|Title of Invention||
A PROCESS FOR PRODUCING CHARCOAL OR ACTIVATED CHARCOAL FROM WASTE PRODUCT OBTAINED DURING PRODUCTION OF COCOUNT FIBRE
|Abstract||This invention deals with a procedur~;for the prOduction of a substitute basic material for the production of charcoal or active charcoal, through carbonisation of waste product obtained during production of coconut fibre by heating at 1800c to 6000C under the exclusion of free air. The basic raw material used here is from the upper fibrous layers of the ripe coconut pod or parts thereof. It was found to be of special advantage to utilise the remnant waste products accumulating during the manufacture of coconut fibres, as the basic raw material.|
The invention refers to a process for the production of charcoal or activated charcoal from waste product obtained during production of coconut fibre by carbonisation. Durinq this process the raw material is heated to 1B0°C - 600°C in hermetically sealed containers for the purpose of exclusion of free air.
The process of charcoal production through wood carbonisation or wood destil1ation such as decomposition of wood through dry heating under exclusion of free air is a process already known since long. This process was carried out in kilns- During this process a wood pile encased in mud is burnt down to charcoal under minimum access to free air. The heating of . the wood inside the kilns was done by using the process heat generated during the carbonisation process.
There were also kiln ovens developed specially for such process. These were either movable iron ovens or permanently masoned brick ovens for the manufacture of charcoal. These had the advantage that apart from the charcoal, other valuables and important by-products occurinq during the carbonisation process such as producer gas (wood gas), methyl alcohol (wood spirit), wood tar, raw wood acetate are also extracted which was not possible in conventional kilns.
Since wood has now become a diminishing raw materialf which is not freely available as before, there are now efforts undertaken to replace wood by other raw materials easily available for using them as basic materials for the production of charcoal and active charcoal. In the American patent US-A-3,525,674 nut shelIs are mentioned amongst others as a suitable raw material. In practice the hard shelIs of coconuts are also processed to yield a substitute raw material for charcoal production.
The exterior pod of the ripe coconut exhibits on its surface a dense layer of fibrous material. When coconuts are peeled out of this pod a lot of fibrous material accrue. One part of this fibres is directly used as fuel. For producinq cocbnut fibres from this fibrous mass, it is soaked in water and subsequently the fibres are mechanically sheared out. However, this forms only 20 to 25 "/. by weight of the dry fibrous upper layers. Hence there is a residual fibrous material of 75 to 80 X weight. This residual fibrous material containing 70 to 90"/. weight percentage of water has been considered till now as unuti1isable waste product.
The object of this invention is to utilise the above waste product as a basic raw material for the production of charcoal
or activated charcoal. This process is economical and ecologically friendly too. The charcoal produced thus from the fibrous top layers of the ripe coconut pod or from the residual fibrous waste accumulating durinq the production of coconut fibre proved to be a charcoal of surprisingly high quality.
The invention provides a process for producinq charcoal or activated charcoal from waste products obtained during the production of coconut fibre, said process comprising the steps of heating the waste products obtained during the production of coconut fibre at a temperature of 180°C to 600°C without exposing to air to obtain charcoal.
It is advantageous to reduce the water content of the raw material prior to carbonisation through either drying or through dehydration to 25-357. weight from its original weight. If the water content is not reduced, plenty of steam gets generated during carbonisation, which inhibts the carbonisation process to run smoothly.
While the temperature of the carbonisation process can generally be anywhere in the range of 180°C to 600°C, it has been found to be advantageous to carry out the process in the temperature range of 270°C to 450°C. Higher temperatures can be used but are found uneconomical.
The heating up of the basic raw material can be effected by an external heating agency or by exploitinq the process heat qenerated during the carbonisation process. This improves the economy of the production.
If additional carbon containing materials are freely available, these can be added to the basic raw material of the coconut fibres. These also lend themselves for economical carbonisation. Examples of such material are : saw dust, rice husk or similar waste products containing carbon.
Brigettes can be produced from the above mentioned end product of carbonisation by compression. For the production of briquettes extra bonding agents 1 ike potato starch, rice starch or corn starch arB added to the end product obtained from carbonisation prior to the briqetting.
Alternatively the carbonisation can be so regulated that the fluids obtained during the carbonisation remain in the final product as liquids. Thus these serve as the bonding agents and the end product obtained after the carbonisation can be immediately pressed into briquettes without any addition of extra bonding agents.
The product obtained from the invention mentioned above after the carbonisation can be also used to advantage as the basic material for the manufacture of activated charcoal by activating the product through oxidation* For achieving this the carbonised material is treated either with steam, carbon dioxide or a mixture thereof. This is carried out under a temperature range of 700°C to 1000°C. Air can also be used under certain conditions.
The invention is exemplified by an example describing the actual operation.
During a laboratory experiment the remnants of fibrous material which accumulate during the production of coconut fibres from coconut pods, were segueezed under high pressure for dehydrating the wet fibrous mass and subseguently dried out till the residual water content was 257. weightage. A metal 1 ic container of 2 1 itre capacity and 15 cm. diameter was filled upto the brim with the above dehydrated fibre mass. Then the container was hermetically sealed but was provided with an exit pipe for the pyrolysis gases arising during carbonisation. Through external heating the temperature of the container was raised to 400°C. This temperature was maintained for 2 hours.
The resulting product in the form of crumbly powder was mixed with potato starch as bonding agent and subseguently pressed into briguettes.
An analysis of the briguettes thus obtained showed a carbon content of more than 907. weight.
I CLAIM :
1 „ v A process for producing charcoal or activated charcoal from waste products obtained during the production of coconut fibre, said process comprising the steps of heating the waste products obtained during the production of coconut fibre at a temperature of 180°C to 600°C without exposinq to air to obtain charcoal.
2. The process as claimed in claim 1, wherein the water content
of the waste material prior to carbonisation is reduced to 25 to
35 weight % through dehydration or drying.
3. The process as claimed in claims 1 or 2, wherein the carbonisation is carried in a temperature range of 270°C to 450°C.
4. The process as claimed in any one of the claims 1 to 3, wherein the heating is effected by an external heating agency.
5. The process as claimed in any one of the claims 1 to 3, wherein the heating is effected by the process heat generated during carbonisation.
6. The process as claimed in any one of the claims 1 to 5, wherein the waste product obtained during the production of coconut fibre is carbonised along with a mixture of other carbon containing raw materials.
7. The process as claimed in any one of the claims 1 to 6, wherein the carbonised product is pressed into briquettes.
B. The process as claimed in any one of the claims 1 to 7, wherein the charcol is converted to activated charcol in a known manner.
9. A process for producing charcoal or activated charcoal from waste products obtained during the production of coconut fibre, substantially as hereinabove described and exemplified.
|Indian Patent Application Number||848/MAS/1997|
|PG Journal Number||26/2007|
|Date of Filing||23-Apr-1997|
|Name of Patentee||HERMANN MUHLEMEYER|
|Applicant Address||STAATSFORTS STRASSE 27, 40599|
|PCT International Classification Number||C01B31/00|
|PCT International Application Number||N/A|
|PCT International Filing date|