying drawings.
12. A turbocharger comprising a turbine according to any preceding claim.
Dated this 22nd day of . May, 2003.
|Indian Patent Application Number||522/MUM/2003|
|PG Journal Number||32/2007|
|Date of Filing||22-May-2003|
|Name of Patentee||See attached documents|
|Applicant Address||See attached documents|
|PCT International Classification Number||F01D 17/14|
|PCT International Application Number||N/A|
|PCT International Filing date|