|Title of Invention||
A COSMETIC SKIN CARE COMPOSITION
|Abstract||A COSMETIC SKIN CARE COMPOSITION|
|Full Text||FORM -2
THE PATENTS ACT, 1970 (39 of 1970)
(See Section 10)
A COSMETIC COMPOSITIONS CONTAINING ANISE EXTRACT AND. SKIN
HINDUSTAN LEVER LIMITED, a company incorporated under the Indian Companies Act, 1913 and having its registered office at Hindustan Lever House, 165/166, Backbay Reclamation, Mumbai -400 020, Maharashtra, India
The following specification particularly describes the nature of the invention and the manner in which it is to be performed.
FILED OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to cosmetic compositions containing anise extract in combination with retinoids and method of conditioning skin by the application of such compositions to the skin.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
Retinol (vitamin A) is an endogenous compound which occurs naturally in the human body and is essential for normal epithelial cell differentiation. Natural and synthetic vitamin A derivatives have been used extensively in the treatment of a variety of skin disorders and as skin repair and renewal agents. Retinoic acid has been used to treat a variety of skin conditions such as acne, wrinkles, psoriasis, age spots and skin discoloration.
Within the cells, retinol and retinoic acid are bound to specific cellular binding proteins, two of the major proteins are CRABP-1 and 2 (Roos et al., Pharmacological reviews : 50, 315-333,1998). These proteins act in regulating the intracellular concentration of retinoids by acting as both storage or shuttle proteins in retinoid metabolism. The levels of this protein are regulated by the amount of retinoid acid within the cells. Higher cellular levels of retinoids increase the expression of CRABP-2. Therefore, the amount of this protein in the cells, is a
measure of the retinoid activity of the cells. Skin cells contain CRABP-2 both in the epidermis and the dermis. CRABP-2 response to retinoid administration in fibroblasts in vitro is used as a reproducible measure of retinoid bioactivity that predicts human skin responses (Elder et al. J. Invest. Dermatol., 106: 517-521, 19S6). Therefore, CRABP-2 expression of fibroblasts is a measure of retinoid activity leading to various cosmetic skin benefits (antiaging, anti wrinkling, skin conditioning etc.).
Anise (also known as "Sweet cumin," or by the scientific name Pimpinella anisum) seed oil contains several volatile fragrance components. One of the major components of anise seed oil is trans-anethole (up to 75% of the seed) (Embong MB, Hadziyev D, Molnar S., Can. J. Plant Sci, 57: 681-8, 1977) . The other constituents of the oil, present in amounts of 1-5% are cis anethole, carvone, beta caryophyllene, dihydcarvyl acetate, estragole and limonene. Agricultural Research Service database on the composition of Anise also include dianethole and photoanethole as other minor components. Anethole, dianethole, photoanethole and estragole are known to have estrogenic activity. Essential oils including those from anise have been described as useful as insect repellents (Shukla HS, Upadhay PD, Tripathi SC, Pesticides, 23: 33-5, 1989); insecticides (Eli S, Uzi R et a1 J. Chem. Ecol 17: 499-504, 1991; Craig M and Lichtenstein EP., J. Agric. Food Chem. 30: 563-8, 1982); convulsants (Okuyama E, Nakamura T and Mikio Y., Chem. Pharm. Bull 41: 1670-1, 1993) and as a toxic agent for snails (Maini P, Morallo-Rejesus B., Phillipp. J. Sci., 121:, 391-7, 1992).
WOS112792 describes the use of anethole for promoting hair growth, preventing or minimizing hair loss and enhancing hair color. Several US patents describe the use of cyclodextrin for complexing essential oils, including anise oil or anethole as components of fragrances, perfumes, oral hygiene compositions, skin care compositions, or laundry detergent compositions (e.g: US Patent No. 5543157). JP 6048934 discloses skin care compositions containing extracts of plants selected from dill, tarragon, Savi, anise, etc., in combination with skin whitening agents or in combination with at least one kind of collagen formation promoter such as retinoic acid.
The present invention is based in part on the discovery that the organic solvent extract of anise seed in combination with retinol or retinyl ester enhances CRABP-2 expression in fibroblasts.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to cosmetic skin care
(i) an organic solvent extract of anise seed in an amount
of from 0.00001 to 10 wt.% of the composition, (ii) from 0.001 to 10 wt.% of a retinol selected from
retinol, retinyl ester, and mixtures thereof; and (iii) a cosmetically acceptable vehicle.
The present invention also includes a method of improving or preventing the condition of wrinkled, lined, dry, flaky, aged or photodamaged skin and improving skin thickness,
elasticity, flexibility, radiance, glow and- plumpness, which method includes applying the inventive compositions to the skin. Compositions of the present invention are intended for topical application to mammalian skin which is already-dry, flaky, lined, wrinkled, aged, photodamaged, may be applied prophylactically to reduce the deteriorative changes.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
Except in the examples, or where otherwise explicitly indicated, all numbers in this description indicating amounts of material or conditions of reaction, physical properties of materials and/or use are to be understood as modified by the word "about." All amounts are by weight of the composition,
j unless otherwise specified.
Anise seed is suitable for use in the inventive compositions in the form of an organic extract. The anise seed extract for use in the present invention is prepared from dried anise seed, which may be obtained, for. instance, from (Arrowhead Mills, from health food stores or supermarkets.
The organic extracts of anise seed are prepared by extracting the dried anise seeds with a solvent by stirring 1 part of dried anise seeds with 2 to 5 parts of the solvent for from 4 to 24 hours at room temperature. Suitable solvents are described below. The extracts are clarified by filtration and/or centrifugation, then dried by evaporation (optionally, under vacuum) to obtain the organic extract of anise seed.
Solvents suitable for the preparation of anise seed extract for use herein include, but are not limited to: ethanol, methanol, hexane, chloroform, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate. The preferred solvents are dichloromethane, methanol, or ethanol in order to optimize activity. The extract may be further concentrated, fractioned, re-extracted or purified, e.g. by organic solvent extraction or by chromatography.
In general, the amount of the anise seed extract in the inventive compositions is in the range of from 0.00001% to 10% by weight of the composition. Preferably in order to lower cost and maximize the effect, the amount of the anise seed extract is in the range of from 0.01 to 10% and most preferably is in the range of from 0.1% to 5% by wt. of the composition.
The inventive compositions further comprise a retinoid selected from retinol or retinyl ester. The term "retinol" includes the following isomers of retinol: all-trans-retinol, 13-cis-retinol, 11-cis-retinol, 9-cis-retinol, 3,4-didehydro-retinol. Preferred isomers are all-trans-retinol, 13-cis-retinol, 3,4-didehydro-retinol, 9-cis-retinol. Most preferred is all-trans-retinol, due to its wide commercial availability.
Retinyl ester is an ester of retinol. The term "retinol" has been defined above. Retinyl esters suitable for use in the present invention are C 1-C 30 esters of retinol, preferably C 2-C 20 esters, and most preferably C 2, c 3/ and C 16 esters because they are more commonly available. Examples of
retinyl esters include but are not limited to: retinyl palmitate, retinyl formate, retinyl acetate, retinyl propionate, retinyl butyrate, retinyl valerate, retinyl isovalerate, retinyl hexanoate, retinyl heptanoate, retinyl octanoate, retinyl nonanoate, retinyl decanoate, retinyl undecanoate, retinyl laurate, retinyl tridecanoate, retinyl myristate, retinyl pentadecanoate, retinyl heptadeconoate, retinyl stearate, retinyl isostearate, retinyl nonadecanoate, retinyl arachidonate, retinyl behenate, retinyl linoleate, retinyl oleate.
The preferred ester for use in the present invention is selected from retinyl palmitate., retinyl acetate and retinyl propionate, because these are the most commercially available and therefore the cheapest- Retinyl linoleate is also preferred due to its efficacy.
Retinol or retinyl ester is employed in the inventive composition in an amount of from about 0.001% to about 10%, preferably in an amount of from about 0.01% to about 1%, most preferably in an amount of from about 0.01% to about. 0.5% by wt. of the composition.
The compositions of the present invention also comprise a cosmetically acceptable vehicle to act as a diluant, dispersant or carrier for the anise seed extract and the retinoid in the composition, so as to facilitate their distribution when the composition is applied to the skin.
Vehicles other than or in addition to water can include liquid or solid emollients, solvents, humectants, thickeners
and powders. An especially preferred nonaqueous carrier is a polydimethyl siloxane and/or a polydimethyl phenyl siloxane. Silicones of this invention may be those with viscosities ranging anywhere from about 10 to 10,000, 000mm2/s(centistokes) at 25"c. Especially desirable are mixtures of low and high viscosity silicones. These silicones are available from the General Electric Company under trademarks Vicasil, SE and SF and from the Dow Corning Company under the 200 and 550 Series. Amounts of silicone which may be utilized in the compositions of the present invention range anywhere from 5% to 95%, preferably from 25% to 90% by weight of the composition.
The cosmetically acceptable vehicle will usually comprise from 5% to 99.9%, preferably from 25% to 80% by weight of the composition, and may, in the absence of other cosmetic adjuncts, form the balance of the composition. Preferably, the vehicle is at least 80 wt.% water, by weight of the vehicle. Preferably, water comprises at least 50 wt.% of the inventive composition, most preferably from 60 to 80 wt.%, by weight of the composition.
Optional Skin Benefit Materials and Cosmetic Adjuncts
An oil or oily material may be present, together with an emulsifier to provide either a water-in-oil emulsion or an oil-in-water emulsion, depending largely on the average hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) of the emulsifier employed.
The inventive compositions preferably include sunscreens. Sunscreens include those materials commonly employed to block ultraviolet light. Illustrative compounds are the derivatives of PABA, cinnamate and salicylate.
For example, octyl methoxycinnamate and 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy benzophenone (also known as oxybenzone) may be used. Octyl methoxycinnamate and 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy benzophenone are commercially available under the trademarks, Parsol MCX and Benzophenone-3, respectively. The exact amount of sunscreen employed in the emulsions may vary depending upon the degree of protection desired from the sun"s UV radiation.
Emollients are often incorporated into cosmetic compositions of the present invention. Levels of such emollients may range from 0.5% to 50%, preferably between 5% and 30% by weight of the total composition. Emollients may be classified under such general chemical categories as esters, fatty acids and alcohols, polyols and hydrocarbons.
Esters may, be. mono- or. di-esters. Acceptable examples of fatty di-esters include dibutyl adipate, diethyl sebacate, diisopropyl dimerate, and dioctyl succinate. Acceptable branched chain fatty esters include 2-ethyl-hexyl myristate, isopropyl stearate and isostearyl palmitate. Acceptable tribasic acid esters include triisopropyl trilinoleate and
i trilauryl citrate. Acceptable straight chain fatty esters
include lauryl palmitate, myristyl lactate, and stearyl
oleate. Preferred esters include coco-caprylane/caprate (a
: blend of coco-caprylate and coco-caprate), propylene glycol
myvriscyl ether acetate, diisopropyl adipate and cetyl octanoate.
Suitable fatty alcohols and acids include those compounds having from 10 to 20 carbon atoms. Especially preferred are compounds such as cetyl, myristyl, palmitic and stearyl alcohols and acids.
Among the polyols which may serve as emollients are linear and branched chain alkyl polyhydroxyl compounds. For example, propylene glycol, sorbitol and glycerin are preferred. Also useful may be polymeric polyols such as poly-propylene glycol and polyethylene glycol. Butylene and propylene glycol are also especially preferred as penetration enhancers.
Exemplary hydrocarbons which may serve as emollients are those having hydrocarbon chains anywhere from 12 to 30 carbon atoms. Specific examples include mineral oil, petroleum jelly, squalene and isoparaffins.
Another category of functional ingredients within the cosmetic compositions of the present invention are thickeners. A thickener will usually be present in amounts ranging anywhere from 0.1 to 20% by weight, preferably from about 0.5% to 10% by weight of the composition. Exemplary thickeners are cross-linked polyacrylate materials available under the trademark Carbopol from the 3.F. Goodrich Company. Gums may be employed such as xanthan, carrageenan, gelatin, karaya, pectin and locust beans gum. Under certain circumstances the thickening function may be accomplished by
a material also serving as a silicone or emollient. For instance, silicone gums in excess of 10 centistokes and esters such as glycerol stearate have dual functionality.
Powders may be incorporated into the cosmetic compositions of the present invention. These powders include chalk, talc, kaolin, starch, smectite clays, chemically modified magnesium aluminum silicate, organically modified montmorillonite clay, hydrated aluminum silicate, fumed silica, aluminum starch octenyl succinate and mixtures thereof.
Other adjunct minor components may also be incorporated into the cosmetic compositions. These ingredients may include coloring agents, opacifiers and perfumes. Amounts of these other adjunct minor components may range anywhere from 0.001% up to 20% by weight of the composition.
Use of the Composition
The composition according to the invention, is, intended primarily as a product for topical cosmetic application to human skin, especially as an agent for conditioning, moisturizing and smoothening the skin, and preventing or reducing the appearance of lined, wrinkled or aged skin.
In use, a small quantity of the composition, for example from 1 to 100ml, is applied to exposed areas of the skin, from a suitable container or applicator and, if necessary, it is then spread over and/or rubbed into the skin using the hand or fingers or a suitable device.
Product Form and Packaging
The topical skin treatment compositions of the invention may be formulated as a lotion, a cream or a gel. The composition may be packaged in a suitable container to suit its" viscosity and intended use by the consumer. For example, a lotion or cream may be packaged in a bottle or a roll-ball applicator, or a propellant-driven aerosol device or a container fitted with a pump suitable for finger operation. When the composition is a cream, it may simply be stored in a non-deformable bottle or squeeze container, such as a tube or a lidded jar. The composition may also be included in capsules such as those described in U.S. Patent 5,063,507, incorporated herein by reference. The invention accordingly also provides a closed container containing a cosmetically acceptable composition as herein defined.
The following specific examples further illustrate the invention, but the invention is not limited thereto. In all examples, anise seed was obtained from local health food stores. Retinoids were obtained from Sigma. The student t-test was used to calculate all p-values
The following methods were employed:
1. Preparation of anise extracts:
Dried star anise seeds (Pimpinella anisum.) were purchased from local markets and powdered in a dry grinder. The alcoholic extract of anise seed was prepared by stirring 1 gram of the dry anise seed powder in 10 ml of solvent selected from the list of solvents provided above (for example, ethanol) for 4 to 24 hrs at room temperature. The extracts were clarified by filtration and centrifugation, to obtain a 10% extract of anise seed in the particular solvent.
2. Cell culture method:
Human adult fibroblasts obtained from sun-protected inner arm of 25-30 old year female volunteers were used. Cells were grown in 1:1 DMEM/Hams F12 media containing 10% FBS,
maintained at 37*C in a 5% CO2 atmosphere under normal
atmospheric oxygen tension. Third passage adult fibroblasts were grown in DMEM media with 10% FBS in 12-well plates at a seeding density of 40,000 cells/ml/well. The cells at 80% confluence were rinsed in serum free and phenol red free (PRF) DMEM media twice. Pre-treatment with anise seed extract for 4 hours was conducted and then dosed with retinoids and incubated for 48 hours. After incubation, the wells were washed twice with IX PBS and the cell monolayer was harvested in lOOpl cell lysis buffer (contains IX PBS, 1% TritonX, 0.5% sodium deoxycholate, 0.1% SDS containing protease inhibitor (lOmg/ml PMSF in isopropanol, lOp1/ml)). The suspension was spun at 14000rpm for 10 minutes, the supernatant collected and an aliquot of the supernatant used for protein quantification. The protein concentration was determined using a Pierce protein kit. The remainder of the lOOpl supernatant (cell lysate) was denatured in a mixture
of 40pl sample buffer (NOVEX) and 0.5-5 Eeta mercaptoethanol (3ME) by boiling the sample for 5 minutes. Equal amounts of protein were then loaded onto 16% Tris-glycine gels for protein analysis by SDS page and Western Immuno-blotting for CRABP-2 protein expression.
3. Detection of Cellular Retinoic Acid Binding Protein 2 (CRABP-2) in fibroblasts:
To measure the levels of CRABP-2 in the fibroblasts prepared as described above, the cell supernatant was re-suspended in 4X sample buffer and 0.5% BME, boiled for 5 minutes and used for western blotting. Equal amounts of protein were loaded onto 16% Tris-glycine gels for CRABP-2 protein analysis by SDS page and Western Immuno-blotting. The gels were transferred to nitrocellulose blots and Western Blotting was carried out using monoclonal antibodies to CRAB2-2 accrding to standard procedures. The CRABP-2 protein band was visualized in the Wester0000n Elots using the chemiluminescence system obtained from Santa Cruz Biotechnology (SantaCruz, CA) . The bands in the film were quantitated by densitometric scanning, the data from triplicate samples were calculated as % of control and expressed in the following tables as % increase over control (with control as 100%) +/-SD of triplicates.
The following examples investigated the effect on CRABP-2 expression cf fibroblasts of combinations of various concentrations of anise seed extract and retinoids.
EXAMPLE 1: 100 nM retinoids and O.lul of a 10% anise seed extract
CRABP-2 levels As % of control p value
control p value
retinoi d p value vs. anise Synerg
Control 0.43+/-0.16 100+/ -38 1
Retinoi 1.36+/-0.17 317 + / -39 0.0002 1
Retinyi Palmitate 1.12+/-0.15 262+/ -37 0.0064 1
Retinyi linoleate 1.23+/-0.28 286+/ -65 0.0012 1
Retinyi acetate 2.38+/-0.81 553+/ -190 0.0154 1
Anise ext. 1.27+/-0.18 295+/
-43 0.0043 1
Anise + retinoi 2.77+/-0.43 644 + / -101 0.000 0.0064 0.00053 Yes
Anise + ret.palmit ate 2.48+/-0.2 576+/ -48 0.00001 0.0008 5 0.0016 Yes
Linoleate 3.75+/-0.24 872 + / -57 0.00000
4 0.0003 0.00015 Yes
acetate 4.7+/-0.1 1094 + /-24 0.00000
7 0.0032 0.00018 Yes
EXAMPLE. 2". 10.0. nM retinoids and 1.0 ul of a 10% anise seed extract
Groups CRABP-2 levels As % of control p value vs.
control p value
retinoid p value vs.
Control 0.43+/-0.16 100+/-38 1
Retincl 1.36+/-0.17 317+/-39 0.0002 4 1
Retinyi Palmitate 1.12+/-0.15 262+/-37 0.0064 1
Retinyi linoleate 1.23+/-0.28 286+/-65 0.0012 9 1
Retinyi acetate 2.38+/-0.81 553+/-190 0.0154 1
I .06+/- i 247+/-0.4 4 ■ |103 0.082 1
retinol 2.87+/-0.32 66"+/-75 0.0000 32 0.002 0.000 47 Yes
Anise + ret-palmita
te 2.61+/-0.31 606+/-72 0.0000 43 0.0018 0.007 8 Yes
Linoleate 2.89+/-0.25 673+/-59 0.0000 15 0.0015 0.003.
acetate 5.6+/-0.86 1303+/ -200 0.0000 52 0.009 0.001 2 Yes
EXAMPLE 3: 500 nM retinoids and 0.1 |il of a 10% anise seed extract
Groups CRABP-2 levels As % of control p value
control p value
value vs. anise Synergy
Control 0.43+/-0.16 100+/-38 1
Retinol 0.66+/-0.19 154+/-44 0.187 1
Retinyl Palmitate 0.83+/-0.5 193+/-124 0.281 1
Retinyl linoleate. 0.99+/-.0..13 231+/-30 0.01 1
Retinyl acetate 1.02+/-0.56 237+/-131 0.157 1
Anise ext. 1.27+/-0.18 295+/-43 0.0043 5 1
Anise + retinol 3.38+/-0.17 787+/-41 0.0000
31 0.00005 4 0.001
Anise + ret.oaImitate 3.56+/-0.5 829+/-118 0.0000
5 3 0.003 0.001 8 Yes
Anise + ret. Linoleate 3.7+/-0.53 861+/-123 0.0000 52 0.0011 0.001 7 Yes
Anise + ret. Acetate 3.21+/-0.69 745+/-
5 0.0135 0.009 6 Yes
EXAMPLE 4: 500 nm retinoids and 1.0 ul of a 10% anise seed extract:
levels As % of control p value vs.
control p value. vs.
Control 0.43 +
0.16 100+/-38 1
0.19 154+/-44 0.187 1
Retinyl Palmitate 0.83 + /-0.5 193+/-124 0.281 1
Retinyl linoleate 0.99 +
0.13 231+/-30 0.01 1
Retinyl acetate 1.02 +
0.56 237+/-131 0.157 1
Anise ext. 1.06+ /-
0.44 247+/-103 0.082 1
Anise + retinol 2.35 +
0.13 546+/-30 0.00000 97 0.00002 3 0.008 6 Yes
Anise + ret.palmitate 2.84 +
1.45 662+/-338 0.0046 0.0145 0.112 No
Anise + ret. Linoleate 3.0+/ -0.5 697+/-117 0.00011 ■0.087 0.007 6 No
Anise + ret. acetate 2.64 +
0.37 613+/-86 0.00007 2 0.496 0.009 3 No
The results summarized in Examples 1-4 demonstrate that anise extract showed synergy with all the retinoids except with the highest concentration of retinoids (500 nM) in combination with the highest concentration of the anise extract (1 ul) tested.
It should be understood that the specific forms of the invention herein illustrated and described are intended to be representative only. Changes, including but not limited to those suggested in this specification, may be made xn the illustrated embodiments without departing from the clear teachings of the disclosure. Accordingly, reference should be made to the following appended claims in determining the full scope of the invention.
1. A cosmetic skin care composition comprising:
(i) an organic solvent extract of anise seed in an amount of from 0.00001 to 10
wt%; (ii) from 0.001 to 10 wt% of a retinol selected from retinol, retinyl ester, and
mixtures thereof; and (iii) a cosmetically acceptable vehicle.
Dated this 15th day of May 2002
|Indian Patent Application Number||IN/PCT/2002/00617/MUM|
|PG Journal Number||19/2007|
|Date of Filing||15-May-2002|
|Name of Patentee||HINDUSTAN UNILEVER LIMITED|
|Applicant Address||A COMPANY INCORPORATED UNDER THE INDIAN COMPANIES ACT, 1913 AND HAVING ITS REGISTRED OFFICE AT HINDUSTAN LEVER HOUSE, 165/166, BACKBAY RECLAMATION, MUMBAI - 400 020, MAHARASHTRA, INDIA.|
|PCT International Classification Number||N/A|
|PCT International Application Number||N/A|
|PCT International Filing date||2000-11-13|