Title of Invention


Abstract The subject invention is a device that can enable verifiable electronic voting. It consists of an electronic device with a large touch screen display and an embedded software system to manage a voting process from configuration of the device with contestants and rules of election, to conducting the voting process and then to coIIate the voting and display results. The subject invention incorporates a unique Voter Secret Code concept where the voter can chose a secret code with which he can verify when the results are announced, if his vote has been accounted for the right candidate for whom he actually voted. The subject invention also incorporates the unique paper trail mechanism where the data clectronic ballot paper after voting, carring a serial number and the time of voting is captured through a hashing process which is printed on an internal sealed printer.
Full Text Form 2
The Patents Act 1970
(39 of 1970)
Provisional/Complete Specification
[See section 10; Rule 13]
I t
^ CH Title of the Invention:
"An Apparatus and a Method
Electronic Voting with Verification capability"
^ Name/Address and Nationality of Inventors:
-n Prakasham Uma Pathy,
.^ Residing At
^r- Sri Vigneshwara", T-68/1 (New Number 5),
First Street, Anna Nagar,
Chennai-600040 (India)
Nationality of India/UJ
■^1^ The following specification (particularly) describes the nature of this invention (and
f) the manner in which it is to be performed)

Description of the Invention
The present invention relates generally to devices and systems of Electronic Voting where a set of authorized persons in one or more locations would be able to confidentially "Vote" for a candidate in an election or otherwise communicate their choice to a given set of options.
Electronics has pervaded many aspects of the modem life. With devices that can record and communicate instantly, many of the physical world activities which involved recording on paper and their physical transmission can now be performed by Electronic devices more efficiently and instantaneously.
One such activity where Electronics has brought in a revolutionary cnange to tne society is in the area of "Electronic Voting". India is one of the few countries in the world where "Electronic Voting Machines" (EVM) have become a standard feature in the conduct of national elections. The Indian EVMs have stood the test of time and can be considered as operationally and legally accepted in the society.
In countries such as the USA, discussions are still going on for the introduction of an appropriate system of electronic voting. Despite the success of the Indian EVMs, the US market is still searching for an acceptable Electronic voting system.
Similarly, though the Indian EVMs are an accepted mode of voting in the Indian political elections, many other election like situations say for example in a Club or a Society are still unable to utilize the electronic form of voting for lack of appropriate devices.
One of the issues that the election process needs to address is the satisfaction of the Voter that the process of election was fair. Presently, this is achieved by the monitoring of the election process by a credible authority such as the Election Commission, However, in the current system, after a candidate is declared elected, the individual voter cannot himself verify if his vote has been accounted for correctly for the candidate for whom he had cast his vote. In case of surprise results, each voter may think that others must have voted for the winning candidate even if he himself had not and reconcile to the results as declared by the authority.
Under this situation, there is a technical possibility of the votes cast being manipulated by the deliberate mis configuration of the EVM or by a malfunctioning of the device.
Additionally, there are alternate election systems which are normally in vogue in Clubs and Societies where the process does not consist of one choice amongst many. In such elections there will be a need for electing more than one person for the given post and some timeg^for casting of second and tertiary preferences which may become rdy^anytmdlr'5Eife circumstances. For example, a society may elect one President,
A i^ JUL 2005 ^^^ IP^LMU-r^^^w^

One Secretary and many Committee members. There may be different sets of people contesting for different posts. The current EVM s in use in India is not designed for such requirements.
Similarly there are countries such as Sri Lanka where the voting process has to record a vote for a party in addition to the vote for a candidate and the results may have to be collated on the basis of proportionate representation systems. The EVM s currently in use are not designed for such uses.
The subject invention addresses the need of the market for a multi purpose Choice Expression device that can take care of the issues that the present systems fail to address.
The subject iavention-referredtahereafter_as-the Verifiable EJeclri)nic.yoting_D£vice (VEVD) is a hardware system with embedded software that can be used individually or in combination of several VEVD s. The software running the unit is the brain behind the device and is an integral part of the invention which provides the innovative fiinctional capability of the device.
The device is capable of presenting multiple options to the user and record his single or multiple choices, collate it and present the results as per the defined rules of processing.
It also enables the voter to verify if his vote has been correctly recorded without sacrificing the confidentiality of the voting process.
The Invention is a box type device which in the best embodiment design is rectangular in shape and appears as depicted in the enclosed Picturel.
It consists prominent display unit which is a touch sensitive screen which provides for inputs to be recorded by the user touching different parts of the screen.
The unit will have two compartments covered with removable flaps one on the top and one on the side which can be locked either by simple screws or by keys.
The unit will also have input jack power supply, a Power switch, a speaker and an "Activation Interface" which can be connected to a normal Computer Key Board though a standard key board pin.
Picture 2 shows the back of the VEVD which contains three closed compartments. One of the compartments houses the Printed Circuit Board, the second the Internal Battery Unit and the third an internal mini printing device.
Picture 3 shows the view of the VEVD when the two flaps are removed and the power is switched on. In this status the screen will depict itself in three zones. The compartment beneath the top flap houses the ports for data input and out put. In the

best embodiment device there will be one serial port, one USB port and one Parallel port. Different types of data ports can be provided in other versions of the device.
The compartment behind the side flap houses three switches for setting the mode of operation for the device in either the Configuration Mode, or Data Collation Mode or Result Display Mode. This setting interacts with the software and determines the framework within which the device can be operated in different modes.
Picture 4 shows the internal architecture when the back side is fully opened.
The Usage
The device is designed mainly for the purpose of conducting elections electronically where there are "Contestants" and "Voters" and the voters have to exercise their choice on a designated time period in confidence under the overall supervision of the polling-authority Jdostx^fiheiiescription containediiere_is4}rovidedjn this context _ _
The device is however capable of being used in all situations where there are multiple choices to be presented to a set of persons and they need to exercise their options as in the case of a "multiple option quiz " or "test" or "referendum".
For the purpose of detailed description of the functioning of the system, the election context is used and it would be generally applicable to other cases as well.
There will generally be three levels of users. The Chief Election Officer (CEO) who initiates the election process and hands over the devices after initial configuration to the "Polling Officer" (PO) who supervises the polling process. The "Voter" uses the device to express his choice or for "Voting". The PO then returns the device to the CEO who collates the voting data, computes the results and puts it on display. In small elections the roles of CEO and PO may be discharged by the same person.
In a given election, the CEO configures the device using the activation interface connected to a key board, by entering the names of the contestants along with their symbols. He also checks the device to verify that there is no past data residing in the device, the internal battery is fimctional, the printer is working and a new blank print roll is installed. He also sets the parameters for choosing the contest winner and certain configurable access parameters for the PO including the key (Password) to open the devices before the commencement of the polling process.
At the polling station, the PO sets up the device on the voting table and connects his key board to the "Activation Interface". He then powers the device and opens it for operation using the pre set key (A password) handed over to him confidentially by the CEO.
The PO verifies the voter identity as per the procedures set for the election and then allows the authorized voter to vote.
The voter interacts with the device through the touch screen based instructions and exercises,Iiifi^cJipifeCn" the process he will have the option of setting a "Secret
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Voting Code" (SVC) which he can memorize. When the results are announced, the SVC of voters who have voted for a given candidate are listed along with the votes polled by the candidate so that any individual voter can check if his SVC is shown only against the candidate which he has chosen. Since the SVC is known only to the voter, no body else can identify to whom a voter has voted and hence the secrecy of the vote is maintained.'
When the voter completes his voting, the internal printer keeps a one line record for each vote which serves as a "Paper Audit Trail" for the voting process which can be used in any case of judicial review of the voting process. The paper audit trail captures the electronic ballot paper data along with either a voting serial number or the time of voting, through a legally acceptable hashing process and therefore provides a legally acceptable substitute for the ballot papers as was possible in the traditional paper based ballots. The audit trail lists the hash and the Voter's secret code in a tabular form.
The essence of the apparatus and the system is that it addresses the need for an Electronic Voting System which provides complete confidence to the Voter of its fairness and yet keeps a legally compliant audit trail that ensures that the voting can be subject to judicial review.

Picture 1: Front View of the Verifiable Electronic Voting Device when the device is
in not switched on.
Picture 2: Back side view of the Verifiable Electronic Voting Device
Picture 3: Front side view of the Verifiable Electronic Voting Device when the
device is switched on and the two closed flaps are removed
Picture 4: The architecture of the Printed Circuit Board and the lay out of the
components inside the Verifiable Electronic Voting Device as seen from
the back of the device with covers removed.

The VEVD is a box as depicted in picture 1. It can be made of ABS plastic or Powder coated Aluminum or any other material which is light, sturdy and otherwise suitable for housing electronic components.
The best embodiment design is a rectangular shaped box of dimension 195 mm X 145 mm X 60 mm. The shape and size of the device is however not critical as long as they can accommodate the hardware components to be embedded in the system.
The length and breadth of the device is dependent on the touch screen display which comes in standard sizes such a 7 inches or 12 inches or 14 inches similar to the sizes _of.a_coinputer jnonitor. Any_of.these jscreea sizes can be iised_for the_devLce_with_an_ appropriate frame determining the overall dimensions of length and breadth.
The thickness of the device is determined by the internal printer which is housed inside the device.
The device will have some ports and switches which are visible on the top and side of the device and two hidden compartments one on the top and one on the side which contain more ports.
The details of the visible and hidden ports can be seen in picture 1 and Picture 2.
The power input is a standard DC 12 V power input source. The power switch as well as the configuration switches under the side flap are mechanical push down buttons. The three configuration buttons are "radio" buttons of which only one can be in the on state at any time. Alternate power sources such as 230 V AC supply can also be used. The power requirement may be dependent on the type of printer used and its power requirements.
The power switch available on the side of the device is automatically disabled once the Voting process commences so that the voter cannot accidentally switch off the device.
The speaker is a standard low wattage speaker which can provide short and long "Beep" sounds as well as bell sounds.
The "Activation Interface" is a jack to which a normal computer monitor can be connected.
The screen which is the vital part of the device is a standard touch sensitive screen. In the best embodiment configuration "Capacitative Screens" are used...
When the device is powered on, the screen displays in three zones as shown in picture 3. The top zone is meant for user dialogue, the middle zone for display of contestant

details and selection buttons and the bottom zone for on screen key board and other input buttons which the voter has to use.
The two flaps on the sides of the device as well as the three compartments on the back are all lockable. The lock openings are made in such a way that they can be capped and wax sealed so that they cannot be tampered without leaving a visible mark.
The data input and out put ports under the top flap are the standard serial, USB and parallel ports used in computers.
The internal architecture of the device is depicted in picture 4. In the bottom left compartment an internal battery of the type used in Lap Tops or Note pads is kept. The bottom right hand compartment contains a mini printer which can accommodate a roll of about 6 cms in width. The length of the roll can be around 15-30 Mts. Since each vote is recorded in the printer as one line, the length of the printer roll -determines theJirait of number of vx)tes that ^an-beaccepted-in-aJevice in one^session without the change of the roll. Larger versions of the device can accommodate printers with longer rolls so that more number of votes can be polled in each device.
The Printed Circuit Board (PCB) will consist of one CPU, and two Memory Chips connected to the various interfaces required for the running of the device as shown in picture 4. One of the memory chips is ear marked for holding data of an election. Data from this chip can be emptied and downloaded onto an external storage device through the data output ports. The second memory chip holds memory specific to the running of the device including a system clock and CPU contains the main processing requirements of the device.
Functions of the Device
The subject device works in the following four modes.
a) Configuration Mode
b) Voting Mode
c) Collation Mode
d) Display Mode.
a) Configuration Mode:
When the device is connected to a power source and switched on, the screen gets activated into three distinct zones. The top zone is the dialogue zone where the user gets messages from the system. The middle zone is meant for displaying the choices and the selection and confirmation buttons. The bottom zone is meant for onscreen key board display to be used by the user for input of his instructions.
For the purpose of configuration, the device is switched on to the configuration mode by using the appropriate button.
Before the configuration of the parameters of the designated voting process can ^ M^IBWiiejT^ t^'^^e is checked to ensure that no residual data is remaining in the
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data base from a previous election. Under this check, display of results should show "No Data" under all options of display. Similarly the commands for data collation should also show "No Data".
If earlier data is present, it can be backed up onto an external disk drive that can be connected to the data ports provided in the device for the purpose. Then through pre designated commands through the activation interface, the data base of the elections held in the memory of the device is wiped clean. For this purpose all variable data relating to an election is stored in a separate memory chip within the device with the CPU and an auxiliary memory chip taking care of the memory requirements of the operating system of the device itself
Next, the device needs to be configured with the names of the contestants and whether the voting is for a single or multiple choices. Then using the on screen instructions and the key board, he configures the choices.
If the voting process involves symbols to be displayed in front of the names of the candidates choices available in the Bank of symbols provided in the device can be used.
The device can also be configured with a provision to group the choices (Contestants) in such a manner that the voter can exercise his option to chose from each group based on different selection criteria. For example he may chose only one option from one of the groups while he may chose more than one option from another group. This grouping will enable election processes where the Voter needs to elect say one President and Two Secretaries and several Executive Committee Members etc.
The CEO also defines how the device is activated before the polling commences by assigning a "Key" (Password). The key strokes for activating each vote is also defined (Eg: Space Bar followed by Back Space). An alternate key sequence for closing the voting (Eg: CTRL followed by Esc) would also be defined to enable the polling officer to close the voting process.
He then freezes the configuration and removes the activation interface. He then closes the flaps 1 and 2 and seals them. He also checks if the three compartments on the back of the device are also locked and sealed.
The device is now ready for transport to the polling area..
Here the polling officer connects the key board with the activation interface, switches on the power, enters the key (password) allocated for initiating the polling process. The device then switches into the voting mode and awaits the necessary activation keys to be pressed by the PO to receive the first voter.
Whenever the polling officer interacts with the device such as the opening of the polling process or the activation for each vote, the device provides an audio feed back in the form of a beep or other sound so that the polling officer gets the confirmation that his instruction has been recorded by the device.

b) Voting Mode:
The designated voters who are separately authenticated are allowed to access the device. The device will however needs to be activated by an authorized polling officer each time a vote is to be exercised. For this purpose the "Activation Interface" of the device is connected through a cable to a normal computer key board. The pressing of a designated key on the key board as configured in the configuration mode would open the device for voting.
This will in effect generate an electronic ballot paper. Each such ballot paper is assigned a serial number which makes each of the ballot paper unique. Also during the process of voting the time of voting is imprinted on the screen displaying the ballot paper which also provides uniqueness to the ballot paper. Thus the system generates a-unique Jmllot paper to every voter-which nearly simulates the-papen based ballot system. Additionally the time stamping on the ballot paper itself creates a voting record better than the existing systems.
The Voter would first select the language of the interface. In the best embodiment the default language is English. Interface in other languages can be provided as alternatives.
The voter would then be prompted to chose a unique Voter Secret Code (eg: g2653) by operating the on screen key board. If required the user can also pick a Secret code automatically generated by the device itself on request... A choice to skip obtaining of the Voter Secret code would also be provided for the voter if he prefers not to use the verification option.
Once a code is chosen (If already chosen by an earlier user, the system would provide necessary prompts for choosing another code), the user can exercise the vote.
Depending on the earlier configuration, the voter can either choose one or several options. After the initial choice, the device will prompt the voter for confirmation or for canceling his choice.
Once the choice is confirmed, the system would provide a "Beep" sound and a confirmation on the dialogue screen along with the display of the Voter Secret Code reminding the voter to make a mental note of the code. After a lapse of a pre determined time such as 15 seconds, the system will give a long beep sound and lock the screen in preparation for the next voter.
Before pressing the confirmation button, the voter may cancel his choice by pressing the cancellation button provided on screen. The cancellation would provide another distinguishing "Beep" sound so that the polling officer can monitor the voting process by simply listening to the beep sounds.
When all the voters have exercised their choices, the polling officer through his activation interface, closes the voting process using the designated key (password).

This would lock the device and can be re-activated only through operation of buttons inside the flaps sealed by the Chief Polling Officer,
The device is now ready for the Data Collation Mode.
c) Data Collation Mode:
The device containing the voting data is returned by the polling officer to the chief polling officer who verifies that the seal of the flaps are not tampered with. He then proceeds to open the seal and switch the device to "Data Collation Mode" by operating the designated switch under the flap.
If the entire voting data is held in a single instrument, then the activation of the "Data Collation Mode" immediately starts the counting process and the instrument automatically switches on to the "Result Display Mode" after the collation of resuUs.
In case voting has been recorded in multiple instruments, the data transfer ports under the sealed flap on the top of the device would be used to connect the instrument to another master instrument and both will be switched on to Data Collation mode. Using on screen dialogue, the data can then be transferred from one of the instruments to the other "Master Vote Collation Instrument". Once all the data has been transferred, the master instrument would switch itself to the "Result Display Mode". Other instruments would automatically lock themselves after the data transfer and prevent multiple data transfers except under an authorized recounting process which can be triggered through the activation interface by the chief polling officer.
d) Result Mode:
In the result display mode, the device would be able to display results in several optional lists such as Candidate wise, or Voter's Secret code wise etc. Necessary instruction would be available on the onscreen menu.
When the number of votes obtained by a candidate is displayed, the details of the list of voter IDs that are tagged to the candidates can also be listed. The voter who alone knows the secret code can therefore verify whether his vote has been recorded to the right candidate or not.
The software system that drives the device is an important functional part of the device and is embedded in the Central Processing Unit (CPU) and Memory Chips in the Printed Circuit Board. The software can be mounted on a standard operating system such as windows or Linux.
In the best embodiment design, in order to provide better security for the system against electronic tampering the device will have a dedicated operating system developed for the running of the device and would not be based on the computer operating systems.

The software would be loaded on a standard Micro controller Chip and used as the CPU of the device.
The software has the following components.
a) User Interface Management
b) Security Management
c) Data Collation Management
d) Database Management
e) Operating System Management
These are described below.
a) User Interface Management:
There are three types of users who interact with the system namely
1. The Chief Election Officer
2. The Polling Officer
3. The Voter
The Chief Election Officer (CEO) is authorized to set any parameter in the device including the powers of the Polling Officer. The Polling Officer (PO) manages the voting process. The Voter exercises his options.
The main interface for all users is the standard touch sensitive display screen of the device. The only additional interface is the "Activation Interface" which is a normal Computer key board connected to the device through a port such as the USB.
The touch screen devices have their own drivers which are loaded on the system's memory. The touch screen is configured by the software as required into editable templates with access controls. It will mainly consist of three sub parts namely the top dialogue zone, the middle choice zone and the bottom icey board display zone.
b) Security Management
Security is one of the key requirements of any polling process. The device incorporates different types of security including physical hardware security, Access security and Data Security.
The access to the configuration mode of the device is through the physical control of the buttons which open up the interface. The buttons interact with the CPU and activate the necessary software components. The buttons are accessible only by opening up of the flaps which can be locked and sealed.
The access to data transfer ports is also controlled by the covering of the flap which can be locked and sealed.

The access through the "Activation Interface" is dependent on the configuration and is therefore software managed.
The Activation Interface consists of a common Computer Key Board and the software defines certain predefined key strokes alone to be executed. These predefined key strokes can be combination key strokes, entry of numbers or a combination of any ASCII characters. The string combination and its functionality is defined in the configuration mode by the CEO.
The Security Management sub component of the software verifies the "Activation Instruction" and responds as per the configuration. Such response would be for "Start of the Poll", " Opening the device for Voting" after each vote is cast, "Closing the Polling" and any other operation that may be authorized for the PO.
-Additionally^ the Security management-sub-component milages the-system of-allocation of "Voter Secret code" which can either be chosen by the voter, or auto generated by the system on request or by-passed. The component would interact with the database of IDs already created and ensure against duplication.
After each vote is confirmed by the user, the system calculates a hash of the voting screen including either a serial number and/or time of voting, using a standard algorithm such as MD5 which is printed in the internal printer against the voter's secret code. The hash code captures the displayed names of the candidates, the choice of the voter as well as the serial number of the ballot paper and/or the time of voting. This enables a verification on a later day if the screen seen by the Voter was not in any way tampered with or altered by any defect in the equipment or unauthorized intervention.
This creates an equivalent "Polled Ballot" replica for judicial review of any voting if required.
The system also keeps a log internally of all the activities of the voting process in an un-editable form in the data base.
The system can also be configured in such a manner that at the end of each accountable process such as "Configuration" by the CEO, "Opening" and "Closing" by the PO, the status of the data base can be captured by a hashing process so that there will be a legally accepted electronic document trail for the entire process of elections.
c) Data collation Management
The voting process may be conducted in a single device or multiple devices. After the process is completed there will therefore be a need to collate the votes from different devices into a single data base from which results can be displayed later.

The software manages this aspect first through the configuration where each device can be designated as either the only voting device for the Poll or the designated device of the total number of designated devices (eg: Device 1 of 5, Device 2 of 5 etc) or the Master for collation.
In the second stage, when the device is connected to another device for collation purpose, the software checks the configuration and only allows the Master device to import data from individual devices and mark the events in each of the device so as to avoid duplication. It will also check if data from all the designated devices are collated before the counting process is initiated. The counting process itself is an aggregation of votes and the data base of total votes is created after the aggregation.
The software will then check the configuration particulars to identify the winner based on the pre defined parameters and creates the data base of winners as required.
d) Database Management
Data is stored by the system in the Memory Chip during the process of configuration, during the process of voting as well as after the processing of the votes. The data is arranged in different multiple tables so that they can be extracted for display under different listing arrangements.
The software also manages the data base status which will lock different parts of the database at different points of time during the Poll. For example the list of candidates and connected pre-poll instructions will get locked in the database after the configuration is made by the CEO. Voting data would be frozen after the closure of the voting is recorded by the PO.
e) Operating System Management:
The device is driven by a dedicated operating system (OS) embedded in the CPU. The OS initiates all the external devices required for the operation and controls the logic process required for the fianctionalities already described.

L An Apparatus for Verifiable Voting through Electronic Recording, Collation and Analysis of expression of a single or multitude of choices from a set of pre configured options, said apparatus comprising of
i) A Touch Screen Monitor displaying the voting choices, dialogue screen and input key board and capable of taking inputs by touch
ii) A Printed Circuit Board with embedded processor capable of being loaded with software, one or more memory devices which are capable of storing information and input output ports for interfacing with other devices including a printer and internal battery unit
iii) A Mini Printer
iv) Internal Battery Unit
v) Switches^andEutTdnsthat can be marmaHy operated ib the unit and changing its mode of operation
vi) Flaps that can be used to conceal and lock the switches and buttons which can be manually operated.
2. A Method for Verifiable Voting through Electronic Recording, Collation and
Analysis of expression of choices from a set of pre configured options, said
System comprising of
i. Generation of electronic ballot paper with a unique serial number or time
stamping on the ballot paper ii. Displaying of the voting options on a Computer monitor iii. Generation of a secret voting code by the voter iv. Recording the options exercised by the voter either as a traditional single
choice or muhiple choices or a combination of both from available
options, in a single voting process. v. Processing of the votes exercised on the basis of a preconfigured decision
rules vi. Displaying the results along with a Voter's Secret Code to enable the voter
to verify if his vote has been recorded to the right candidate, vii. Configuring the system with multi layered access security.
3. The apparatus as claimed in 1, where the voters are provided a self chosen Secret
Code to check if their vote has been counted for the correct candidate.
4. The Method as claimed in 2, where the voters are provided a self chosen Secret
Code to check if their vote has been counted for the correct candidate.
5. The apparatus as claimed in 1, where the ballot paper data after voting with time
stamping, is captured with hash code on an internal printer.

6. The Method as claimed in Claim 2, where the ballot paper data after voting with time stamping, is captured with hash code on an internal printer.
7. The apparatus as claimed in Claim 1, where a designated operator can configure the key for activating the polling process and set the key strokes for different operations of the polling officer to avoid tampering of the devices in transit
8. The method as claimed in Claim 2, where a designated operator can configure the
key for activating the polling process and set the key strokes for different
operations of another operator to avoid tampering of the devices in transit.
9. The apparatus as claimed in Claim 1 where the device is controlled by the use of a
simple computer key board connected to the device through the activation
lOi Th^ method^slaimed4n Claim-2-where the device is controlled-by-the use of a -simple computer key board connected to the device through the activation interface.
11. The apparatus as claimed in Claim 1 where different audio feedbacks are provided by the device in response to his interaction through the key board.
12. The method as claimed in Claim 2 where different audio feedbacks are provided by the device in response to his interaction through the key board.

13. The apparatus as claimed in Claim 1 where the voter can chose the language of interaction with the device and also for display of the names of the contestants.
14. The method as claimed in Claim 2 where the voter can chose the language of interaction with the device and also for display of the names of the contestants.
15. The apparatus as claimed in Claim 1 where every activity of the operators or the
voters can be captured with a hashing process.
16. The method as claimed in Claim 2 where every activity of the operators or the
voters can be captured with a hashing process.
Dated this 9^** day of...July 2005 Signature of Applicant Name:



377-che-2004-claims duplicate.pdf

377-che-2004-claims original.pdf



377-che-2004-description(complete) duplicate.pdf

377-che-2004-description(complete) original.pdf


377-che-2004-form 1.pdf

377-che-2004-form 19.pdf

Patent Number 203500
Indian Patent Application Number 377/CHE/2004
PG Journal Number 05/2007
Publication Date 02-Feb-2007
Grant Date 20-Nov-2006
Date of Filing 26-Apr-2004
# Inventor's Name Inventor's Address
PCT International Classification Number G07C 13/00
PCT International Application Number N/A
PCT International Filing date
PCT Conventions:
# PCT Application Number Date of Convention Priority Country
1 NA