|Title of Invention||
CUTTING TOOL FOR PRODUCING GEARS BY FACE HOBBING
|Abstract||A method of producing a cutting edge on a two-side-ground cutting blade for cutting an epicycloid-shaped tooth surface which is a duplicate of an epicycloid-shaped tooth surface cut by a three-side-ground cutting blade, said two-side-ground cutting blade having a cutting edge, hook angle and a side rake angle and said three-side-ground cutting blade having a cutting edge, hook angle and a side rake angle with said hook angle and said side rake angle of said three-side-ground cutting blade being different than those of said two-side-ground cutting blade, the method comprising: defining a reference cutting edge on said two-side-ground cutting blade, defining a cutting edge on a three-side-ground cutting blade, identifying a plurality of points on said reference cutting edge and corresponding points on said cutting edge of said three-side-ground cutting blade, identifying a respective zero hook plane for each of said points on the cutting edge of said three-side-ground cutting blade, repositioning each point on said reference cutting edge into the respective zero hook plane for the corresponding point on the cutting edge of said three-side-ground cutting blade, determining the distance between the repositioned points and the respective corresponding points of the three-side-ground cutting blade, adjusting the position of each point on said reference cutting edge by the respective determined distances, removing material from or adding material to the two-side-cutting blade in accordance with the positions of the adjusted points whereby a new cutting edge is formed on the two-side-ground cutting blade which cuts an epicycloid-shaped tooth surface which is a duplicate of that cut by the three-side-ground cutting blade.|
|Full Text||FORM 2
THE PATENTS ACT 1970
[39 OF 1970]
[See Section 10]
"CUTTING TOOL FOR PRODUCING GEARS BY FACE HOBBING"
THE GLEASON WORKS, of 1000 University Avenue, P O Box 22970, Rochester, NY 14692-2970, United States of America,
The following specification particularly describes the nature of the invention and the manner in which it is to be performed:-
Field of the Invention
The present invention is directed to cutting tools for producing toothed articles. In particular, the present invention discloses a cutting tool for producing gears by face hobbing methods.
Background of the Invention
In the manufacture of bevel and hypoid gears with curved flank lines, the cutting tools utilized are primarily face mill or face hob cutters, such types of cutting tools are well known in the art of gear manufacture, in face mill cutters the cutting blades are arranged in the cutter head such that one tooth slot is formed with each plunge of the cutter and the cutter must be withdrawn and the workpiece indexed to the next tooth slot position in order to form the next tooth slot.
Face hobbing comprises cutting blades arranged about a cutter, not in line with each other, but in groups, with usually two or three cutting blades per group. In two-blade groups, such as disclosed by U.S. Patents Nos. 4,575,285 to Blakesley; 4,621,954 to Kitchen et al. and 4,525,108 to Krenzer, the blade pair comprises an inner cutting blade and an outer cutting blade. In the three-blade group, such as disclosed by U.S. Patent No. 3,760,476 to Kotthaus, a "bottom" cutting blade is included along with an inside and outside cutting blade.
Unlike most face milling processes, in which all cutting blades pass through the tooth slot during its formation, face hobbing comprises each successive group of cutting blades passing through respective successive tooth slot with each blade in the group forming a cut completely along the longitudinal portion of the tooth slot. The cutter and the workpiece rotate in a timed relationship with each other thereby allowing continual indexing of the workpiece and continual formation of each tooth slot of the gear. If the hobbing process is of the generating type, the appropriate generating motions are superimposed with the timed relationship rotations of the tool and workpiece. Thus, in face hobbing, a single plunge of the cutting tool results in all tooth slots of the workpiece being formed.
Cutting tools for face hobbing processes usually consist of disk-shaped cutter heads with stick-type cutting blades, made from bar stock high speed steel (HSS) or carbide for example, which are inserted and positioned in slots formed in the cutter heads. Each cutting blade comprises a face portion oriented at a predetermined angle known as a side rake angle, cutting edge, a cutting side surface oriented at a predetermined relief angle, clearance edge, clearance side surface oriented at a predetermined relief angle, and a top surface.
in one type of cutting blade, such as that shown in previously disclosed U.S. Patent No. 3,760,476, the cutting edge is inclined with respect to a plane containing the cutter axis (axial plane) that is oriented rotationally to contact the cutting edge, the angle of inclination being known as the effective hook angle. The effective hook angle (regardless of the number of blades per group) is comprised of two elements, the built-in hook angle and the cutting blade hook angle. The built-in hook angle is the angle of a blade mounting slot machined into a cutter head. This is the angular orientation of the cutting blade body when mounted in the cutter head and is usually in the range of about 4° to 12°. The other hook angle is the actual front face angular orientation on the cutting blade. In face hobbing, the effective hook angle, which is the angle resulting from the built-in hook angle and the actual cutting blade front face hook angle, is preferably zero degrees (0°). The skilled artisan will also understand that in cutting blades having a side rake angle, the pressure angle of the cutting edge, or any change thereof, will also have influence the effective hook angle.
In one type of cutting tools (for example U.S. Patent No. 3,760,476 discussed above) the cutting blades are sharpened by grinding the cutting side surface, the clearance side relief surface and the front face. These cutting blades will hereafter be referred to as "three-side-ground" cutting blades. By grinding the front face, adjustments to the side rake angle and the hook angle may be effected. Such changes may be utilized to keep the effective hook angle at 0° or to influence tooth surface geometry. However, by grinding the front face, any coatings located on the front face are destroyed.
In another type of cutting blade, usually found in the two-blade per group cutting tool comprising an inside cutting blade and an outside cutting blade (previously discussed U.S. Patent No. 4,575,285 for example), the cutting blades are sharpened by removing stock material from the cutting side and clearance side surfaces only (hereafter "two-side-ground" cutting blades).
Thus, the front face and any coating materials (e.g. TIN, TiAIN) located on the front face are preserved during sharpening. However, in the two-side ground blade, the front face is not ground during sharpening and, therefore, there is no control of effective hook angle and less flexibility to control tooth surface geometry since the side rake angle and hook angle adjustments, obtained by grinding the front face, are not available.
It can be seen, therefore, that in three-side-ground cutting blades, any hook angle brought about by formation of the particular pressure angle and side rake angle can be adjusted by grinding the front face to form a 0° effective hook angle. However, in cutting blades such as those of U.S. Patent No. 4,575,285 for example, any effective hook angle must remain on the cutting blade. As an example, with a pressure angle range of 16° - 24° and a side rake angle of 10° - 20°, an effective hook angle of about +/- 4° is formed on the above cutting blade. The +/- indicating the hook angle is positive on one of the inside or outside cutting blade and negative on the other inside or outside cutting blade.
Thus, it can be seen that one member of a gear pair cut with a three-side-ground type of cutting cannot be meshed with the other member of the gear pair cut with a two-side-ground type of cutting blade. The mating members will not mesh properly due to the flank twist, profile crowning and spiral angle differences introduced in the member cut with the two-side-ground cutting tool and having an effective hook angle of, for example, +/- 4°.
It is an object of the present invention to provide two-side-ground cutting blades for cutting toothed articles heretofore cut by three-side-ground cutting blades.
It is a further object of the present Invention to provide two-s'ide-ground cutting blades whereby an effective hook angle modification is introduced such that toothed articles cut by the two-side-ground cutting blades are
essentially identical to those articles heretofore cut by the three-side-ground cutting blades.
it is a further object of the present invention to provide a cutting tool comprising the above two-side-ground cutting blades.
Summary of the Invention
The present invention provides a two-side-ground cutting blade that allows all the freedoms of the three-side-ground cutting blade. A new cutting edge can be defined on the two-side-ground cutting blade that will duplicate the tooth surface cut by the three-side-ground cutting blade with different hook and side rake angles. The new cutting edge of the two-side-ground cutting blade is determined by a plurality of points, each point corresponding to a point on the three-side-ground cutting blade, such that when cutting, each point along the cutting edge of a two-side ground cutting blade will lie on the same epicycloid generated by the corresponding points on a three-side-ground cutting blade with different hook and side rake angles.
Brief Description of the Drawings
Figure 1 diagrammatically illustrates basic parameters of a gear cutting tool.
Figure 2 is an enlarged view of a cutting blade positioned in a cutter head having zero effective hook angle.
Figure 3 is a top view of the inventive cutting tool for face hobbing comprising groups of two-side-ground cutting blades.
Figure 4 illustrates the effects on cutting tool parameters brought about by the formation of a side rake angle.
Figure 5 shows the formation of an effective hook angle on the cutting blade of Figure 2.
Figure 6 illustrates the effect of hook angle on the epicycloid path of a cutting tool in face hobbing.
Figure 7 illustrates the inventive method of determining a new two-side-ground cutting blade profile for duplicating gears cut by three-side-ground cutting blades.
Figure 8 is a simplified view of Figure 7 in which the X and Z components of vector RBO are shown.
Figure 9 is a simplified view of Figure 7 in which the X and Z components of vector RB3 are shown.
Detailed Description of the Preferred Embodiment
The present invention will now be discussed with reference to the accompanying drawings.
It is known from previously discussed U.S. Patent No. 4,525,108 that in producing a cutting tool for face hobbing of bevel gears, placement of the
blade mounting slots, and hence the cutting blades themselves, should be selected at a location midway between the extreme blade positions necessary to cut a corresponding range of gear sizes. Thus, a single cutting tool is capable of cutting a range of job sizes. Variations in the gear sizes and tooth surface geometries are then accounted for by selecting cutting blades having
the appropriate parameters (pressure angle, side rake angle, etc.) for the particular job.
In producing a cutting tool having two-side-ground cutting blades that duplicate those gears cut by a tool having three-side-ground cutting blades, certain basic parameters must remain unchanged from one tool to the other. These parameters include slot radius, number of blade groups, blade spacing and cutter height.
Figures 1, 2 and 3 illustrate the above parameters. For illustrative purposes, Figure 1 shows two cutting blades 1, 2 (each having no side rake angle) positioned in mounting slots of a cutter head at respective radii R1 = R2 from the center of the cutter head. The offset angles δ1 and δ2 indicate that because of different relative velocity directions, one and the same cutter head should cover different effective offsets but having physically only one fixed built-in offset. The relative cutting velocity of each blade is perpendicular to the front face of the cutting blade. Figure 2 illustrates the slot inclination in the cutter head as well as the blade height HB. Of course, the number of blade groups on the cutter head is dependent upon the particular gear being cut as is known by the skilled artisan.
Figure 3 illustrates cutter blade spacing on the inventive cutting tool. The angle of an inside cutting blade behind an outside cutting blade is shown as λ1 and the angle of an outside cutting blade behind an inside cutting blade is shown as λ2- All blades of the cutter head are spaced according to these angles and the following applies:
λ1 +λ2 = 36Q°/number of starts on cutter
Figure 4 illustrates how a cutting blade that is located in the cutter built-in offset position can simulate a different offset angle (or relative offset) by changing the front face orientation (a). Compare to Figure 1 where two
different offsets are realized with two different built-in offsets. The relative cutting velocity dictates the required effective blade offset. Figure 5 shows an effective hook angle formed on the cutting blade of Figure 2 (which has a zero effective hook angle), the relative cutting velocity vector of Figure 5 being in the presentation plane.
By removing controlled amounts of stock material from the front face of the three-side-ground cutting blade, the side rake angle can be adjusted to vary the cutting direction while the effective hook angle can be adjusted to cause the twisting of the tooth flank surface along the tooth length, a change in profile crowning and a change in pressure angle. These changes can be introduced with no change to the cutter head itself. Hence, the three-side-ground cutting blade allows a change in the effective hook angle and this freedom is used for flank form and contact movement (adjustability) optimizations. These are blade control parameters that are not available of the two-side-ground blade where the front face is preserved and only the side surfaces are ground.
Figure 6 shows a cutting blade with Points A, B and C along a cutting edge that has a positive hook angle (two-side-ground). Figure 6 also shows a cutting edge (Points A1, B1 and C1) without any hook angle (three-side-ground). The epicyclical path E generated by A is different than the path Ei generated by A1 The curve associated with A1 has a similar, but not identical, shape than the one generated by A. The two curves are inclined and shifted relative to each other in the Z-direction. That means the spiral angle of curve A decreases relative to A1. The opposite happens for the curves at C and C1. Points B and B1 are coincident. Thus, based on the above discussion, the presence of the hook angle causes a positive flank twist between heel (outside) and toe (inside) ends of the gear tooth.
The present invention provides a cutter and blade system that allows all the freedoms of the three-side-ground cutting blade while using a two-side-
ground cutting blade. By finding the radial location of a plurality of points to define the cutting edge of a given two-side-ground cutting blade (the plurality of points lying on the same epicycloid generated by a three-side-cutting cutting blade with different hook and side rake angles), the newly defined cutting edge on the given two-side-ground cutting blade will duplicate the tooth surface cut by the three-side-ground cutting blade with different hook and side rake angles. It is assumed that the given blade consists of a permanent front face, no hook angle and a side rake that is constant along the blade shank. The hook angle of the system is created by an inclination of the mounting slot in the cutter head.
As stated above, Points B and B1 are identical (Figure 6). It is necessary to find the locations of the Points A and C in the Z-direction to have them cut the same epicyclical path as A1 and C1 (along the existing front face of the simplified given cutting blade). The geographic height of the cutting blade, with respect to the cutter head front face, remains constant.
To find the new location of Point A, the epicyclical kinematic representation of Figure 7 is referred to wherein roll circle and base circle are rotated clockwise until A contacts the front face of the "new" cutting blade. This is location A'. The movement from A to A' requires rotation around the roll circle center, superimposed by a rotation around the center of the base circle. The relationship for this movement as shown in Figure 7 may be described by the following:
The difference between A' and A2 (Figure 7) is defined as:
A is the displacement of the normal radius (along Z-axis) of Point A' to Point A1 (which results in Point A2), that cuts the same epicycloid as Point Ai where A1 has, in the coordinate system of Figure 7, the same location as Point A2. The disclosed method is precise in an infinitesimal observation with respect to the actual epicycloid cut by A1. Given the magnitude of any differences, the inventive method represents a mathematical precise solution that, in practice, causes differences over the entire tooth flank surface of up to only a few microns which, therefore, can be neglected.
The analog scheme can be applied to find Point C2 (Figure 7) that cuts the same epicycloid as Point C1 (Figure 5), a rotation of the epicyclical kinematic base and roll circles in the counter clockwise direction brings Point C to the front face of the new cutting blade. In Figure 7, the new cutting edge profile A2, B2l C2 is shown compared to the given cutting edge A, B, C initially present on the two-side-ground cutting blade. The new cutting edge profile
According to the above method, any desired number of points along the cutting edge of one particular hook angle can be converted into a point on a cutting edge without a hook angle or a cutting edge with another chosen hook angle.
Depending on the mathematical function-defined shape of the new cutting edge (e.g. circle, ellipse or higher order), three, four, five or more points can be transformed from the original cutting edge to the new cutting edge. Three points, one on the tip, one in the center and one on the end of the cutting edge, deliver a sufficient definition of the cutting edge function to capture the characteristics of the different front face hook angles.
The present invention may also lend itself to influencing the blade spacing in the cutter head by grinding the front face of either the inside or outside cutting blade further back resulting in a tooth thickness or slot width change. A tooth thickness adjustment is accomplished by splitting the required amount and, for example, increasing the radius of the outer cutting blade cutting edge and decreasing the cutting edge radius of the inner cutting blade each by half of the required amount.
With the present invention, a side relief and front face sharpened (three-side-ground) cutting blade may be converted into a cutting blade having a permanent front face and is just profile shaped or re-sharpened on the side relief surfaces (two-side-ground). All three-side-ground jobs (gear sets cut by three-side-ground cutting blades) can be converted into jobs cut by the inventive two-side-ground cutting blades having a permanent front face coating. Gear sets do not have to be re-qualified after the conversion since the tooth flank surface geometry stays identical to the original tooth surface geometry cut by the original three-side-ground cutting blades.
It is to be understood that the initial cutting edge A, B, C of the two-side-ground cutting blade may be an actual cutting edge to be modified in
accordance to the present inventive method, or, initial cutting edge A, B, C may be a theoretically cutting edge from which position the new cutting edge, A2, B2, C2 for example, is calculated (such as when the new cutting edge is formed by cutting and/or grinding from a cutting blade blank). The skilled artisan will appreciate that there may arise instances where repositioning of points may result in material being added on to the initial reference cutting edge instead of removed therefrom.
In the instance where the three-side-ground cutting blade possesses a hook angle, the identified points along the cutting edge will lie in different planes as compared to all identified points being in the same plane when the hook angle equals zero. In this instance, the respective planes comprising each point along the cutting edge are identified and each corresponding point from the initial cutting edge of the two-side-ground cutting is repositioned (back rotated as shown in Figure 7) into the appropriate plane and the radius displacement (A) is then calculated. For points that are coincident (Points B and B-i in Figure 6 for example), no repositioning or radial displacement is necessary.
The advantage of replacing the three-side-ground cutting blades is in particular the permanent character of the front face and its coating which is possible in the new two-side-ground cutting blade. Cutting processes utilizing carbide high-speed cutting tools depends to a large extent on the correct front face coating. All gear sets designed with a system using three-side-ground cutting blades can hardly be converted to a manufacturing method using high¬speed carbide cutting. To send a set of three-side-ground cutting blades to a coating facility after each re-sharpening, requires an inventory of more expensive carbide cutting blades and includes the cost of up to one hundred re-coatings for each cutting blade. The re-coating procedure alone may increase tooling costs by as much as a factor of eight.
While the invention has been described with reference to preferred embodiments it is to be understood that the invention is not limited to the particulars thereof. The present invention is intended to include modifications which would be apparent to those skilled in the art to which the subject matter pertains without deviating from the spirit and scope of the appended claims.
1. A method of producing a cutting edge on a two-side-ground cutting blade for cutting an epicycloid-shaped tooth surface which is a duplicate of an epicycloid-shaped tooth surface cut by a three-side-ground cutting blade, said two-side-ground cutting blade having a cutting edge, hook angle and a side rake angle and said three-side-ground cutting blade having a cutting edge, hook angle and a side rake angle with said hook angle and said side rake angle of said three-side-ground cutting blade being different than those of said two-side-ground cutting blade, the method comprising:
defining a reference cutting edge on said two-side-ground cutting blade,
defining a cutting edge on a three-side-ground cutting blade,
identifying a plurality of points on said reference cutting edge and corresponding points on said cutting edge of said three-side-ground cutting blade,
identifying a respective zero hook plane for each of said points on the cutting edge of said three-side-ground cutting blade,
repositioning each point on said reference cutting edge into the respective zero hook plane for the corresponding point on the cutting edge of said three-side-ground cutting blade,
determining the distance between the repositioned points and the respective corresponding points of the three-side-ground cutting blade,
adjusting the position of each point on said reference cutting edge by the respective determined distances,
removing material from or adding material to the two-side-cutting blade in accordance with the positions of the adjusted points whereby a new cutting edge is formed on the two-side-ground cutting blade which cuts an epicycloid-shaped tooth surface which is a duplicate of that cut by the three-side-ground cutting blade.
2. The method of claim 1 wherein the hook angle of the three-side-ground cutting blade is zero and wherein all corresponding points on the cutting edge of the three-side-ground cutting blade lie in a single zero hook plane.
3. The method of claim 1 wherein the three-side-ground cutting blade comprises a non-zero hook angle and wherein the corresponding points on the cutting edge of the three-side-ground cutting blade lie in respective zero hook planes that are not all identical.
4. The method of claim 3 wherein corresponding points from said reference cutting edge are repositioned into the zero hook plane of the respective points on the cutting edge of the three-side-ground cutting blade.
5. The method of claim 1 wherein at least two of said corresponding points are identical.
Dated this 9th day of October 2001
[Dr.Ramesh Kumar Mehta]
Of Remfry & Sagar
Attorney Of The Applicants
|Indian Patent Application Number||IN/PCT/2001/01230/MUM|
|PG Journal Number||24/2007|
|Date of Filing||09-Oct-2001|
|Name of Patentee||THE GLEASON WORKS|
|Applicant Address||1000 UNIVERSITY AVENUE, P O BOX 22970, ROCHESTER, NY 14692-2970, UNITED STATES OF AMERICA|
|PCT International Classification Number||B 23 F 21/22|
|PCT International Application Number||PCT/US00/12928|
|PCT International Filing date||2000-05-05|