Title of Invention  "DEVICE AND METHOD FOR GENERATING QUATERNARY COMPLEX QUASI ORTHOGONAL CODE IN CDMA COMMUNICATION SYSYTEM" 

Abstract  A method for generating a quaternary complex quasiorthogonal code in a CDMA communication system is disclosed. The method comprises generating an Msequence and then generating specific sequences having a good full correlation property with the Msequence; generating a column permutation function for converting the Msequence to a Walsh code; generating candidate masks by column shifting the specific sequences with the column permutation function; generating quasiorthogonal code representatives by operating the candidate masks and the Walsh codes having the same length as that of the candidate masks; and selecting a quasiorthogonal code satisfying a partial correlation with the Walsh codes, out of the generated quasiorthogonal code representatives, and selecting a mask related to generation of the selected quasiorthogonal code. 
Full Text  DEVICE AND METHOD FOR GENERATING QUATERNARY COMPLEX QUASIORTHOGONAL CODE AND SPREADING TRANSMISSION SIGNAL USING QUASIORTHOGONAL CODE IN CDMA COMMUNICATION SYSTEM BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention The present invention relates generally to a coding device and method for a mobile communication system, and in particular, to a device and method for generating quaternary complex quasiorthogonal codes and then using those generated quaternary complex quasiorthogonal codes to generate spreading channel signals. 2. Description of the Related Art In general, a CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) mobile communication system performs channel separation using orthogonal codes in order to increase channel capacity. For example, a forward link specified by the IS95/IS95A standard separates the channels using the orthogonal codes. This channel separation method can also be applied to a reverse link through time alignment. FIG. 1 illustrates the IS95/IS95A forward link in which channels are separated by orthogonal codes. Referring to FIG. 1, channels are separated by associated orthogonal codes Wi (where i=0 to 63), respectively, which typically are Walsh codes. The IS95/IS95A forward link uses convolutionai codes having a code rate R=l/2; employs BPSK (Binary Phase Shift Keying) modulation, and has a 1A bandwidth of 1.2288MHz. Accordingly, the number of available channels is 1.2288MHz/(9.6KHz*2)64. That is, the IS95/IS95A forward link can separate channels using 64 Walsh codes. As stated above, the number of available orthogonal codes depends on the employed modulation method and the minimum data rate. However, in future CDMA mobile communication systems, channels assigned to the users will increase in number in order to improve performance. To this end, future CDMA mobile communication systems will need to increase the channel capacity of traffic channels, pilot channels and control channels. However, there are a limited number of available orthogonal codes the improved system can use. Therefore, any increase in channel capacity will be restricted due to the limitation on the number of available orthogonal codes. To solve this problem, it is desirable to generate quasiorthogonal codes, which will have the least interference with the orthogonal codes and a variable data rate. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION It is, therefore, an object of the present invention to provide a device and method for generating quasiorthogonal code masks for generating quaternary complex quasiorthogonal codes which have the least interference with orthogonal codes being used in a CDMA communication system. It is another object of the present invention to provide a device and method for generating quasiorthogonal codes for channel separation using quasiorthogonal code masks and Walsh orthogonal codes in a QPSK (Quaternary Phase Shift 2 Keying) CDMA communication system. It is a further object of the present invention to provide a device and method for spreading channel signals using quaternary complex quasiorthogonal codes in a CDMA communication system. It is still another object of the present invention to provide a device and method for generating quasiorthogonal code masks for generating quaternary complex quasiorthogonal codes, selecting one of the quasiorthogonal code masks to generate quasiorthogonal codes and spreading channel signals to be transmitted using the generated quasiorthogonal codes. In one embodiment of the present invention, a method for generating a quaternary complex quasiorthogonal code in a CDMA communication system comprises generating an Msequertce and specific sequences having same length and a good full correlation property with the Msequence; generating candidate masks by column permutation, in the same manner as a column permutation that converts the Msequence to a Walsh code, of specific sequences; generating quasiorthogonal code representatives by operating the candidate masks and Walsh codes having the same length as that of the candidate masks; and selecting a quasiorthogonal code satisfying a partial correlation with the Walsh codes, out of the generated quasiorthogonal code representatives, and selecting a mask related to generation of the selected quasiorthogonal code. In another embodiment of the present invention, a channel transmission device for a CDMA communication system comprises a complex signal converter for converting a channel coded signal to a complex signal; a generator including a 3 quaternary complex quasiorthogonal code mask, for generating a quaternary complex quasiorthogonal code by operating the quaternary complex quasiorthogonal code mask to a Walsh code; a channel spreader for generating a channel spread signal by operating the converted complex signal and the quaternary complex quasiorthogonal code; and a PN masking part for generating a PN masked channel signal by operating the channel spread complex signal and complex PN sequence. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE/ACCOMPANYING DRAWINGS The above and other objects, features and advantages of the present invention will become more apparent from the following detailed description when taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings in which: FIG. 1 is a diagram illustrating channel separation using orthogonal codes in a CDMA communication system; FIG. 2 is a diagram illustrating a partial correlation between a Walsh code and a quasiorthogonal code; FIG. 3 is a diagram illustrating a matrix Q for quasiorthogonal code candidate masks used in generating quaternary complex quasiorthogonal codes according to an embodiment of the present invention; FIG. 4 is a diagram illustrating a matrix Q' for quaternary complex quasiorthogonal code candidates generated by operating candidate masks for quasiorthogonal codes and Walsh orthogonal codes according to an embodiment of the present invention; FIG. 5 is a flow diagram illustrating a procedure for generating quaternary complex quasiorthogonal code masks according to an embodiment of the present invention; FIG. 6 is a diagram illustrating channel separation using Walsh orthogonal 4 codes and quasiorthogonal codes in a CDMA communication system according to an embodiment of the present invention; FIG. 7 is a block diagram illustrating a channel spreading device which uses quaternary complex quasiorthogonal codes, in a CDMA communication system according to an embodiment of the present invention; FIG. 8 is a block diagram illustrating a spreading and PN masking part (719) of FIG. 7 for quaternary complex quasiorthogonal codes; FIG. 9 is a diagram comparing the complex expression for quaternary numbers and the complex expression for signal transmission in a system on a complex plane; FIG. 10 is a block diagram illustrating a quaternary complex quasiorthogonal code generator (715) of FIG. 7, which generates quasiorthogonalcode masks in quaternary numbers as shown in Table 9; and FIG. 11 is a block diagram illustrating a quaternary complex quasiorthogonal code generator (715) of FIG. 7, which generates quasiorthogonal code masks in I and Q values as shown in Table 43. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT A preferred embodiment of the present invention will be described herein below with reference to the accompanying drawings. In the following description, wellknown functions or constructions are not described in detail since they would obscure the invention in unnecessary detail. The invention aims to generate quasiorthogonal codes which have the least interference with orthogonal codes, in order to increase the channel capacity or maximize a capacity of a single cell in a CDMA communication system by 5 increasing the channelization code. Quasiorthogonal sequences can be generated from Kasami sequences, Gold sequences and Kerdock sequences. These sequences have a common feature that a sequence can be expressed as the sum of sequences having a good (or high) correlation property between PN sequences and the sequences. For this reason,'the above sequences can be used in generating quasiorthogonal codes. Walsh codes can be obtained by performing column permutation for PN sequences. If a sequence comprised of the sum of a certain sequence and PN sequences undergoes column permutation in the same manner as said column permutation for the specific sequences, the column permuted sequence will maintain a good correlation property with the Walsh code. That is, since the two sequences having the good correlation property have equally undergone column permutation, the good correlation property can remain unchanged in terms of the whole length of the sequences. A sequence remaining after exclusion of the PN sequence from the two sequences can be given as a candidate mask family for a quasiorthogonal code, which will be described hereafter. When this sequence is given as a candidate mask family for a quasiorthogonal code, the full correlation property is basically satisfied. Below, a detailed description will be made of a procedure for generating complex quasiorthogonal codes using the Kerdock sequences (i.e., Family A sequences) out of the sequences having the above feature. Complex quasiorthogonal codes should satisfy the following conditions expressed by Equations (1) to (3). 6 In addition, it is preferable that the complex orthogonal codes partially satisfy the following condition expressed by Equation (4). In Equations (1) to (4), Wk(t) denotes the kth sequence of a Walsh orthogonal code having length N (l orthogonal code should not exceed ?min(N). Condition 3 expressed by Equation (3) means that a partial correlation should not exceed 0min , when the partial correlation is taken for respective parts obtained by dividing, by M, the length N of a kth line of an orthogonal code and an ith line of a quasiorthogonal code, where ] Here, Condition 1 of Equation (1) represents the full correlation property of a Walsh orthogonal code and a quaternary complex quasiorthogonal code, and means the minimum correlation value that a quaternary complex quasiorthogonal code can have theoretically as an absolute correlation value with a Walsh orthogonal code, wherein s where N is a length of the code. Condition 2 of Equation (2) represents a condition for a full correlation property between quaternary complex quasiorthogonal codes. Condition 3 of Equation (3) represents a partial correlation property between a Walsh orthogonal code and a quaternary complex quasiorthogonal code. Condition" 4 of Equation (4) represents a partial correlation property between quaternary complex quasiorthogonal codes. FIG. 2 is a diagram for explaining a method for taking a partial correlation between a quaternary complex quasiorthogonal code and a Walsh orthogonal code, wherein M=2a (0 correlation property at this moment. For example, when N=256, ?min values are shown in Table 1. Condition 4 represents a partial correlation between quasiorthogonal codes, and correlation property values ?min are identical to those in 8 The results of Table 1 can be generally extended. For example, when N=1024 and M=2, the partial correlation between an orthogonal code and a quasiorthogonal code is calculated at a half of the full length, say, length 512, and a partial correlation bound of this is equal to a full correlation bound ?mim(N) of length 512, Table 2 shows the relationship between the length N and the minimum correlation value ?mim(N). Table 2 9 Sequences satisfying Conditions 1 and 2 include Kasami sequences, Gold sequences and Kerdock sequences. That is, all of these sequence families have a good cross correlation property. A full correlation property for the above sequence families is well known. However, research has not been conducted to provide a sequence satisfying Condition 3. However, it is very important for the IS95B standard or the future CDMA system supporting the variable data rate to satisfy Condition 3. The full correlation of the above sequences is 2m+l for the length L=22m+1 (i.e., the length of oddnumbered exponent of 2). Therefore, the sequences do not have the best correlation for the length L=22m+1. Here, L denotes the length of the sequences. The present invention provides a device and method for generating sequences expressed in quaternary complex numbers so that the correlation becomes for the length L=22m+1 and the above conditions are satisfied. In an exemplary embodiment of the present invention, the Kerdock sequences are used to generate quaternary complex quasiorthogonal codes. 10 FIG. 5 illustrates a procedure for generating quaternary complex quasiorthogonal codes for use in a spreading device for a CDMA communication system according to an embodiment of the present invention. Here, a Walsh code can be induced from a Msequence. That is, a Walsh orthogonal code is generated by column permuting the Msequence. Referring to FIG. 5, in step 511, an Msequence and a specific sequence having a good full correlation property are generated to generate a quasiorthogonal code. In an embodiment of the present invention, Family A, which represents a Kerdock code set generated from Kerdock codes expressed in quaternary numbers, is used to generate complex sequences for the above sequences. At this point, there exists homomorphism, , corresponding to a complex number set for multiplication in a quaternary number set for modulo4 (hereinafter, referred to as "mod 4" for short) operation. That is, quaternary numbers {0,1,2,3} can be expressed as {1,j, 1,j} in complex numbers. Therefore, after generation of quaternary sequences, the generated quaternary sequences will undergo conversion in accordance with the homomorphism. By using a trace function, a binary Msequence S(t) can be expressed as: S(t) =tr(Acf)....(5) where is a primitive polynomial of GF(2m), and a is primitive element which is a root o(x). (See "Introduction to Finite Fields and Their Applications", Rudolf Lidl & Harald Niederreiter) Functional values of the above binary formula are 0 and 1, and it is possible 11 to generate a quaternary sequence using the trace function in the similar manner. First, in step 511 of FIG. 5, a binary primitive polynomial f(x) of the mth degree is selected to obtain a quasiorthogonal code sequence of length 2m. A characteristic polynomial g(x) having quaternary coefficients is generated by applying Hensel Lift to the binary primitive polynomial f(x), as shown in Equation (6). (See "Finite Rings with Identity", B.R. MacDonald) It is possible to construct a Galois ring GR(4m) using the characteristic polynomial g(x).. Further, when ß is a root of g(x), ß=a mod 2. Given an element a of a Galois ring GR(4m) can be expressed as a=y+2d, %d el. A trace function, which is a linear function, in the Galois ring is expressed as (See "Sequences with Low Correlation", T. Helleseth and P.V. Kumar) To obtain a quaternary sequence S(t) of length N=2m1, the above formula is expressed as the following Equation (7), which is a general formula of the Kerdock code, by using ß and trace expression. where is equal to a value obtained by doubling a binary Msequence and then applying a mod 4 operation to it. In the embodiment, this sequence portion will 12 be referred to as a quaternary Msequence. A quaternary Msequence can be calculated by substituting 0 or for and Inserting 0 in a first column. Therefore, in step 511, sequences of length where and quaternary Msequences , which are doubled binary Msequences, are generated for every This is a process of generating Kerdock codes. Thereafter, in step 513, the column permutation function that convert the Msequence into a Walsh code is generated. The column permutation function for the Msequence is applied to a specific sequence to generate a mask for generating a quasiorthogonal code. That is, in step 513, when mod 2 and , and a column permutation function is defined as follows (Definition of column permutation for of Kerdock code): It is possible to generate (2ml) quaternary complex sequences of length 2m, which simultaneously satisfy Conditions 1 and 2, by inserting "0" at the head of the sequence of length 2ml in Equation (7) and substituting for Therefore, when y = ß1, a sequence for T(yß') will be expressed as Si(t) in Equation (8) below. Here, Si (t) becomes a function of a specific sequence and can be expressed as: 13 where Thereafter, in step 515, a matrix Q shown in FIG. 3 is generated using sequences of the completed set K of Equation (8). The matrix has rows and 2m columns. That is, in step 515, by using (2ml) sequences generated in step 511, a definition is given ("0" is inserted at the head of the sequence Sift)): Here, it is possible to obtain (2ml) sequences of length 2m, satisfying Conditions 1 and 2, by applying column permutation to the matrix Q in the same manner as used in column permuting the Msequence to obtain the Walsh code. Therefore, in step 517, Sift) of Equation (7) undergoes column permutation in the same method as used in step 513. That is, in step 517, the sequences generated in step 515 are column permuted according to the column permutation function calculated in step 513. Then, in step 517, new sequences are generated as follows (Column Permutation Process): 14 The sequence ei (t) generated in step 517 will be referred to as a quasiorthogonal candidate mask sequence. Then, in step 519, another quasiorthogonal candidate mask sequence satisfying Conditions 1 and 2 is generated by modulo 4 of the above quasiorthogonal candidate mask sequence and a Walsh code as shown in FIG. 4. That is, in step 519, quaternary quasiorthogonal code representatives are generated using the sequences generated in step 517, as follows (Quasiorthogonal Code Candidate Generation): It is assumed herein that means a Walsh sequence which is an orthogonal code, and is represented in symbols of "0" and "1". In the above formula, et{t) is of Equation (7), which is column permuted in accordance with the column permutation formula defined in step 513. Therefore, it is possible to obtain quasiorthogonal code candidates by performing step 519. Thereafter, in step 521, the sequences satisfying Condition 3 are selected from the quasiorthogonal code candidates and then, a used candidate mask for the quasiorthogonal code is selected as a mask for the quasiorthogonal code. That is, after the process of step 519, those satisfying Condition 3 are selected from the finally calculated quasiorthogonal code representatives Si(t) . For 15 selection of the sequences, all partial correlation for every Walsh code and length is calculated to determine whether Condition 3 is satisfied, and the candidate mask is selected as a mask when a partial correlation is satisfied for every Walsh code. For example, when the length of an orthogonal code is 128, a partial correlation between orthogonal codes and a quasiorthogonal code candidate is first calculated for every Walsh code having a partial length of 64 and then it is examined whether the partial correlation exceeds 8. If the partial correlation does not exceed 8, the used candidate mask used to generate the quasiorthogonal code candidate is not selected as a mask. Otherwise, if the condition is satisfied, a partial correlation is calculated again for a partial length 32 with respect to this quasiorthogonal code candidate. Thereafter, it is determined whether the partial correlation exceeds Av2 . If the partial correlation does not exceed 4v2 , the candidate mask is not selected as a mask. Otherwise, if the condition is satisfied, the same operation is performed for the next length. After performing the above operation for the partial lengths of up to 4, the candidate masks which have passed the above conditions are selected as quasiorthogonal code candidate masks satisfying Conditions 1 to 3. An example description for more comprehension will be now made regarding the procedure for generating quaternary quasiorthogonal code candidate sequences with reference to FIG. 5, by way of example. Herein, it is assumed that is used for the binary primitive polynomial When the binary primitive polynomial undergoes Hensel Lift in accordance with Equation (6), a characteristic polynomial having quaternary coefficients becomes l)(mod 4) . This can be rewritten as 16 7 In addition, when y = ß1 = ß, T{yß')= T(ßl) will be determined as follows. Then, T(5)=T(1) for t=0, T(p2)=T(l) for t=l, T(ß3)T(l) for t=2, T(ß4)T(l) for t=3, T(ß5)=T(l) for t=4, T(p6)=T(l) for t5 and T(ß7)=T(1) for t=6, which is equivalent to shifting once the sequences determined when ? = ß° = 1. In this manner, a quaternary sequence 3221211 and its shifted sequence can be determined. A sequence shifted i times will be referred to as Si. In addition, it is possible to determine 1001011 as an associated Msequence. In step 513, it is possible to calculate a column permutation function for converting an Msequence to a Walsh code in accordance with a formula using the Msequence 1001011. Here, the formula a(t) is equivalent to grouping the Msequence by three (3) consecutive terms and converting them to decimal numbers. That is, the first three terms are 100, which can converted to decimal number 4; the second three terms are 001, which can be converted to decimal number 1; the third three terms are 010, which can be converted to decimal number 2; the fourth three terms are 101, which can be converted to decimal number 5; the fifth three terms are 011, which can be converted to decimal number 3; the sixth three terms are 111, which can be converted to decimal number 7; and the seventh three terms are 110, which can be converted to decimal number 6. The following results can be obtained using the formula 18 In step 515, "0" is added at the head of every quaternary sequence determined in step 511. With regard to the expression of di (t) in accordance with Si(t), when i=0, do(t) is the quaternary sequence So(t), at the head of which "0" is 19 20 added, determined in step 511 for ? = ß° = 1 . That is, when S0(0)=3, S0(l)=2, S0(2)=2, S0(3)=l, S0(4)=2, S0(5)=l and S0(6)l as determined in step 511, do(t) is determined such that do(O) representing the foremost bit is always "0" and do(l) to do(7) are as shown in Table 3B. In step 517, the column shifted quaternary sequences are column permutated with the above column permutation functions. First, the column shifted quaternary sequences are shown in Table 3D. In Table 3D, C; denotes an tth column. For example, c1 denotes a first column and c2 a second column. If column permuted with the column permutation functions determined in step 513, the quaternary sequences of Table 3D become as 21 follows. Therefore, sequences of length 8 shown in Table 3F are generated by adding "0" at the head of every sequence determined by column permuting the column shifted quaternary sequences with the column permutation functions. The generated sequences become quasiorthogonal code mask candidates of length 8. 22 23 The quaternary quasiorthogonal code sequences generated in the process of FIG. 5 are determined by the mask function e1(t) . That is, when the quasiorthogonal codes generated from mask function ei/(t) satisfies Conditions 1 to 3, it is possible to obtain (2ml) quaternary complex orthogonal codes. Therefore, if there exist k masks satisfying Conditions 1 to 3, it is possible to obtain kx2m quaternary complex quasiorthogonal codes. Table 4 shows the number of the quaternary complex quasiorthogonal codes according to the Msequences. Table 5 shows the mask function eft) for the quaternary complex quasiorthogonal codes determined for m=6. Tables 6 to 8 show the mask function eft) for the quaternary complex quasiorthogonal codes determined for m7, m=8 and m9, respectively. Here, 0 denotes 1, 1 denotes j, 2 denotes 1 and 3 denotes j. As described above, when the system runs short of orthogonal codes, it is possible to increase the channel capacity by using the quasiorthogonal codes generated according to the present invention. In this case, there occurs minimum interference with the Walsh orthogonal codes, providing a fixed correlation value. For example, for N=64, the correlation value between a quasiorthogonal code and a Walsh orthogonal code is either 8 or 8. In addition, for N=256, a partial correlation value is also either 8 or 8 (during the length N=64), This means that it is possible to accurately predict the interference, providing excellent characteristics. Therefore, as can be appreciated from the foregoing process, to obtain a complex quasiorthogonal code of length 2m, a characteristic polynomial f(X) of the mth degree is initially selected. Thus, to obtain a complex quasiorthogonal code of length 128=27, a characteristic polynomial of the 7th degree is first selected. At this point, to obtain a sequence of length 128, the characteristic polynomial should be a primitive polynomial (c,f. "Shift Register Sequence", Solomon W. Golomb), and there are 18 primitive polynomials of the 7th degree in total. Tables 9 to 26 show mask functions for every complex quasiorthogonal sequences of length 128 satisfying Conditions 1 to 3 for the 18 primitive polynomials of the 7th degree, respectively. Further, in the Tables 9 to 26, the results for Condition 4 are shown together. Here, "el+e2" refers to the partial correlation between a first mask and a second mask, and the numerals on the right side of it represent the lengths of the portions where the first and second masks satisfy Condition 4. For example, in Table 9, "el+e2 : 64, 128" means that a partial correlation between quasiorthogonal codes generated respectively with el and e2 masks satisfies Condition 4 only for the partial lengths 64 and 128. Similarly, "el+e3 : 32, 64, 128" means that a partial correlation between quasiorthogonal codes generated respectively with el and G3 25 26 masks satisfies Condition 4 only for the partial lengths 32, 64 and 128. Therefore, it can be understood that the partial correlation property becomes better, as the numerals and the kinds of the partial lengths satisfying the partial correlation condition increase more in number. Further, it can be noted from following tables that the partial correlation between the quasiorthogonal sequences depends on the characteristic polynomials. Therefore, it is preferable to use the characteristic polynomials which generate the quasiorthogonal codes having a good partial correlation between the quasiorthogonal sequences. 27 28 29 30 31 In using mask functions for complex quasiorthogonal sequences of length 128 as shown in Tables 9 to 26, it is also possible to use ei+Wk as complex quasiorthogonal sequence masks instead of the above mask functions ei. The complex quasiorthogonal sequences generated by ei+Wk are equal to the complex quasiorthogonal sequences generated by ei;. Therefore, the number of the masks which can be actually used, is 128xl28xl28xl28=1284 for the respective characteristic polynomials. 32 In this method, there exist 16 primitive polynomials of the 8th degree; Tables 27 to 42 show mask functions for every complex quasiorthogonal sequences of length 256 satisfying the three correlation conditions for the 16 primitive polynomials of the 8th degree, respectively. Further, in using mask functions for complex quasiorthogonal sequences of length 256, it is also possible to use ei+Wk as complex quasiorthogonal sequence masks instead of the above mask functions ei. At this point, the complex quasiorthogonal sequences generated by ei,+Wk are equal to the complex quasiorthogonal sequences generated by ei;. Therefore, the number of the masks which can be actually used, is 256x256x256x256=2564 for the respective characteristic polynomials. 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 The mask values in Tables 27 to 42 are expressed in quaternary number. Further, the quaternary mask values in Tables 27 to 42 can be expressed as complex numbers, wherein "0" represents "1", "1" represents "j", "2" represents "1" and "3" represents "j". Therefore, it is noted that the complex numbers can be expressed with 1, j, 1 and j. Actually, however, in an IS95 CDMA communication system, complex numbers are expressed with FIG. 9 compares the complex expression for quaternary numbers on the left and the complex expression for signal transmission in an actual system on the right on a complex plane. To convert mask values into the complex expressions used in the actual system, "1+j" is transmitted for "0", "l+j" for "1", "1j" for "2" and "1j" for 3. This relationship is equivalent to rotating the quaternary complex expression of 1, j, 1 and j by 45°, and can be obtained by multiplying the quaternary complex expression by "1+j". By using the above relationship, the quaternary mask values can be converted to the complex expression of "1+j", "1+1", "1j" and "1j", and they can be divided into a real part I and an imaginary part Q. Tables 43 and 44 express the mask values of Tables 38 and 23 in hexadecimal values divided into the real part I and the imaginary part Q. In particular, Tables 38 and 23 show the good partial correlation property of Condition 40 4 for the full lengths 256 and 128, respectively. The above quaternary complex quasiorthogonal codes can be used for every link in the CDMA system using the Walsh orthogonal codes. When the 41 quaternary complex quasiorthogonal codes are used together with the orthogonal codes, the following three options can be considered. Option 1 In a system using the Walsh orthogonal codes and providing a service at a variable data rate, it is possible to freely use the quaternary complex quasiorthogonal codes without restriction on the length. Further, it is possible to use every quaternary complex quasiorthogonal code sequences at full length. Option 2 One of a Walsh orthogonal code group and a quaternary complex quasiorthogonal code group is selected to make two orthogonal sets, and the two groups both can provide a service at the variable data rate. Option 3 It is possible to use the Walsh orthogonal code group and every quaternary complex quasiorthogonal code group as one group to allow every code group to support the variable data rate. In this case, there may occur a random code characteristic between the quaternary complex quasiorthogonal code groups. It is preferable to use the quaternary complex quasiorthogonal codes according to the types of application, taking into consideration the above three options. In general, when only the Walsh codes are used, the modulating side exchanges a predetermined orthogonal code number with the demodulating side. Therefore, when the orthogonal codes and the quaternary complex quasiorthogonal codes are used, it is necessary to exchange a predetermined orthogonal code number and a group number (i.e., an index i of the Q' matrix eft) shown in FIG. 4). In this 42 case, the orthogonal code group is defined as a Group 0, and subsequently, the group numbers are redefined up to 2ml. A description will now be made regarding a method for applying the quaternary complex quasiorthogonal code group to a system supporting the variable data rate, like the orthogonal code group. An element of the quaternary complex quasiorthogonal code group are comprised of a Walsh number corresponding to the orthogonal code number and a quaternary complex quasiorthogonal code mask corresponding to the group number. The group number indicates which ei(t) is selected in FIG. 4. To service the variable data rate using the quaternary complex quasiorthogonal code group, a previously allocated orthogonal code number is used as a Walsh orthogonal code number and then, allocated ei(t) is added to it every length N. At this point, when signals are expressed with "0" and "1", addition is performed; when signals are expressed with "1" and "1", multiplication is performed. FIG. 6 illustrates a channel separation method using the Walsh orthogonal codes and the quaternary complex quasiorthogonal codes in an IS95/IS95A forward link to extend the channel capacity according to an embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 6 shows an exemplary embodiment where the channels which can be assigned with the Walsh orthogonal codes are used in the same method as in the IS95 system, and the quaternary complex quasiorthogonal codes are used to expand the channel capacity. However, it is also possible to assign the Walsh orthogonal codes to common channels and assign the remaining Walsh orthogonal codes and the quaternary complex quasiorthogonal codes to traffic channels. Here, the traffic channels refer to dedicated channels. In addition, although FIG. 6 shows an embodiment which uses the quaternary complex quasiorthogonal codes of length 43 256, the quaternary complex quasiorthogonal codes can be varied in length, when necessary. In FIG. 6, Walsh orthogonal codes are represented by Wi (where i=0,l,, 63), and respective channels are separated by previously allocated unique orthogonal codes. Further, in FIG. 6, quaternary complex quasiorthogonal codes are represented by Sj (where j=0,l,, 255), and are assigned to the traffic channels. As illustrated, an IS95/IS95A forward link can separate 64 channels using the Walsh orthogonal codes, and 256 channels, which is 4 times the number of the Walsh orthogonal codes, using the quaternary complex quasiorthogonal codes. Therefore, it is possible to expand the channels five times by using the Walsh orthogonal codes and the quaternary complex quasiorthogonal codes. FIG. 7 illustrates a transmitter for a mobile communication system, including a spreader which uses Walsh orthogonal code and quaternary complex quasiorthogonal codes according to an embodiment of the present invention. Unlike the IS95 system, the mobile communication system of FIG. 7 includes a channel transmitter which uses the quaternary complex quasiorthogonal codes for channel spreading codes. Referring to FIG. 7, a complex signal converter 710 converts an input data bit stream to complex signals and divides the complex signal into a real signal Xi and an imaginary signal Xq. First and second signal converters (or signal mappers) 711 and 713 convert the complex data bit streams Xi and Xq output from the complex signal converter 710, respectively. More specifically, the first signal converter 711 converts the input bit stream Xi by converting a bit "0" to "+1" and a bit "1" to "1", and demultiplexes the converted signal to an orthogonal code 44 spreading and PN masking part 719. The second signal converter 713 converts the input bit stream Xq by converting a bit "0" to "+1" and a bit "1" to "1", and demultiplexes the converted signal to the orthogonal code spreading and PN masking part 719. A quaternary complex quasiorthogonal code generator 715 receives complex quasiorthogonal code indexes and Walsh orthogonal code indexes, and generates complex quasiorthogonal codes QOFi and QOFq. The quaternary complex quasiorthogonal code generator 715 stores therein quasiorthogonal code masks generated and selected in the process of FIG. 5, and selects a mask according to the quaternary complex quasiorthogonal code index. Further, the quaternary complex quasiorthogonal code generator 715 includes a Walsh orthogonal code generator to generate a Walsh orthogonal code according to the Walsh orthogonal code index. Thereafter, the quaternary complex quasiorthogonal code generator 715 uses the selected quasiorthogonal code mask and the Walsh orthogonal code to generate complex quasiorthogonal codes QOFi and QOFq. A PN code generator 717 generates a real PN code PNi and an imaginary PN code PNq, and applies the generated PN codes to the orthogonal code spreading and PN masking part 719. The orthogonal code spreading and PN masking part 719 spreads the signals output from the first and second signal converters 711 and 713 by multiplying the output signals by the quaternary complex quasiorthogonal codes QOFi and QOFq and then PNmasks the spread signals by multiplying the spread signals by the real and imaginary PN codes PNi and PNq, thereby generating output signals Yi and Yq. A baseband filter 721 basebandfilters the spread signals Yi and Yq output from the orthogonal code spreading and PN masking part 719. A frequency shifter 723 converts the signals output from the baseband filter 721 to an 45 RF (Radio Frequency) signal. FIG. 8 illustrates the channel spreading and PN masking part 719 of FIG. 7, which performs channel spreading using the quaternary complex quasiorthogonal codes QOFi and QOFq and performs PN masking using the complex PN codes PNi and PNq. Referring to FIG. 8, a spreader 811 multiplies the complex channel signals Xi and Xq by the quaternary complex quasiorthogonal codes QOFi and QOFq, respectively, to output channel spread signals di and dq. The signals, di+dq, output from the spreader 811, which were spread with the quaternary complex quasiorthogonal codes, become (Xi+jXq)*(QOFi+jQOFq). A complex multiplier 813 multiplies the spread signals di and dq output from the spreader 811 by the PN codes PNi and PNq to output PN masked signals Yi and Yq. The output signals of the complex multiplier 813 become Yi+jYq=(di+jdq)*(PNi+jPNq). The complex multiplier 813 performs complex PN masking. FIGs. 10 and 11 illustrate the quaternary complex quasiorthogonal code generator 715 of FIG. 7 according to different embodiments of the present invention. The quaternary complex quasiorthogonal code generator 715 can be differently constructed according to the structure of the mask. That is, the quaternary complex quasiorthogonal code generator 715 can be differently constructed according to whether the output mask will be generated with quaternary values, with I and Q components, or with sign and direction components. FIG. 10 illustrates the quaternary complex quasiorthogonal code generator 715, which generates quasiorthogonal code masks in quaternary values as shown in Table 9, and FIG. 11 illustrates a quaternary complex quasiorthogonal code generator 715, which 46 generates quasiorthogonal code masks in I and Q values as shown in Table 43. Referring to FIG. 10, upon receipt of a quaternary quasiorthogonal code index, a quaternary quasiorthogonal mask generator 1000 generates a quaternary quasiorthogonal mask according to the quaternary quasiorthogonal code index. Also, the quaternary quasiorthogonal mask generator 1000 may directly generate a mask using the quaternary quasiorthogonal code index. Further, the quaternary quasiorthogonal mask generator 1000 can store quaternary quasiorthogonal code masks, and selectively outputs a mask corresponding to the received quaternary quasiorthogonal code index. Upon receipt of a Walsh orthogonal code index, a Walsh orthogonal code generator 1010 generates a Walsh orthogonal code corresponding to the Walsh orthogonal code index. At this point, the Walsh orthogonal code is output with the values of "0" and "1". A multiplier 1031 then multiplies the Walsh orthogonal code output from the Walsh orthogonal code generator 1010 by "2" to express the Walsh orthogonal code in a quaternary number, and provides its output to an adder 1033. The adder 1033 then adds the quaternary quasiorthogonal code mask output from the quaternary quasiorthogonal mask generator 1000 and the Walsh orthogonal code output from the multiplier 1031. At ¦this moment, the adder 1033 performs quaternary addition for the two input signals, since the two input signals are both quaternary signals. A signal converter 1020 receiving the signals output from the adder 1033 converts the quaternary quasiorthogonal code to a quaternary complex quasiorthogonal code, by converting "0" to , "2" to and "3" to "1j" and then outputting a real part as a I signal QOFi and an imaginary part as a Q signal QOFq. Referring to FIG. 11, upon receipt of a quaternary quasiorthogonal code index, an Icomponent mask generator 1100 and a Qcomponent mask generator 47 1105 generate I and Qcomponent masks, expressed with "0" and "1", corresponding to the quaternary quasiorthogonal code index, respectively. The Iand Qcomponent masks output from the mask generators 1100 and 1105 are applied to adders 1133 and 1135, respectively. Further, upon receipt of a Walsh orthogonal code index, a Walsh orthogonal code generator 1110 generates a Walsh orthogonal code corresponding to the Walsh orthogonal code index and provides the generated Walsh orthogonal code to the adders 1133 and 1135. As a result, the adders 1133 adds the Icomponent mask and the Walsh orthogonal code to generate an Icomponent quasiorthogonal code, and the adder 1135 adds the Qcomponent mask and the Walsh orthogonal code to generate a Qcomponent quasiorthogonal code. As described above, the embodiment of the present invention can generate quaternary complex quasiorthogonal codes giving the least interference with the orthogonal codes. In addition, it is possible to expand the channel capacity without restriction on the number of the orthogonal codes by using the quaternary complex quasiorthogonal codes in a mobile communication system which performs channel separation using the orthogonal codes. While the invention has been shown and described with reference to a certain preferred embodiment thereof, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that various changes in form and details may be made therein without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as defined by the appended claims. 48 CLAIMS: 1. A method for generating a quaternary complex quasiorthogonal code in a code division multiple access (CDMA) communication system, comprising the steps of: generating an Msequence and generating specific sequences having a square root of the full length as a full correlation bound with the Msequence; generating candidate masks by column permutation, in the same manner as a column permutation that converts the Msequence to a Walsh code, of specific sequences; generating quasiorthogonal code representatives by operating the candidate masks and Walsh codes having the same length as that of the candidate masks; and selecting a quasiorthogonal code satisfying a partial correlation with the Walsh codes, out of the generated quasiorthogonal code representatives, and selecting a mask related to generation of the selected quasiorthogonal code, 2. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the specific sequence is a Kerdock sequence for generating a quaternary complex quasiorthogonal code mask, 3. The method as claimed in claim 2, wherein the candidate mask generating step comprises the steps of: shifting the specific sequence to generate at least two shifted specific sequences; and column permuting the specific sequence and the shifted specific sequences with the column permutation function to generate the candidate masks. 49 4. The method as claimed in claim 3, wherein the specific sequence shifting step comprises the step of: inserting 0 at the head of the two shifted specific sequences. 5. The method as claimed in claim 2, wherein the column permutation function is , where 6. The method as claimed in claim 2, wherein in the mask selecting step, a mask for generating the quaternary quasiorthogonal code candidate is selected as the quaternary complex quasiorthogonal code mask, when a correlation value for respective parts of a length N/M, where N is the whole length of the quaternary complex quasiorthogonal code candidate and the Walsh orthogonal code, does not exceed 7. The method as claimed in claim 6, wherein the mask selecting step further comprises the step of: storing said mask for generating the quaternary quasiorthogonal code candidate as the quaternary complex quasiorthogonal code mask, when a correlation value for respective parts of a length N/M, where N is the whole length of a quaternary complex quasiorthogonal code candidate generated with the mask selected and another quaternary complex quasiorthogonal code, does not exceed 8. A channel transmission device for a CDMA communication system, comprising: 50 a complex signal converter for converting a channel coded signal to a complex signal; a generator including a quaternary complex quasiorthogonal code mask, for generating a quaternary complex quasiorthogonal code by processing the quaternary complex quasiorthogonal code mask to a Walsh code; a channel spreader for generating a channel spread signal by processing the converted complex signal and the quaternary complex quasiorthogonal code; and a PN (Pseudo Noise) masking part for generating a PN masked channel signal by processing the channel spread complex signal and complex PN sequences. 9. The channel transmission device as claimed in claim 8, wherein the quaternary quasiorthogonal code mask is featured in that a full correlation value between a Walsh code and the quaternary complex quasiorthogonal code having the whole length N does not exceed , a full correlation value between the quaternary complex quasiorthogonal code and another quaternary complex quasiorthogonal code does not exceed , a correlation value for respective parts of a length N/M, where N is the whole length of the quaternary complex quasiorthogonal code candidate and the Walsh orthogonal code, does not exceed , where M=2m, m=0,l,...,log2N; and a correlation value for respective parts of a length N/M, where N is the whole length of said quaternary complex quasiorthogonal code and another quaternary complex quasiorthogonal code, does not exceed 10. The channel transmission device as claimed in claim 8, wherein the quaternary complex quasiorthogonal code generator comprises: a first generator for generating a quaternary quasiorthogonal code mask 51 corresponding to a designated code index; a second generator for generating a Walsh code corresponding to a designated Walsh orthogonal code index; an adder for generating a quaternary quasiorthogonal code by adding the quaternary quasiorthogonal code mask and a Walsh orthogonal code; and a signal converter for converting the quaternary quasiorthogonal code to a quaternary complex quasiorthogonal code. 11. The channel transmission device as claimed in claim 10, wherein the second generator comprises an operator for converting the Walsh orthogonal code to a quaternary number. 12. The channel transmission device as claimed in claim 10, wherein the first generator comprises a quaternary quasiorthogonal code mask table given as follows: 13. The channel transmission device as claimed in claim 12, wherein the first generator outputs a quaternary quasiorthogonal code mask corresponding to the code index in a mask table given as follows: 52 14. The channel transmission device as claimed in claim 12 or 13, wherein the signal converter converts a signal "0" to "1+j", a signal "1" to "1+j", a signal "2" to "1j" and a signal "3" to "1j". 15. The channel transmission device as claimed in claim 8, wherein the quaternary complex quasiorthogonal code generator comprises: a first generator for generating I and Qcomponent quaternary quasiorthogonal code masks corresponding to a designated code index; a second generator for generating a Walsh orthogonal code corresponding to a designated Walsh orthogonal code index; an adder for generating I and Qcomponent quaternary quasiorthogonal codes by operating the I and Qcomponent quaternary quasiorthogonal code masks and the Walsh orthogonal code; and a signal converter for converting the I and Qcomponent quaternary quasiorthogonal codes to I and Qcomponent quaternary complex quasiorthogonal codes. 16. The channel transmission device as claimed in claim 15, wherein the first generator comprises I and Qcomponent quaternary quasiorthogonal code 53 masks, given in the following table, corresponding to the code index and selects Iand Qcomponent quaternary quasiorthogonal code masks corresponding to the designated code index. 117. The channel transmission device as claimed in claim 15, wherein the first generator comprises I and Qcomponent quaternary quasiorthogonal code masks, given in the following table, corresponding to the code index and selects Iand Qcomponent quaternary quasiorthogonal code masks corresponding to the designated code index. 54 18. A quaternary complex quasiorthogonal code generation device for a channel transmission device in a CDMA communication system, which spreads a channel signal using a quaternary complex quasiorthogonal code, comprising: a first generator for generating a quaternary quasiorthogonal code mask corresponding to a designated code index; a second generator for generating a Walsh orthogonal code corresponding to a designated Walsh orthogonal code index;and an adder for generating a quaternary quasiorthogonal code by operating the quaternary quasiorthogonal code mask and the Walsh orthogonal code. 19. A quaternary complex quasiorthogonal code generation device for a channel transmission device in a CDMA communication system, which spreads a channel signal using a quaternary complex quasiorthogonal code, comprising: a first generator for generating I and Qcomponent quaternary quasiorthogonal code masks corresponding to a designated code index; a second generator for generating a Walsh orthogonal code corresponding to a designated Walsh orthogonal code index; and an adder for generating I and Qcomponent quaternary quasiorthogonal codes by adding the I and Qcomponent quaternary quasiorthogonal code masks and the Walsh orthogonal code. 20. A channel transmission method for a CDMA communication system, comprising the steps of: 55 generating a quaternary quasiorthogonal code mask corresponding to a designated code index, and generating a quaternary complex quasiorthogonal code by using the generated quasiorthogonal code mask and the Walsh orthogonal code; generating a channel spread signal by using the converted complex signals and the quaternary complex quasiorthogonal codes; and generating PN masked channel signals by using the channel spread complex signals and complex PN sequences. 21. A quaternary complex quasiorthogonal code generation method for a channel transmission device in a CDMA communication system, which spreads a channel signal using a quaternary complex quasiorthogonal code, comprising the steps of: generating a quaternary quasiorthogonal code mask corresponding to a designated code index; generating a Walsh code corresponding to a designated Walsh orthogonal code index; and generating a quaternary quasiorthogonal code by using the quaternary quasiorthogonal code mask and the Walsh orthogonal code. 22. A quaternary complex quasiorthogonal code generation method for a channel transmission device in a CDMA communication system, which spreads a channel signal using a quaternary complex quasiorthogonal code, comprising the steps of: generating I and Qcomponent quaternary quasiorthogonal code masks corresponding to a designated code index; generating a Walsh code corresponding to a designated Walsh orthogonal code index; and 56 generating I and Qcomponent quaternary quasiorthogonal codes by using the I and Qcomponent quaternary quasiorthogonal code masks and the Walsh orthogonal code. 57 A method for generating a quaternary complex quasiorthogonal code in a CDMA communication system is disclosed. The method comprises generating an Msequence and then generating specific sequences having a good full correlation property with the Msequence; generating a column permutation function for converting the Msequence to a Walsh code; generating candidate masks by column shifting the specific sequences with the column permutation function; generating quasiorthogonal code representatives by operating the candidate masks and the Walsh codes having the same length as that of the candidate masks; and selecting a quasiorthogonal code satisfying a partial correlation with the Walsh codes, out of the generated quasiorthogonal code representatives, and selecting a mask related to generation of the selected quasiorthogonal code. 

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Patent Number  206434  

Indian Patent Application Number  767/CAL/1999  
PG Journal Number  17/2007  
Publication Date  27Apr2007  
Grant Date  27Apr2007  
Date of Filing  08Sep1999  
Name of Patentee  SAMSUNG ELECTRONICS CO., LTD.  
Applicant Address  416, MAETANDONG, PALDALGU, SUWON CITY KYUNGKIDO, KOREA  
Inventors:


PCT International Classification Number  H04J 11/00  
PCT International Application Number  N/A  
PCT International Filing date  
PCT Conventions:
