|Title of Invention||
"A SINGLE SCREW XETRUDER AND A MIXER"
|Abstract||" A SINGLE SCREW EXTRUDER AND A MIXER" A single screw extruder, for extrusion of material such as polymer, comprising a drivable screw (4) with at least one flight, located within a static parallel barrel (5, 6) so as to define an annular, material flow gap between the exterior of the screw and the interior of the barrel, a mixer (14) to receive material delivered by the screw (4) and through which mixer (14) the material is forced, with the mixer (14) comprising a rotor (11) driven by the screw (4) and a stator, the rotor and the stator each carrying rings of teeth (21) adapted to overlap, whereby the material upon entering the mixer (14) is firstly urged radially outwardly along a first tortuous mixing path , and secondly returned radially inwardly along a second tortuous mixing path, the teeth (21) extending axiaily or generally so with respect to the longitudinal axis of the screw characterised in that (i) the mixer (14) has a diameter substantially exceeding that of the delivery end of the screw (4), such that the teeth (21,31) of both the rotor and stator of the mixer are outside the diameter of the screw (4) and (ii) the arrangement is such that the material is forced through the mixer (14) principally by the pressure generated within the barrel (5,6) by the screw (4).|
|Full Text||-2-FIELD OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates in one aspect to a single screw extruder for eKtruding combinations of materials such as thermoplastics polymers, rubbers, waxes and solid additives and in another aspect to a mixer for such materials. The mixer could however be employed in the manufacture of inks, paints and other materials where one or more of the components is liquid at the room temperature.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
Single screw extruders are very widely used in the plastic industry for producing compounds of rubber and thermoplastic polymers with solid additives. They are simple to construct and therefore relatively inexpensive, however that they have limited distributive and dispersive mixing capacity has been long recognised and is well documented ( of " Single Screw Mixing: Problems and Solutions" Martin Gale,a paper presented at a RAPRA Technology Ltd. seminar 08/06/95).
Further background as to the mixing limitations of single screw extruders is given in an article in Plastics Additives and Compounding August/September 1995 pages 21-23 entitled " New dispersive mixers based on elongational flow" and the associated patent, US 5932159, published 3 August 1999, This stresses the
need far a variety of dispersive forces including elongation flow and multiple passes through regions of high stress, conditions which are normally difficult to generate within a single screw machine.
There are many devices that can be used to improve the distributive mixing capacity of single screw extruders; however these devices offer only marginal improvements in dispersive mixing. A good example of this is the cavity transfer mixer (US 4419014) where the process melt is transferred repeatedly between cavities in a rotor and opposed cavities in the barrel wall. The rotary motion of the rotor means that the material is constantly subdivided and re—oriented. However this does not generate a high shear rate since the walls of opposing cavities are quite widely separated. In practical devices this low shear rate also limits the maximum cavity size since there is a tendency for the melt to stagnate.
Pins can also be used to improve mixing either protruding radially from the barrel or from the surface of a rotor or the screw itself. Whilst pins do generate chaotic flow improving distributive mixing, they do little in the way of dispersive mixing since the pins do not move relative to a complementary shear surface- In the case of pinned barrels, gaps in the helical
flight sweep aver the pins generate high sheer events and also
allow significant re-circulation of the polymer melt improving distributive mixing. However, the proportion of material subjected to high shear is quite small.
OBJECT OF THE INVENTION
A basic object of the invention is the provision of an improved single screw extruder and to a mixer for use with such extruder.
SUMMARY OF A FIRST ASPECT OF THE INVENTION
According to a first aspect of the invention there is provided a single screw extruder comprising a drivable screw, with at least one flight, located within a static barrel so as to define an annular material flow gap between the exterior of the screw and the interior of the barrel, a mixer associated with the screw, whereby material passes from an upstream portion of the flow gap, into the mixer and is then either returned to a downstream portion of the flow gap or is discharged, with the mixer comprising a rotor driven by the screw and a stator, the rotor and the stator each carrying mutually facing interengaging rings of teeth whereby the material is urged outwardly from the annular gap along a first tortuous mixing path, and then returned inwardly along a second tortuous mixing path, the teeth extending
axially or generally so, with respect to the longitudinal axis of the screw,
SUMMARY OF A SECOND ASPECT OF THE INVENTION
According to a second aspect of the invention there is provided a mixer far mixing solids with liquids, liquids and liquids eg, polymer alloys for use with other devices or combinations of devices capable of driving the rotor and introducing material in a fluid state into the mixer under sufficient pressure to cause the material to be mixed to flow through the mixer, the mixer comprising: (i) a cylindrical stator chamber having opposed, radially
extending faces provided with axially projecting,
radially spaced-apart rings made up of alternating teeth
and ridges, ii) a rotor rotatably fitted within the stator and provided
on its opposite side faces with axially projecting,
radially spaced-apart rings of alternating teeth and
ridges, and iii) the rotor and stator rings interengaging with both radial
and axial clearance so as to define a tortuous material
ADVANTAGES OF THE INVENTION
The extruder in accordance with the first aspect has been found to provide significant improvement in the extruder performance and the quality of extruded product compared with prior art single screw extruders, whilst the mixer in accordance with the second aspect has been found to be particularly advantageous and to provide a fundamental improvement in the mixing of sol ids and liquids such as a liquid thermoplastics material and solid additive and improve the manufacture of polymer alloys. The rings on the stator may be as thin as possible whilst maintaining mechanical integrity since their only
functions are to provide a barrier to melt flow and complementary shear surfaces to the rotor. This arrangement 1imits possible melt stagnation in the gaps between stator teeth. In addition, the screw may serve as a main bearing for the mixer, whilst because the teeth are concentric around the barrel, there is no constraint on the length of the teeth that may be provided.
PREFERRED OR OPTIONAL FEATURES OF THE EXTRUDER
The mixer is located intermediate the ends of the screw.
The mixer is located at the discharge end of the
As the extruder will be used for extruding a range of
materials, it is clear that a suite of mixers exhibiting
differing a geometrical properties to provide different mixing capabilities is desirable for optimum mixing- Thus, to permit reasonably expedient changing of a mixer, the extruder is provided with readily releasable means eg a pair of releasable flanges within which the mixer is housed.
The internal diameter of stator chamber is larger than the internal diameter of the extruder to which it is attached and the rotor is relatively short.
PREFERRED OR OPTIONAL FEATURES OF THE MIXER:
Clearly, the mixer can be used in combination with any apparatus capable of introducing the materials to be mixed under sufficient pressure to cause these materials to flow through the mixer. One such apparatus is a single screw extruder. Thus it is necessary to provide the mixer with an entry aperture and an exit aperture for material feed under pressure into through, and out of the exit aperture of the mixer . In the mixer the materials undergo four actions namely (i) a radial movement under pressure suitably from a central feed port to an outlet port, Cii) an orbital movement involving division of the radially moving materials into portions some of which go one way while vicinal
portions go the opposite way and (i i i) a shearing action (iv) an elongational deformation.
This mixer differs from that of a conventional BKtrader configuration with a long thin screw and any ancillary mixers are contained in a narrow cylinder, i.e. the primary internal barrel diameter- since the mixer has in it is preferred configurations, a short broad rotor within a chamber with an internal diameter greater than that" of the barrel to which it Is attached. Looking at this basic geometry two significant advantagaes become clear. Firstly the shortest path length through the mixer increases only linearly with rotor radium whilst the volume aval 1 able for mixing increases with the square of that radius. Secondly angular velocity raises linearly with the rotor radium. This means that the largest mixing volume coincides with the highest potential shear rates.
By interengage is meant that the teeth of a rotor or stator ring always extend into the valley defined between a pair of adjacent rings of the stator or rotor, whi1st the ridges may or may not extend into that valley- Means are provided to drive angularly the rotor or the stator or both so that there is relative movement between the two. Normally only the rotor will be driven to rotate about its axis.
In one form of the mixer, the rings are concentric to the axis of the rotor. However they may also be arranged eccentrically which results in a cleaning action when the rings approach each other. The maximum eccentricity is 1imited to the separation between the rings forming the complementary valley on the complementary component-
The maximum combined height of a given ring and tooth at any point on the surface of either the stator or rotor is limited by the separation of the stator and rotor. The separation can vary between 0.1 and 300 mm. preferably 1 to 100 mm.
The combined height of the ridges and teeth can be varied by any amount within this limit either around the circumference or along a radial path. The variation can be either continuous or discontinuous i.e. the transition can be slopped or stepped) but in the preferred form» the ridges and teeth are uniform in height -
The thickness of both the teeth and ridges around their circumference can be varied but in the preferred form is uniform. This thickness can range from 0.1 mm to 100mm preferably 1—30 mm-
Any tooth may combine any or all of these characteristics and the transition between them may be continuous or discontinuous i.e. the transition may be slopped or stepped.
The stator, rotor, ridges and teeth may be made from any material that is dimensionally stable at the operating temperature and under the mechanical strains generated in operation. Such materials include steel* ceramics, rubber and plastics.
The ridges and teeth can be either permanently or removably attached to the rotor and stator. Removable ridges and teeth may also be attached as to allow their repositioning and reorientation. The status which defines the chamber around the rotor may also be either permanently or releasably assembled around the rotor.
Preferably the stator is defined by a pair of mutually facing cup shaped inserts which are clamped together opening-to-opening. When assembled into a single screw extruder, such clamping would be between the extended flanges of the front and rear barrels. In this way the miKing geometry of the device may be altered by replacing the relatively inexpensive inserts.
In operation) the pressure gradient from inlet of th mixer to outlet causes material to flow through the device. There
are three tortuous routes that the material can take. A zigzag route over the intermeshing annular ridges and teeth, a route along the annular channels defined by the ridges and a route through the gaps between teeth. All three routes are continuously changing due to relative motion and take material up one a face of the rotor across its edge and the back down the obverse.
In one configuration the gaps between teeth on the stator and the rotor are arranged to form radial channels. The rotational motion of the rotor leads to periodic alignment of teeth and gaps and gaps and gaps between the rotor and stator.
However the gaps may be staggered to alter the mixing the characteristics. For any given ring the combined length of teeth and gaps is equal to the cirumference of that ridge. The teeth may be of any length along the ring within this total taut need not be uniform in length.
Dispersive mixing occurs in the gaps between the faces of the annular ridges and teeth on the rotor and their counterparts on the stator. Material within these gaps is subject to both pressure and drag flow due to the motion of the rotor. In this way the melt in the high shear zone is constant refreshed. Distributive mixing then ensures that this well-dispersed material is evenly distributed through the bulk of the melt.
Distributive miKing results from the repeated cutting of the melt as it emerges from gaps between teeth on the stator and also as it enters the next set of gaps between the teeth on the stator. Since the speed of flow into and out of these gaps is slower near to the defining teeth than in the middle? significant reorientation of the melt also occurs.
The mixer can be used in conjunction with a number of functional ancillary elements each of which can be supported by a number of well known devices. The ancillary elements include! a) means of receiving the process material!
b> means of melting one or more of the components to generate 1iquid; c) means of degassing the process melt of the inlet side of
the mixer; d> means of generating pressure on the inlet side of the mixeri
e) means of driving the rotor of the mixer;
f) means of degassing the process melt on the outlet side of the mixer;
g) means generating pressure on the outlet side of the
h) means of filtering the process melt; and i) means of farming the process melt.
Elements d and e are always required far the operation of the mixer. The need far the other ancillary functional elements is dependent on the users needs, but a single screw extruder can provide functional elements a, b, C, d and e then f- g. h and i.
Elements d and e are always required for the operation of the mixer. The need for the other anci1lary functional elements is dependent on the users needs-Devices suitable for providing one or more of the functional anci Hary elements include:
1) A single screw extruder can provide functional elements
a,b,C ,d and e then f.g.h and i
2) A twin screw extruder can provide functional elements a.b,c,d and e then f.g-h and 1
3) A Z-blade mixer can provide functional elements a.b and c
4) An internal mixer can provide functional elements a.b. and c
5) A gear or other pump can provide functional elements d,e and g
6) An external motor can provide functional element e
7) A removable filter system can provide functional element h
a> A removable die can provide functional element i
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS :
The invention will now be described in greater detail by way of example , with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:
Figure 1 illustrates a preferred form of a single screw extruder in accordance with the first aspect of the invention incorporating a mixer in accordance with the second aspect of the invention:
Figure la illustrates an enlarged view of the mixer shown in
Figure 2 is a end view of a front mixing insert (l0).
Figure 2a is a cross section of Fiture 2 along line aa;
Figure 2b is a cross section of Figure 2 along line b.
Figure 3 is a end view of mixing rotor (11);
Figure 3a is a cross sectiOn of Fiture 3 along line CC;
Figure 3b is a cross section of Figure 3 along line dd;
Figure 4 is an end view of an intermesh between from mixing
insert (10); and mixing rotor (11);
Figure 4a is a cross section of Figure 4 along line ee»
Figure 4b is a cross section of Figure 4 along line ff;
Figure 5 is an end view of an intermesh between front mixing
insert (10), and mixing rotor (11) rotated 33.75 degrees
clockwise in comparison to Figure 4;
Figure 5a is a cross section of Figure 5 along line gg;
Figure Sb is a cross section Figure 5 along line hhj
Figure 6 is an end view of an alternative front mixing insert
without radial alignment of the gaps between teeth;
Figure 6a is a cross section of Figure 6 along line ii;
Figure 6b is a cross section of Figure 6 along line jj;
Figure 7 is an end view of an alternative miKing rotor
Figure 7a is a cross section of Figure 7 along line kk;
Figure 7b is a cross section of Figure 7 along line 11;
Figures 8 to 8e are cross sections of possible alignments of
teeth within the channels formed by teeth and ridges on the
Figure 8a illustrates a tooth symmetrically aligned in the
Figure 8b illustrates a tooth aligned with the outside
Figure 8c illustrates a tooth aligned with the inside channel
Figure 8d illustrates a tooth with a negative pitch; Figure 8e illustrates a tooth with a positive pitch; Figures 9a to 9e ara cross sections of possible variations in tooth leading edges and tips with the arrow showing the direction of rotation;
Figure 9a illustrates a neutral leading edge with neutral tip; Figure 9b illustrates positive leading edge and neutral tip; Figure 9c illustrates a negative leading edge and neutral tip;
Figure 9d illustrates a neutral leading edge and positive tip
Figure 9e illustrates a neutral leading edge and negative tip
Figures 10a to 10c are cross sections of ridges and teeth
illustrating possible variations in leading edge shape;
Figure 10a illustrates a symmetrical leading edge;
Figure 10b illustrates a negative edge bias;
Figure 10c i1lustrates a positive edge bias;
Figures 11a to lie illustrate possible variations in tooth cross-section;
Figure 11a illustrates a parallel tooth in para1lel channel;
Figure lib illustrates a negative sweep in parallel channel;
Figure lic illustrates a positive sweep in parallel channel;
Figure lid illustrates a tapered tooth in tapered channel;
Figure lie illustrates an inverted tapered tooth in inverted
Figure 12 illustrates a passible variations in insert end wall geometry;
Figure 12a is a section through mm for a conical end wall; Figure 12b is a section through mm for an inverted conical end wall;
Figure 13 illustrates a possible variations in rotor disk geometry;
Figure 13a is a section through nn for an inverted conical disk; Figure 13b is a section through nn for a conical disk.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
Referring to Figure 1, the single screw extruder comprises a spl ine 1 or other coupling from the rotary drive to rear extruder screw, a cooling jacket 2, a funnel and feed zone 3, a rear extruder screw 4) a rear barrel 5, an enlarged flange 5A, a front barrel 6, an enlarged flange 6A, a die 7, a discharge nozzle 8, a front screw 9) a rear mixing insert 12 and a front mixing insert 10 which together form a chamber about a mixing rotor 11 and a drive spindle 13. The screw of the single screw extruder is thus interrupted by the presence of the mixer 14 comprising elements 10, 11, 12 and 13.
Figure la is a drawing of one embodiment of the invention where the mixer 14 consists of a rear mixing insert 12 and a front mixing insert 10 which together form a chamber about a mixing rotor 11 and a drive spindle 13. Barrels 5 and 6 can be heated and zone 3 can be coolerd by means of a cooling jacket 2. In addition, the flanges joining the extruder barrels 5a and 6a
can be heater or cooled to maintain a balance between heat losses to the environment and heat generated within the mixer again by means not shown.
Referring to Figures 2, 2a, and 2b, the inside surface of insert 10 is made up of a series of radially spaced-apart rings 22a, 22b, 22c and 22d. Mounted on the rings are circumferentially spaced-apart and axially projecting teeth 21 so that gaps between adjacent teeth constitute ridges 20 giving the rings a castellated appearance.
Referring to Figures 3, 3a and 3b, the rotor 11 is mounted on a drive spindle 13 and consists of a circular body, oposed faces of which are each provided with a series of radially spaced-apart rings 32a, 32b, 32c and 32d. Mounted on the rings are circumferentially spaced-apart and axially projecting teeth 31 so that gaps between adjacent teeth constitute ridges 30 giving the rings a castellated appearance - The rings 323, 32b, 32c. and 32d intermesh with rings 22a, 22b, 22c and 22d in the functional position illustrated in Figures 4, 4a and 4b and in Figures 5, 5a and 5b. The rings, teeth and ridges are so juxtaposed as to define a tortuous mixing flow path for material with the arrows 40 and 41 (Figure 4) illustrating the path of least resistance to the melt flow through gaps between teeth. As
drawn the flow off the rotor is not constrained by the second insert (12) i.e. only one half of the mixer shown.
As the rotor 11 moves in relation to its housing the following positions arise: (a) the teeth on the rotor are in line with the teeth on the ridges (Figure 4a), (b) the teeth on the rotor are out of line, with the teeth on the ridges (Figure 4b) and (c) the teeth on the rotor are in positions between (a) and (a). Position (a) represents the moment of maximum shear i.e. dispersion and maximum radial flow of the materials being mixed. Position (b) represents the moment of maximum distribution when aliquots of the outward flow of material are taken off in different directions according to whether they are in locations bounded by rotor teeth or locations bounded by housing teeth.
Figure 6 shows an insert where the gaps are not aligned to give a contiguous 1inear radial path and so the path of least resistance involves annular as well as radial displacements.
Figure 7 shows a rotor where the teeth not aligned to give a continuous linear radial path and so the path of least resistant involves annular as well as radial displacements.
Figures 8 , 9 and 10 show the various geometries of the teeth. Referring to figures 8 to 10 it can be appreciated that the shape of the leading edge and the orientation of the individual teeth can promote movement of the melt in particular
directions within the mixer, which may be highly advantageous to both transport of material through the mixer and also in terms of promoting dispersive conditions such as elongation flow.
Figure 8 shows a rotor tooth 82 between stator teeth 81 and B3 with the tooth centred in 8a, scrapping the outer tooth 81 in 8b, the inner stator tooth 83 in 8c and shows a positive pitch 8e of the tooth body which will push material outwards within the mixer whilst a negative pitch 8d will bring it towards the centre.
Figure 9 shows a neutral rake 9a, positive rake on the leading edge 9b which will transport material from the base of a valley towards the rotor disc, whilst a negative rake 9c will push material down into the stator. The arrow indicates the direction of rotation. Figure 9d and 9e show variation in the tooth tip.
Figure 10 shows rotor tooth 101 between stator teeth 100 and 102 with a positive bevel 10c on a the leading edge which will push material outwards within the mixer whilst a negative bevel 10b will bring it towards the centre.
The polymer, polymer blend or polymer/solid additive mixture is fed into the extruder via the hopper and feed port 3 and is conveyed along the rear barrel 5 by the rotation of the rear screw 4 which is driven by an external drive not shown via the
coupling 1. Heat supplied via the barrel 5 causes the polymer to become liquid or at least readily deformable before reaching the rear mixing insert 12-
The mixing inserts could be integrated into the flanges of the two barrel sections but by making them removable mixing geometry and hence mixing effects can be changed by replacing the relatively inexpensive inserts rather than the entire barrel.
The front 10 and the rear 12 inserts are clamped together by flanges to form a cylindrical chamber with inlet 12a and outlet 10a. as shown in Figure la. The surfaces of the mixing inserts and rotor are covered with a series of annular ridges. An example of this is shown in Figure 2, 22d in which ridges are offset from each other so that they can intermesh as shown in Figure 4. On top of the ridges are a series of teeth an example of which is shown in Figure 2, 21. The polymer melt can flow around the annular channels- Outwards or inwards through the gaps between the teeth or follow a longer path over the tips of the teeth. Under operating conditions the rotational motion of the rotor results in a chaotic combination of these. The net sum of all these routes takes the material up one face of the disk across its edges and back down the obverse.
From the discharge port 10a the polymer melt is conveyed by the front screw 9 along the front barrel and pressure is generated to force the melt through the discharge nozzle 8 in the die 7.
1. A single screw extruder, far extrusion of material such as polymer, comprising a drivable screw (4) with at least one flight, located within a static parallel barrel (3, 6) so as to define an annular, material flow gap between exterior of the screw and the interior of the barrel, a mixer (14) to receive material delivered by the screw (4) and through which mixer (14) the material is forced, with the mixer (14) comprising a rotor (11) driven by the screw (4) and a stator, the rotor and the stator each carrying rings of teeth (21) adapted to overlap, whereby the material upon entering the mixer (14) is first urged radially outwardly along a first tortuous mixing path, and secondly returned radially inwardly along a second tortuous mixing path, the teeth (21) extending axially or generally so with respect to the longitudinal axis of the screw, characterized in that:
(i) the mixer (14) has a diameter substantially exceeding that of the delivery end of the screw (4), such that the teeth (21,31) of both the rotor and stator of the mixer are outside the diameter of the screw (4) and
2. An extruder as claimed in claim 1, wherein the mixer (14) is located intermediate the ends of the screw (4). 3. An extruder as claimed in claim 1, wherein the mixer. (14) is located at the discharge end of the screw/extruder. 4- An extruder as claimed in any preceding claim? wherein readily re leasable means eg a pair of re leasable flanges are provided, permitting ready changes of one mixer (14) for a mixer (14) having different characteristics to suit changes of material being extruded.
5. An extruder as claimed in any preceding claim, wherein the rotor (11) has a higher aspect ratio per unit axial length than the screw to which it is attached.
6. An extruder as claimed in any preceding claim, wherein the stator teeth are provided on removable inserts.
7. An extruder as claimed in any preceding claim wherein the rotor teeth are provided on a removable rotor.
a. A mixer for material such as polymer comprising a rotor rotatable within a stator with apposed faces of the rotor, and opposed faces of the stator each having at least one circumferential extending ring, of interrupted, axially projecting teeth, wherein:
(i) on each opposed face of the stator chamber is provided a plurality of axially projecting, radially spaced-apart
rings which incorporatei alternating teeth and ridgss with channels defined between adjacent rings; on each opposite side face of the rotor is provided a plurality of axially projecting, radially spaced-apart rings which incorporate alternating teeth and ridgeS' with channels defined between adjacent rings, and
the rotor and stator rings interdigirate with a stator ring located in a rotor channel and a rdtor ring located in a stator channel, such that at least the tips of the stator ring teeth overlap at least the tops of the rotor ring ridges, and at least the tips of the rotor ring teeth overlap at least the tops of the stator ring ridges, with both radial and axial clearance so as to define, in the direction of material flow through the mixer, a first tortuous material flow path radially outwardly from the axis of rotation of the rotor» followed by a second, tortuous material flow path radially inwardly to the axis of rotation of the rotor.
" A SINGLE SCREW EXTRUDER AND A MIXER" A single screw extruder, for extrusion of material such as polymer, comprising a drivable screw (4) with at least one flight, located within a static parallel barrel (5, 6) so as to define an annular, material flow gap between the exterior of the screw and the interior of the barrel, a mixer (14) to receive material delivered by the screw (4) and through which mixer (14) the material is forced, with the mixer (14) comprising a rotor (11) driven by the screw (4) and a stator, the rotor and the stator each carrying rings of teeth (21) adapted to overlap, whereby the material upon entering the mixer (14) is firstly urged radially outwardly along a first tortuous mixing path , and secondly returned radially inwardly along a second tortuous mixing path, the teeth (21) extending axiaily or generally so with respect to the longitudinal axis of the screw characterised in that (i) the mixer (14) has a diameter substantially exceeding that of the delivery end of the screw (4), such that the teeth (21,31) of both the rotor and stator of the mixer are outside the diameter of the screw (4) and (ii) the arrangement is such that the material is forced through the mixer (14) principally by the pressure generated within the barrel (5,6) by the screw (4).
|Indian Patent Application Number||IN/PCT/2001/0403/KOL|
|PG Journal Number||11/2007|
|Date of Filing||09-Apr-2001|
|Name of Patentee||LAKTOR LIMITED|
|Applicant Address||GREAT BRITAIN, OF UNIT 1, THE LANCASSER COMPLEX BALL STREET, SHEFFIELD S3 8DB,|
|PCT International Classification Number||B01F7/00|
|PCT International Application Number||PCT/GB99/03349|
|PCT International Filing date||1999-10-19|