|Title of Invention||
"A METHOD FOR PRODUCING MATCHED FLUIDIC SURFACES"
|Abstract||This invention relates to a method for producing marched surfaces on rotor units with integral blades comprising a hub and at least one blade ring by removing by machine after integral joining with component overmeasure in the area of the joining zone, whereby at least one actual surface is acquired by measuring method, and a surface matching it, is produced. Acquisition by measuring method and production take place on a process machine in one clamping of the rotor unit. The desired surface of each processing area is provided in the form of stored data. Starting from at least one measured actual surface, a matched surface is produced beyond the joining zone, with the surface everywhere adjoining the actual surface and/or so-called repair surface of which there is at least one, without any kinks or steps at a specifiable minimum curvature. As far as is possible, the surface itself corresponds to a mathematically continuous spatial surface comprising a locally and/or direction-dependent variably-specifiable minimum curvature, whereby approximation to the desired profile takes precedence over approximation to the desired position.|
The invention relates to a method for producing matched fluidic surfaces on rotor units with integral blades,
As a rule, rotor units with integral blades whose blades are integrally connected to the hub, free from backlash, by means of welding, forging, soldering or bonding, provide advantages concerning strength, weight and design volume. They are therefore increasingly incorporated in advanced turbomachinery constructions. In this context, the primary object is the replacement of the generally used positive-fit rotating blade attachment (e.g. with pine tree or dovetail profiles) in rotors with essentially axial through flow. Both blade attachment / installation and blade repair / exchange, are admittedly more expensive and difficult in rotors with integral blades than in positive fit constructions. Modified or novel production and repair methods are required of which linear friction welding is a particularly striking and important example. In spite of its name, this joining process by friction welding is metallurgicaily closer to forging than to welding. Induction welding is another currently used joining process in which after electroinductive heating by joining pressure, a fine-grain "forging raicrostructure" is generated too.
Soldering and bonding processes are in principle also possible, but most of the time, the joining zone thermally/mechanically forms a "weak point".
Without exception, currently used joining methods require overmeasure in the area of the joining zone, in at least one of the components to be joined. This requirement may result from the type of component
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clamping and introduction of force (such as in linear friction welding) or it may result from the criterion that the joining zone should be able to be reworked on all sides, in particular so as to compensate for geometric joining errors. During the joining process itself, as a rule, there is an issue of material (e.g. flash during friction welding) which subsequently also needs to be removed. In any case at least the area of the joining zone is reworked and optimised by removing material from its surface shape, with aspects of fluidic behaviour and strength having to be taken into account. The surfaces to be constructed must in addition be matched to existing actual surfaces, with the latter having to be acquired by measuring methods. With modern, efficient production, the measured values are electronically stored, the three dimensions of the surfaces to be produced are calculated, and shaped by means of removal by machine, with all three steps of "measuring", "calculating" and "producing" being based on linked data processing.
From the European published application EP 0 837 220 A2 a method for repair of worn blade tips of compressor blades and turbine blades is known in which the worn blade tip is cut off at a defined radial height h and replaced by a repair profile whose contour is exactly matched; with attachment of said repair profile occurring by soldering or welding. After separating the worn region, the actual geometry of the remaining rotor blade is measured in the area of the separation plane and thus the plane which will later become the joining plane, and according to these measurement data an exactly matching repair profile is produced, preferably by laser beam cutting with three-dimensional cut guidance. In this process, the surface of the remaining rotor blade from the separation/joining plane with the repair profile, is continued in radial direction to the
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blade tip so as to be tangentially straight on all sides. Any rework is only required at the soldering joint or at the weld seam, if at all. Apart from the advantage of minimal rework, this method also provides the advantage that after local repair the blade can be reused rather than having to be replaced. This method which represents a special form of patching is also suitable for rotor units with integral blades, but only for repairs in the area of the blade tips. Due to the nature of the method, only those surfaces can be produced whose surface lines - in horizontal direction - are straight (cutting with straight laser beam), i.e. no curved surfaces according to requirements, for example as required at the transition from the rotor blade to the hub. The repair component's surface finish by means of laser to finished dimensions must take place before the repair component is attached to the remaining rotor blade. Consequently, it is almost impossible to compensate for geometric joining errors at this stage, as there is no removable overmeasure. Working the repair component / patch to finished dimensions is no longer possible after joining because the laser beam, which essentially cuts radially inward from the blade tip, would at least in places penetrate the remaining rotor blade, thus damaging said rotor blade.
The German published application DE 40 14 808 Al describes a machine vision system for automating a machine processing method. Specifically, the system is to be used for repairing worn turbine blade tips, by laser powder build-up welding. The blade tips are of a special geometry in which the thin blade wall describing the profile projects radially beyond the actual face. If the projecting blade wall touches the turbine housing or a housing coating, it experiences wear which can be repaired by build-up welding. First,
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the worn face edge of the blade wall is ground down, i.e. made plane and smooth. The profiled ring surface described by the face edge is optoelectronically recorded by a camera and converted into a mathematical ring curve with locally defined thickness (width). The data is used directly for controlling the weld process, with the local material build up (powder flow, laser intensity) being matched to the respective thickness of the remaining wall. In this way there is a de facto continuation of an exterior and an interior actual contour with at least approximately plane face, by means of material build up, which certainly requires some rework.
The article "Kompressor- und Turbinenschaufeln autoraa-tisch reparieren" [Repairing compressor blades and turbine blades automatically] on pages 672-674 of the German journal Werkstatt und Betrieb 129 (1996) [Workshop and Factory] , describes repair of blade tips and blade edges by build-up welding. The spatial actual contour of the respective blade is scanned in several sections near the weld bead and is stored. The actual contour is mathematically continued into the build-up weld area and produced by means of NC processing. It is possible to take into account special geometries at the blade tips, e.g. curved or kinked surface lines. Such a special geometry is for example scanned on a master blade and stored. There is also a reference to an intelligent equalisation between the faulty actual geometries and the master geometries. Nevertheless, the expert is not provided with any concrete pointers as to how such equalisation should take place.
In the case of rotor units with integral blades, the geometric area for producing matched surfaces can extend along the entire height of the ring volume, i.e. from the hub to the blade tips. The first application
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case is the production of new components in the context of which the blades, which preferably are largely in their finished state, are joined to the hub and where at least in the area of the joining zones close to the hub, the blades are formed by metal removing.
During operation of the rotors, wear and damage can occur which require repair. In the worst case, entire blades need to be replaced, but more frequently, more or less sizeable blade parts or areas need to be replaced. Naturally this concerns mostly the inlet edges and outlet edges as well as the tips of the blades. The damaged areas are separated, e.g. by means of laser beam cutting, and replaced by components/patches with oversize. If the damage extends only a little into the blade material, a simple build up of material with overmeasure, e.g. by means of laser powder build-up welding may be sufficient, so that no actual spare parts are required. However in practice, often combinations of the measures "blade replacement", "partial blade replacement/patching" and "material build-up" may be sensible since various types of damage can occur during extended operational phases.
Based on this situation it is the object of the invention to provide a method for production of matched fluidic surfaces on rotor units with integral blades which method is equally suitable both for the production of new parts and for repair; which can be applied to the entire blade surface including its transition to the hub up to close proximity to the hub; which, taking into account minimum curvatures, makes possible the production of surfaces free of steps and kinks of any curvature; which makes it possible to use various types of metal removal as well as preceding joining or material build up; and which works particularly precisely, fast and cost-effectively.
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This object is met by the. combination of
characteristics ' A',B'and 'C'of the invention as described bellow
According to characteristic A, measuring acquisition and production take place on one processing machine with the same clamping of the rotor unit in one cycle. This increases the precision of the method and reduces its duration.
On the basis of characteristic B the processing machine "knows" the desired surface of each area to be processed and thus "knows" the optimal target shape of the component. According to characteristic C the actual measuring acquisition and the specified desired data are first converted to a computed spatial expanse, and subsequently to a real produced component surface, whereby the subordinate features a to c define the details. Subordinate feature a defines the transition mode between the surface to be produced and an actual surface or a so-called repair surface which on all sides is determined and.. produced within an actual surface in the component.. Subordinate feature b defines the contextual features of the surface to be produced, the mathematical/theoretical specification in practical application being converted in the best possible way, i.e. as well as is possible with justifiable expense.
Subordinate feature c__takes into account the cases in which the desired surface (desired profiles in desired position) cannot be produced or cannot be entirely produced, and it prioritises the desired profile in respect to the desired position.
It is clear to the expert versed in the art that due to software factors, real machine production methods may
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(and in reality frequently do) lead to deviations in respect of the theoretical/mathematical specifications. With reliable and precise production technologies, such deviations can however be minimised and kept within tolerable orders of magnitude from the point of view of fluidic behaviour and strength. For example, in the case of surfaces made by machine, minimal steps, grooves or kinks may be tolerable although in these positions theoretically a mathematically continuous, smooth area was specified.
Below, the invention is illustrated in more detail by means of simplified accompanied drawings. The following are shown diagrammatically (not to scale):
Figure 1 shows a partial cross-section of a rotor unit with one of several blades whose form had largely been finished prior to joining;
Figure 2 shows a comparable partial cross section with an overmeasure exchange component from which the blade is shaped;
Figure 3 shows a lateral view of a patched blade;
Figure 4 shows a longitudinal section according to
section A-A of Figure 3; and
Figure 5 shows the tip area of a blade with material build-up.
In Figure 1, part of the hub 4 and part of the blade 7 of the rotor unit with integral blades are shown. The blade 7 was preferably attached to a hump-like
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elevation of the hub 4 by linear friction welding. For the purpose of manipulation and introduction of force it comprises a thickened section 11 at the radially inward, lower extremity. The joining zone 14 is indicated by a hatched line. The intentionally exaggerated diagram shows that the blade 7 was attached with a geometric error. For example there is both lateral offset to the right in relation to the hub 4 and an angular error, namely an inclination to the right which deviates from the radial direction.
Figure 1 shows a situation which may occur either in the context of producing a new component or in the context of repair, with the alphanumeric references on the left side of the blade referring to repair, and the references on the right side referring to the production of a new component.
Prior to joining, the surface of the blade 7 should largely be finished, e.g. by means of precision forging. It thus represents an actual surface I 1 or I 3 respectively, which as a reference surface must no longer be changed or damaged. Just above the thickened section 11 this actual surface is measured with the references M 1 and M 3 with dot-dash lines representing measuring zones which in sections measure the actual surface area in order to determine the profile gradient in longitudinal and transverse directions and to determine the profile change in radial direction. A measuring zone is thus not a line, e.g. around the o profile at a radial height, but instead always an area. To this extent, the dot-dash lines only indicate the approximate, average height position of treasuring zones M 1 to M 3 .
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In the case of repair (left side), the actual surface I 2 between the joining zone 14 and the hub 4 is measured in the area of the measuring zone M 2.
Between the actual surfaces I 1, I 2, a matched surface 0 1 which connects said actual surfaces I1, I 2 is produced. This matched surface 0 1 merges into the actual surface without any steps or kinks and is in itself stepless and free of kinks, as well as mathematically continuous as far as possible, taking into account local and minimum curvatures and minimum curvatures variably specifiable depending on the direction. If necessary the principle "desired profile takes precedence over desired position" shall apply. The production criteria according to the invention as well as the geometric joining errors lead in radial direction to a gentle S-shape of the surface O 1, with the excessive material which will need to be removed being shown by a dotted area.
The situation is similar when producing new components (right side), but only one zone M 3 above the thickened section 11 is measured. In the new condition, the hump-like elevation on the hub 4 should have overmeasure so that the matched surface 0 3, emanating from the upper actual surface I 3, merges downward into the desired surface S 3 which is also just being produced. It cannot be stated categorically at what radial height the matched surface O 3 is to merge into the desired surface S 3. However, the invention tends to create transition zones with deviations from the desired value as short or small as possible, taking into account minimum curvatures.
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the joining zone 15 and the hub 5 is acquired by measuring method in a measuring zone M 4 around the "hump profile" . On all sides, at a distance to the measured actual surface I 4, a so-called repair surface R is defined in the component. Production of the matched surface O 4 is based on said repair,surface R, whereby at the lowest possible radial height a transition to the desired surface S 4 is created, with said desired surface S 4 being continued upward, up to the blade tip (not shown). The repair surface R is also produced during this cycle, with production either before or after production of the surface O 4. Thus three "types" of surfaces are produced (0 4, R, S 4) with O 4 representing the matched surface. All surfaces together form the shape of the actual blade 8, with a relatively large volume of excess material having to be worked off in this case. There is however the advantage that the blade 8 very largely conforms to the desired dimensions, i.e. it is very precise.
Figures 3 and 4 relate to the so-called patching, i.e. partial replacement of the blades, with exchange components which generally.comprise overmeasure on all sides. Figure 3 shows a lateral view of a blade 9, in this instance a turbine blade, of a rotor unit 3, viewed in circumferential direction, with part of the hub 6 being shown. The inlet edge of the blade 9 was separated along most of its radial height right up to the blade tip 12 by a plane cut inclined towards the top right. It was replaced by a welded-on patch 18 approximating the shape of the blade and incorporating overmeasure on all sides. It can for example be cut from a rectangular bar or thick sheet. The joining zone 16 is shown by a hatched line. Figure 4 shows an axial/tangential section according to section A-A in Figure 3 which shows the blade profile. The shape of the part of the blade 9 situated on the right of the
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joining zone is given and will not be changed. Its actual surface I 5 is acquired on both sides of the profile in the measuring zone M 5 near the joining zone 16, so as to be able to match the profile area to be produced, from the joining zone 16 to the left. The matched surface 0 5 should merge in the shortest possible way into the desired surface S 5, i.e. the desired profile should merge into the desired position, which is not always possible. At least the matched surface should approximate the desired surface as far as is possible, with matching to the desired profile, i.e. the desired shape being more important than matching to the desired position ("desired profile takes precedence over desired position"). In principle, patching of the type shown in Figures 3 and 4 is possible at any position of a blade. The patch can also be located in the middle of the blade, e.g. as a disk in a respective hole in the blade. This clarifies that the joining zone can also be curved, preferably in the shape of a partial circle, and closed in itself, e.g. as a full circle. A patch is always an exchange component of defined shape as well as local overmeasure, for repairing blade damage of sizeable volumetric extent.
By contrast, there are forms of damage where the blade material is predominantly worn in the surface area, e.g. by chanical touching of stator components, by erosive particles in the gas flow or by the corrosive hot gasses themselves. In this case it may be more favourable, following removing "smoothing" of the damaged component surface, to apply missing material in a "shapeless" way, in particular in a molten condition by welding or soldering. In this context, laser powder build-up welding is a promising production method involving relatively little heat exposure for the component.
Figure 5 shows repair by material deposit using the example of a blade 10 with a tip 13 to be renewed. The material build-up 19 is shown which comprises overmeasure both laterally and at the top. The representation shows a partial cross section of the blade at an aspect parallel to the rotor axis. Strictly speaking, the hatched joining zone 17 at the upper end of the shortened blade 10 would have to extend to the entire cross section of the material build-up 19 because said build-up has been applied all over by welding. However, so as to be able to distinguish other details within the material build-up 19, hatching is shown in part only. Below the joining zone 17, tfee actual surface I € is acquired in the measuring zone M 6 around the blade profile and processed by data processing means. A matched surface 0 6 is produced which merges into the desired surface 6 or is matched to the latter as well as is possible (here again: "desired profile takes precedence over desired position"). A particularly simple option for producing a matched surface would comprise of a tangentially straight extension of the actual surface, in this case I 6, at each position around the profile, upward to the blade tip 13, i.e. from a mathematical point of view, in the upward direction to specify the minimum curvature "infinite" (8). This might be expedient where the radial height of the material build-up is very slight, i.e. where a transition to the direction of the desired surface or the desired profile is not possible in practice. The degree of deviation between the actual surface near the joining zone and the desired surface is a further factor to be considered.
Figure 5 shows an additional desired surface S 7, indicated by a dashed line with shorter dashes, which in relation to S 6 leads to an additional defined material removal (shorter dashes) . This is intended as
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a pointer for blades with a step-shaped profile-change towards their tips, through which the "drop-shaped profile" merges into a very thin profile of largely-constant thickness along its length, and into a curvature corresponding to the suction side of the blade.
i. A method for producing matched fluidic surfaces on rotor units with integral blades, preferably in axial design having a hub and at least one blade ring, the method comprising the steps of:
- removing by machine after integral joining and after integral
local application of material of at least one blade and the hub
and at least one part of a blade and at least one part "of a blade
and at least one blade, whereby prior to removal, at least one of
these parts or prior to the application of material overall or
locally comprises over measure in the area of the joining zone,
in particular in the context of producing new parts and of
repairing bladed disks and bladed rings for gas turbines, and
whereby at least one actual surface describing the local shape
of the component is acquired by measuring method, and a
fluidic surface is produced which is matched to the actual
surface and'which favourably shapes the joining zone from the
point of view of fluid technology and strength the following
characteristics being combined:
- measuring acquisition of the actual surface (I 1 to 16) and
production of the matched surface ( O 1, O 3 to 06) at least one
of which taking place on one processing machine with the same
clamping of the rotor unit ( 1, 2, 3) i.e. in a connected
measuring, calculating and processing cycle;
- the desired surface ( S 3 to S 7) circumscribing in radial
direction the desired profiles in the desired position, of each
area to be processed from the blade tip (12, 13) to the hub ( 4,
5, 6) is made available to the processing machine in the form of
the stored data;
- based on at least one actual surface ( I 1 to I 6) acquired by
measuring method, said actual surface which comprises
geometric tolerances, extending close to the joining zone ( 14 to
17) a surface (O1, O3,to O6) extending beyond the joining
zone ( 14 to 17) is calculated according to the following criteria
and produced by material removal:
- at each point the fluidic surface ( O 1, O 3 to O6) tangentiatly
adjoins, i.e. without kinks or steps, in straight and curved line
with a locally variably specifiable minimum curvature, at least
one actual surface ( I 1 to I 6) and one at first theoretical, repair
surface ( R), with the latter being defined and produced at a
locally variably specificable minimum distance to a measured actual surface (I 4) within the component;
- the fluidic surface ( O 1, O3 to O6) as far as possible
corresponds to a mathematically continuous, spatial, at least
largely curved surface, at each position comprising a locally
and direction-dependent variably-specifiable .minimum
- in every area where the fluidic surface ( Ol, O 3 to O6) to be
produced, due to said criteria and local component dimensions
cannot correspond, or can only partly correspond, to the desired
surface ( S 3 to S7) which in radial direction circumscribes the
desired profiles in the desired position, the surface ( 01, 03 to
06) in each radial height is approximated as well as is possible
to the local desired profile stored by data technology, taking
into account mathematical continuity.
2. A method as claimed in claim 1, wherein in the context of producing
new parts using blades whose fluidic shape was largely finished prior
to joining to the hub, a finished actual surface (13) for each blade (7)
is acquired by measuring method ( M 3) radially outside and close to
the joining zone (14), and wherein radially inward from the measured
actual surface ( I 3) a matched fluidic (0 3) which emerges into the
desired surface ( S 3), is produced.
3. A method as claimed in claim 1 wherein in the context of producing
new parts or in the context of repair involving blade exchange using
blades whose fluidic shape was largely finished prior to joining to the
hub, a finished actual surface
(II) radially outside and close to the joining zone (14), as well as an actual surface (I 2) between the joining zone (14) and the hub (4), in each instance are acquired by measuring method ( M1,,M2), and wherein between these actual surfaces (I 1, I 2) a matched fluidic surface ( O 1) is produced.
4. A method as claimed in claim 1 wherein in the context of repair with
blade exchange using at least one component whose shape comprises
over measure on all sides when compared to the fluidic desired shape,
an actual surface (I 4) between the joining zone (15) and the hub (5) in each case is acquired by measuring method ( M 4), wherein a repair surface ( R) on all sides positioned at a distance to the actual surface ( 14) within the component is defined, wherein form the repair surface ( R) radially outward at as low a height as possible, a surface ( O 4) which merges into the desired surface ( S 4) is produced, wherein by material removal on all sides, the fluidic shape of the blade (8) is produced as a desired surface ( S 4), and wherein the repair surface ( R) towards the hub (5) is produced by removing material.
5. A method as claimed in claim 1, wherein in the context of repair
involving exchange of part of a blade ( patching) in the area of the
inlet edge and the outlet edge using at least one patch whose shape
comprises over measure on all sides when compared to the fluidic
desired shape, the actual surface (15) on the suction side and on the
pressure side of a patched blade (9) is acquired by measuring method (
M 5) close to the adjoining zone (s) (16) and wherein at every radial
height of the blade (9) affected by the repair, the actual profile (I 5) is
completed by material removal on all sides, of every exchanged
component (18), by the approximation to the desired profile ( S 5)
stored by data technology.
6. A method as claimed in claim 1 wherein in the context of repair
involving build up of material in the area of the entire blade tip by
producing an area whose shape comprises overmeasure when
compared to the fluidic desired shape, the actual surface (I 6) around
the blade (10) radially within and close to the joining zone (17) of the
blade is acquired by measuring method ( M 6), and wherein the
surface ( O 6) of the blade (10) is completed by removing the over
measure, starting from the actual surface ( I 6) to the radial desired
height at the built-up blade tip (13).
7. A method as claimed in one of claims 1 to 6, wherein removal of the
component material takes place by mechanical cutting, for example by
grinding or milling, in particular high-speed milling.
8. A method as claimed io claim 1 or 7, wherein removal of the component material takes place without cutting but using electrical discharge machining ( EDM) or electrochemical machinery ( ECM) processes.
This invention relates to a method for producing marched surfaces on rotor units with integral blades comprising a hub and at least one blade ring by removing by machine after integral joining with component overmeasure in the area of the joining zone, whereby at least one actual surface is acquired by measuring method, and a surface matching it, is produced. Acquisition by measuring method and production take place on a process machine in one clamping of the rotor unit. The desired surface of each processing area is provided in the form of stored data. Starting from at least one measured actual surface, a matched surface is produced beyond the joining zone, with the surface everywhere adjoining the actual surface and/or so-called repair surface of which there is at least one, without any kinks or steps at a specifiable minimum curvature. As far as is possible, the surface itself corresponds to a mathematically continuous spatial surface comprising a locally and/or direction-dependent variably-specifiable minimum curvature, whereby approximation to the desired profile takes precedence over approximation to the desired position.
|Indian Patent Application Number||00233/CAL/2000|
|PG Journal Number||17/2007|
|Date of Filing||19-Apr-2000|
|Name of Patentee||MTU MOTOREN-UND TURBINEN-UNION MUNCHEN GMBH|
|Applicant Address||POSTFACH 500640,D-80976 MUNCHEN,|
|PCT International Classification Number||F01D 5/00|
|PCT International Application Number||N/A|
|PCT International Filing date|