|Title of Invention||
A PROCESS FOR THE SELECTIVE PRODUCTION OF PARA-XYLENE
|Abstract||There is provided a process for the selective production of para-xylene which comprises reacting toluene with methanol in the presence of a catalyst comprising a porous crystalline material having a Diffusion Parameter for 2,2 dimethyl butane of about 0.1-15 sec-1 when measured at a temperature of 120°C and a 2,2 dimethyl butane pressure of 60 torr (8kPa). The porous crystalline material is preferably a medium-pore zeolite, particularly ZSM-5, which has been severely steamed at a temperature of at least 950°C. The porous crystalline material is preferably combined with at least one oxide modifier, preferably including phosphorus, to control reduction of the micropore volume of the material during the steaming step.|
SELECTIVE PARA-XYLENE PRODUCTION BY TOLUENE METHYLATION
There is provided a process for the selective production of para-xylene by catalytic methylation of toluane In the presence of a solid catalyst. There is also provided a method for preparing a catalyst which is particularly suited for this
Of the xylene isomers, para-xylene is of particular value since it is useful in the manufacture of terephlhalic hcid which is an intemiediate in the manufacture of synthetic fibers. Equilibrium mixtures of xylene isomers either alone or in further admixture with ethylbenzene generally contain only about 24 wt.o/o para-xylene and separation of p-xylene from such mixtures has typically required superfrgct.onat.on and multistage refrigeration steps. Such processes have involved high operation costs and resulted in only limited yields. There is therefore a continuing need to provide processes which are highly selective for the production of p-xylene.
On- known metnodfor producing xylenes involves the alkylation of toluene With methanol over a solid acid catalyst. Thus the alkylation of toluene with methanol over cation-exchanged zeolite Y has been described by Yashima et al. .n the Journal of Catalysis 16, 273-280 (1970). These workers reported selective production o( para-xylene over the approximate temperature range of 200 to 275°C, with the maximum yield of para-xylene in the mixture of xylenes, i.e. about 50% of the xylene product mixture, being observed at 225°C. Higher temperatures were reported to result in an increase in the yield of meta-xylene and a decrease in production of para and ortho-xylenes.
U S Patent Nos. 3.S65,209 to Butter et al. and 4,067,920 to Kaeding teach processes for producing pars-xylene in low conversion and high selectivity by reaction of toluene with methanol over a zeolite having a Constraint Index of 1-12, such as ZSM-5 In Butter et al the zeolite is steamed at a temperature of 250 -1000°C for 0 5-100 hours to reduce the acid activity of the zeolite, as measured by its alpha activity, to less than 500 and preferably from in excess of zero to less than
U S Patent No. 4,001,346 to Chu relates to a process for the selective
production of para-xylene b, methylatipn of toluene in the presence of a catalyst comprising a crystalline aluninosilicat, zeolite which has undergone prior treatment to deposit a coating of between about 15 and about 75 wt.% of coke thereon.
U S Patent No 4 09.543 to Naag et al. relates to a process for the selective production of para-.xylene (up to about 77%) by disproportionation of toluene in the presence of a crystalline alum.nosilicate catalyst which has undergone precoking to deposit a coating of at least about 2 wt.% coke thereon.
U.S. Patent No. 4,380.685 to Chu relates to a process for para-selective aromatics alkylalion. including the methylation of toluene, over a zeolite, such as ZSM-5. which has a constraint index of 1-12 and which has been combined with phosphorus and a metal selected from iron and cobalt. Chu indicates that the catalyst can optionally be modified (without specifying the effect of the modification) by steaming at a temperature of 250 -1000°C. preferably 400 -700°C for 0.5-100 hours, preferably 1-24 hours.
U.S. Patent No. 4,554,394 to Forbus and Kaeding teach the use of phosphonjs-treated zeolite catalysts for enhancing para-selectivity in aromatics conversion processes. U.S. Patent No. 4.623,633 to Young relates to the use of thermal shock calcination of aluminosilicates to produce up to 66% para-xylene
The use of phosphorus modified ZSM-5 fluid bed catalysts as additive
catalysts to improve the olefin yield in fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is described in U.S. Patent No. 5,389,232 to Adewuyi et al. and in U.S. Patent No. 5,472,594 to
Tsang et al.
According to the invention, it has now been found that certain porous crystalline materials having specific and closely defined diffusion characteristics, such as can be obtained by unusually severe steaming of ZSM-5 containing an oxide modifier, exhibit improved selectivity for the alkylation of toluene with methanol such that the xylene product contains at least about 90% of the para-isomer at per-pass toluene conversions of at least about 15%.
In one aspect, the invention resides in a process for the selective production of para-xylene which comprises reacting toluene with methanol under alkylation conditions in the presence of a catalyst comprising a porous crystalline material having a Diffusion Parameter far2,2-dimethylbutane of about 0.1-15 sec"' when measured at a temperature of t20°C and a 2,2-dimethylbutane pressure of 60 ton-
Preferably, the porous crystalline material has a Diffusion Parameter of
about 0.5-10 sec-1
Preferably the catalyst contains at least one oxide modifier and more preferably at least one oxide modifier selected from oxides of elements of Groups IIA, IIIA. IIIB. IVA, VA, VB and VIA of the Periodic Table. Most preferably the oxide modifier is selected from oxides of boron, magnesium, calcium, lanthanum and most
Preferably, the cataiyst contains about 0.05 to about 20, more preferably about 0.1 to about 10 and most preferably about 0.1 to about 5. wt% of the oxide modifier based on elemental modifier.
introduction of oxide modifiers and prior to any steaming to adjust the diffusivity of the catalyst. In addition to the medium-pore size aluminosilicate zeolites, other medium pore acidic metallosilicates. such as silicoaluminophosphates (SAPOs), can be used in the process of the invention.
Particular examples of suitable medium pore zeolites include ZSM-5, ZSM-11, ZSM-12,7SM-22. ZSM-23, ZSM-35, ZSM-48. and MCM-22, with ZSM-5 and ZSM-11 being particularly preferred.
Zeolite ZSM-5 and the conventional preparation thereof are described in U.S. Patent No. 3,702.886, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference. Zeolita ZSM-11 and the conventional preparation thereof are described in U.S. Patent No. 3,709,979, the discjosure of which is incorporated herein by reference. Zeolite ZSM-12 and the ccnventional preparation thereof are described in U.S. Patent Mo. 3,832,449, the disclosure of v/hich is incorporated herein by reference. Zeolite ZSM-23 and the conventional preparation thereof are described in U.S. Patent No. 4,076,842. the disclosure of which is incorporeted herein by reference. Zeolite ZSM-35 and the conventional preparation thereof are described in U.S. Patent No. 4,016,245, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference. ZSM-48 and the conventional preparation thereof is taught by U.S. Patent No. 1,375,573, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference. MCM-22 is disclosed in U.S. Patent Nos. 5,304,698 to Husain; 5.250,277 to Kresge et al.; 5.095.167 to Christensen; and 5,043.503 to Del Rossi et al., the disclosure of which patents are incorporated by reference.
Preferably, the zeolite employed in the process of the invention is ZSM-5 having a slica to lumina molar ratio of at least 250, as measured prior to any treament of the zeolite to adjust its diffusivity.
The medium pore zeolites described above are preferred for the process of the invention since the size and shape of their pores favor the production of p-xylene over the other xylene isomers. However, conventional forms of these zeolites have Diffusion Parameter values in excess of the 0.1-15 sec-1 range required for the process of the invention. The required diffusivity for the present catalyst can be achieved by severely steaming the catalyst so as to effect a controlled reduction in the micropore volume of the catalyst to not less than 50%, and preferably 50-90%, of that of the unsteamed catalyst. Reduction in micropore volume is derived by measuring the n-hexane adsorption capacity of the catalyst, before and after steaming, at 90X and 75 torr n-hexane pressure.
Steaming of the porous crystalline material is effected at a temperature of at least about 950°C, preferably about 950 to about 1075°C, and most preferably
about 1000 to about 1050°C for about 10 minutes to about 10 hours, preferably from 30 minutes to 5 hours.
To effect the desired controlled reduction in diffusivity and micropore volume, it may be desirable to combine the porous crystalline material, prior to steaming, with at least one oxide modifier, preferably selected from oxides of the elements of Groups IIA. Ill/l, IIIB. IVA, VA, VB and VIA of the Periodic Table (lUPAC version). Most preferably, said at least one oxide modifier is selected from oxides of boron, magnesium, calcium, lanthanum and most preferably phosphorus. In some cases, it may be desirable to combine the porous crystalline material with more than one oxide modifier, for example a combination of phosphorus with calcium and/or magnesium, since in this vay it may be possible to reduce the steaming severity needed to achieve a target diffusivity value. The total amount of oxide modifier present in the catalyst, asmeasured on an elemental basis, may be between about 0.05 and about 20 wt.%, and preferably is between about 0.1 and about 10 wt.%, based on the weight of the final catalyst.
Where the mcdifier includes phosphonjs, incorporation of modifier in the catalyst of the invemion isconveniently achieved by the methods described in U.S. Patent Nos, 4,356,338, 5,110,776, 5,231.064 and 5,348,643, the entire disclosures of which are incorporated herein by reference. Treatment with phosphorus-containing compounds can readily be accomplished by contacting the porous crystalline material, either a'one or in combination with a binder or matrix material, with a solution of an apprcpriate phosphorus compound, followed by drying and calcining to convert the phosphorus to its oxide form. Contact with the phosphoms-containing compound is generally conducted at a temperature of about 25°C and abogt 125oC for a time between about 15 minutes and about 20 hours. The concentratbn of the phosphorus in the contact mixture may be between about 0.01
and about 30 wt.%.
After contactingwith the phosphorus-containing compound, the porous crystalline material ma/ be dried and calcined to convert the phosphorus to an oxide form. Calcination can be carried out in an inert atmosphere or in the presence of oxygen, for example, in air at a temperature of about 150 to 750, preferably about 30C to 500o'C.for at least 1 hour, preferably 3-5 hours.
Similar techniques known in the art can be used to incorporate other modifying oxides into the catalyst of the invention.
Representative phosphorus-containing compounds which may be used to incqrporate a phosphorus oxide modifier into the catalyst of the invention include derivatives of groups represented by PX3, RPX2, R2PX, R3P, X3PO, (XO)3P0, (X0)3P, R3P=O, R3P=S, RPO2. RPS2. RP(O)(OX)2. RP(S)(SX)2, R2P(O)OX,
dimethoxide. butylboric acid, dimethylboric anhydride, hexamethylborazine, phenyl boric acid, triethylborane, diborane and triphenyl boron.
Representative magnesium-containing compounds include magnesium acetate magnesium nitrate, magnesium benzoate. magnesium propionate. magnesium 2-elhylhaxoate. magnesium carbonate, magnesium formate, magnesium oxylate magnesium bromide, magnesium hydride, magnesium lactate. magnesium laurate. magnesium oleate. magnesium palmitate. magnesium salicylate, magnesium stearate and magnesium sulfide.
Representative calcium-containing compounds include calcium acetate, calcium acetylacetonate. calcium carbonate, calcium chloride, calcium methoxide, calcium naphthenate. calcium nitrate, calcium phosphate, calcium stearate and
Representative lanthanum-containing compounds include lanthanum
acetate, lanthanum acetylacetonate, lanthanum carbonate, lanthanum chloride, lantharium hydroxide, lanthanum nitrate, lanthanum phosphate and lanthanum
The porous crystalline material employed in the process of the invention may be combined with a variety ol binder or matrix materials resistant to the temperaturesand other conditions employed in the process. Such materials include active and inactive materials such as clays, silica and/or metal oxides such as alumina The latter may be either naturally occurring or in the form of gelatinous precipitatesor gels including mixtures of silica and metal oxides. Use of a material which is adive. tends to chaige the conversion and/or selectivity of the catalyst and hence is generally not prefered. Inactive materials suitably serve as diluents to control the amount of conversion in a given process so that products can be obtained economically and orderly without employing other means for controlling the rate of reaction. These materials may be incorporated into naturally occurring clays, e g bentonite and kaolin, to improve the crush strength of the catalyst under commercial operating conditions. Said materials, i.e.. clays, oxides, etc.. function as binders for the catalyst. It is desirable to provide a catalyst having good crush strength because in commercial use it is desirable to prevent the catalyst from breaking down into powder-like materials. These clay and/or oxide bninders have been employed normally only for the purpose of improving the crush strength of the
Naturally occurring clays which can be composited with the porous
crystalline material include the montmorillonite and kaolin family, which families
include the subbentonites, and the kaolins commonly known as Dixie, McNamee,
Georgia and Florida clays or others in which the main mineral constituent is halloysite. kaolinite, dickite. nacrite, or anauxite. Such clays can be used in the raw state as originally mined or initially subjected to calcination, acid treatment or
In addition to the foregoing materials, the porous crystalline material can be composited with a porous matrix material such as silica-alumina, silica-magnesia. sllica-zirconia. silica-thoria. silica-beryllia. silica-titania as well as ternary compositions such as silica-alumina-thoria, silica-alumina-zirconia silica-alumina-magnesia and silica-magnesia-zirconia.
The relative proportions of porous crystalline material and inorganic oxide matrix vary widely, with the content of the former ranging from about 1 to about 90% by weight and more usually, particularly when the composite is prepared in the fomi of beads, in ihe range of abot-t 2 to about 80 wt.% of the composite.
Preferably, the binder material comprises silica or a kaolin clay. Procedures for preparing silica-bound zeolites, such as ZSM-5, are described h U.S. Patent Nos. 4,582,815; 5,053,374; and 5.182,242. A particular procedure for binding ZSM-S with a silica binder involves an extrusion process.
The porous crystalline material may be combined with a binder in the form of a fluidized bed catalyst. This fluidized bed catalyst may comprise clay in the binder thereof, and may be formed by a spray-drying process to form catalyst particles having a particle size of 20-200 microns.
The catalyst of tha invention may optionally be precoked. The precoking step is preferably carried out by initially utilizing the uncoked catalyst in the toluene methylation reaction, during which coke is deposited on tne catalyst surface and thereafter controlled within a desired range, typically from about 1 to about 20 wt.% and preferably from about 1 to f bout 5 wt.%, by periodic regeneration by exposure to an oxygen-containing atmosphere at an elevated temperature.
One of the advantages of the catalyst described herein is its ease of regenerability. Thus, afterthe catalyst accumulates coke as it catalyzes the toluene methylation reaction, it can easily be regenerated by burning off a controlled amount of coke in a partial combustion atmosphere in a regenerator at temperatures in the range of fromabout 400 to about 700oc. The coke loading on the catalyst may thereby be reduced or substantially eliminated in the regenerator. If it is desired to maintain a gven degree of coke loading, the regeneration step may be controlled such that the regenerated catalyst returning to the toluene methylation reaction zone is coke-loaded at the desired Ievel.1
Th« present process may suitably be earned out in fixed, moving, or fluid catalyst beds. If it is desired to continuously control the extent of coke loading.
moving or fluid bed configurations are preferred. With moving or fluid bed configurations, the extent of coke loading can be controlled by varying the severity and/or the frequency of continuous oxidative regeneration in the catalyst
The process of the present invention is generally conducted at a temperature between about 50C and about 700°C. preferably between about 500 and about 600°C. a pressure of between about 1 atmospnere and 1000 psig (100 and 7000 kPa). a weight houriy space ve ocity of between about 0.5 and 1000, and a molar ratio of toluene to methanol (in the reactor charge) of at least about 0.2, e.g.. from about 0.2 to about 20. The process is preferably conducted in the presence of added hydrogen and/or added water such that the molar ratio of hydrogen and/or water to toluene + methanol in the feed is between about 0.01 and
Using the process of the invention, toluene can be alkylated with methanol
so as to produce para-xylene at a selectivity of at least about 90 wt% (based on
total C8 aromatic product) at a per-pass toluene conversion of at least about 15 wt%
and a trimethylbenzene production level less than 1 wt%.
The invention will now be more particularly described in the following Examples and the accompanying drawing, in which:
Figure 1 is a graph of Diffusion Parameter against para-xylene yield and para-xylene selectivity for the catalyst of Examples 10-14; and
Figures 2 and 3 are graphs of steaming temperature against n-hexane sorption capacity and Diffusion Parameter respectively for the catalysts of Example
In the Examples, micropore volume (n-hexane) measurements were made
on a computer controlled (Vista/Fortran) duPont 951 Thermalgravimetric analyzer. Isotherms were measured at 90°C and adsorption values taken at 75 torr n-hexane. The diffusion measurements were made on a TA Instruments 2950
Five samples of a composite catalyst containing 2.9 wt.% phosphoms and 10 wt% of a 450:1 SiO2/Al203 ZSM-5 in a binder comprising silica-alumina and clay were steamed for 0.75 hours, one atmosphere steam at 975°C (Example 1), 1000oC (Example 2). 1025'=C (Example 3), 1050°C (Example 4) and 1075°C (Example 5). The effect of steaming temperature on the n-hexane sorption capacity (Q) compared to that of the unsteamed catalyst (10.7 mg/g) and on the Diffusion Parameter (D/r2x 106) is summarized in Table 1 below.
Samples of tie five steamed catalysts were then used in toluene methylation tests on a feed comprising toluene, methanol and water such that toluene/MeOH molar ratio = 2 and H2O/HC molar ratio = 2 (where HC = toluene + methanol). The tests were conducted at 600-'C, 40 psig (380 kPa) and HC WHSV = 4 in the presence of hydrogen such that H2/HC molar ratio = 2. The results of Examples 2-5 are summarised in Table 2.
Comparative Example A
ZSM-5 crystals were prepared according to the method set forth in Example 33 of the Butter et al U.S. Patent No. 3.965.209. The ZSM-5 had a silica to alumina molar ratio of about 70 to 1 and was combried with an alumina binder in a ratio of 65 weight % 2;eolite and 35 weight % binder.
The bound, phosphorus-free catalyst had an n-hexane sorption capacity, Q, of 74.4 mg/g and a Diffusion Parameter for 2.2-dimethylbutane of 740 sec The catalyst was steamed at 950°C for 65 hours at atmospheric pressure (100 kPa) in 100% steam which reduced its n-hexane sorption capacity, Q, to 32.4mg/g, or 44% of the initial capacity, and its Diffusion Pa'ameter for 2,2-dimethylbutane to 1.72 sec-1 The steamed catalyst was then sub ected to catalytic testing in the same manner as Examples 1-9. In particular, experiments were conducted at 600°C. 40 psig (380 kPa). H2/HC=2. H2O/HC=2. V7HSV=4 with a toluene/MeOH=2 feed. The results are summanzed in fable 5. which provides data for an average analysis of three samples taken at 2853. 33.32 and 37.22 hours on stream.
The data in Table 5 show that in Comparative Example A, although the toluene conversion was 22.30%, the para-selectivity was only 87.37%, the methanol conversion was only 80.74% and the wt% xylenes based on the total aromatic product was only 93.2. Furthermore, the yield of the unwanted byproduct, trimethylbenzene, was 1.29 wt.%.
A series of fluid bed catalysts were produced containing about 4 v/t% phpsphorus and 25 wt.% of a 450:1 SiO2/Al203 ZSM-5 in a binder comprising kaolin clay. The catalysts were steamed for 0.75 hours at varying temperatures between 1025 and 106CX and were used to effect the alkylation of toluene with methanol in a bench-scale fluid bed reactor in the absence of cofed hydrogen. Details of the test and the results obtained are summarized in Table 6 and Figure 1 It will be seen that, as the Diffusion Parameter of the catalyst decreased with increasing steaming severity, the para-xylene selectivity increased generally linearty whereas the para-xylene yield increased to a maximum at a D/r2 value of 1-2 x 10-6 sec ^ before decreasing again
A series of three catalyses similar to those of Examples 10-14 (25 wt% ZSM-5 of 450:1 silica/alumina ratio, 75 wt% clay binder with additional 4 wt% phosphorus) was prepared by diping respectively with calcium (2000 ppmw added), magnesium (5000 ppmw added), and both calcium and magnesium (2000 ppmw Ca/5000 ppmw Mg added). Slurries were prepared by mixing together components in the following order: ZSM-5 slurry, phosphoric acid, calcium/magnesium (from nitrate salts), and day. Catalysts were spray dried and then air calcined at 540X for 3 hours. Three samples of each catalyst were then steamed for 45 minutes in 1 atmosphere steam at 950°C, 1000°C. and 1050°C. respectively. The n-hexane sorption capacity and the Diffusion Parameter of the catalysts are plotted against steaming temperafure in Figures 2 and 3. The presence of magnesium (and calcium to a lesser extent) decreases the steaming temperature required to produce a catalyst with a given Diffision Parameter. These data show that combinations of oxide modifiers can effectively be used to produce the desired catalyst.
A comparison was made between a catalyst similar to those used in Examples 10-14, in which the initial zeolite had a silica/alumina molar ratio of 450, and a catalyst produced from ZSM-5 having an initial silica/alumina molar ratio of 26. In each case the catalyst contained about 4 wt% phosphorus and 25 wt.% of ZSW-5 in a binder comprising kaolin clay and was steamed for 45 minutes at >1000'°C before being used to effect the alkylation of toluene with methanol in a fixed bed microunit. The results are summarized in Table 7 from which it will be seen that the 26:1 material had significantly lower activity (as indicated by the lower WHSV necessary to achieve comparable toluene conversion), lower para-selectivity and lower methaol utilization than the 450:1 material.
Two composite catalysts were produced containing 10wt% of 450.1 SiO2/Al2O3 ZSM-5 in a kaolin clay matrix which in one case also contained 2.8 wt% phosphorus (Example 17) and the other case did not contain phosphorus (Example 18). Each catalyst was steamed at 1010°C for 0.75 hour and was then used to effect the alkylation of toluene with methanol in a bench-scale fluid bed reactor containing 80 grams of catalyst. The properties of the steamed catalysts and the results of the toluene alkylation tests are shown in Table 8 below.
From Table 8 it will be seen that the Diffusion Parameter, D/r2 of the phosphorus-free catalyst of Example 18 remained high after steaming. In addition, it will be seen that the para-xylene selectivity and yield of the phosphorus containing catalyst of Example 17 were significantly higher than those of the phosphorus-free catalyst of Example 18.
The steamed catalysts of Examples 19 and 21 were then tested in the alkylation of toluene with methanol under the conditions and with the results listed in Table 10.
1. A process for the selective production of para-xylene which comprises reacting toluene with methanol under alkylation conditions in the presence of a catalyst comprising a porous crystalline material having a Diffusion Parameter for 2,2-dimethylbutane of about 0.1 to 15 sec-1 when measured at a temperature of 120°C and a 2,2,dimethylbutane pressure of 60 torr (8 kPa) wherein said porous crystalline material has undergone prior treatment with steam at a temperature of at least 950°C to adjust the Diffusion Parameter of said material to 0.1 to 15 sec-1
2. The process as claimed in claim 1, wherein said Diffusion Parameter of said porous crystalline material is 0,5 to 0.10 sec-1.
3. The process as claimed in claim 1, wherein said porous crystalline material has undergone prior treatment with steam at a temperature of at least 1000°C for between 10 minutes and 100 hours.
4. The process as claimed in claim 3, wherein the steaming reduces the pore volume of the catalyst to not less than 50% of that of the unsteamed catalyst.
5. The process as claimed in claim 1, wherein the catalyst contains at least one oxide modifier selected from oxides of elements of Groups IIA, IIIB, IVA, IVB, VA and VIA of the Periodic Table.
6. The process as claimed in claim 1, wherein the catalyst contains at least one oxide modifier selected from oxides of boron, magnesium, calcium, lanthanum and phosphorus.
7. The process as claimed in claim 1, wherein the catalyst contains 0.05 to 20 wt% of the oxide modifier based on the elemental modifier.
8. The process as claimed in claim 1, wherein the catalyst contains 0.1 to 10 wt% of the oxide modifier based on the elemental modifier.
9. The proces^ as claimed in claim 1, wherein the catalyst has an average particle size of 20 to 200 microns.
10. The process as claimed in claim 1, wherein the porous crystalline material is an aluminosilicate zeolite.
11. The process as claimed in claim 10, wherein said zeolite is ZSM-5 or ZSM-ll.
12. The process as claimed in claim 1, wherein said alkylation conditions has a temperature between 500 and 700°C, a pressure of between 1 atmosphere and 1000 psig (100 and 7000 kPa), a weight hourly space velocity between 0.5 and 1000 and a molar ratio of toluene to methanol of at least 0.2.
13. The process as claimed in claim 1, wherein said alkylation is conducted in the presence of added hydrogen and/or water such that the molar ratio of hydrogen and/or water to toluene and methanol in the feed is 0.01 to 10.
14. A method for producing a catalyst for use in the selective production of para-xylene by reacting toluene with methanol, said method comprising the steps of (a) starting with a porous crystalline material having a Diffusion Parameter for 2,2-dimethylbutane in excess of 15 sec-1 when measured at a temperature of 120°C and a 2,2-dimethylbutane pressure of 60 torr (8 kPa); and (b) contacting the material of step (a) with steam at a temperature of at least 950˚C to reduce the Diffusion Parameter thereof for 2,2-dimethylbutane to 0.1 to 15 sec-1 when measured at a temperature of 120°C and a 2,2-dimethylbutane pressure of 60 torr (8 kPa), the micropore volume of the steamed material being at least 50% of the unsteamed material.
15. The method as claimed in claim 14, wherein the porous crystalline material is combined with a source of at least one oxide modifier selected from oxides of elements of Groups IIA, IIIA, IIIB, IVA, VB and VIA of the Periodic Table prior to step (b).
16. The method as claimed in claim 14, wherein the porous crystalline material is combined with a source of at least one oxide modifier selected from oxides of boron, magnesium, calcium, lanthanum and phosphorus prior to step (b).
17. The method as claimed in claim 14, wherein the porous
crystalline material used in step (a) is an aluminosilicate zeolite having a
Constraint index of about 1 to 12.
18. The method as claimed in claim 17, wherein the zeolite has a
silica to alumina molar ratio of at least 250.
19. The method as claimed in claim 14, wherein step (b) is
conducted at a temperature of at least 1000˚C for 10 minutes to 100 hours.
20. A process for the selective production of para-xylene
substantially as herein described with reference to the accompanying
|Indian Patent Application Number||2186/MAS/1997|
|PG Journal Number||26/2007|
|Date of Filing||01-Oct-1997|
|Name of Patentee||MOBIL OIL CORPORATION|
|Applicant Address||3225 GALLOW ROAD,FAIRFAX, VIRGINIA 22037.|
|PCT International Classification Number||C07C1/20|
|PCT International Application Number||N/A|
|PCT International Filing date|