|Title of Invention||
A METHOD FOR IMPROVING THE SOLUBILITY IN A HIGHLY ALKALINE COMPOSITION
|Abstract||The present invention relates to a method for improving the solubility in a highly alkaline composition having a pH-value above 11 of a surface active nonionic alkylene oxide adduct, which is not soluble in the highly alkaline composition and contains a hydrocarbon group or an acyl group of from 8 to 24 carbon atoms and at least one primary hydroxyl group in the alkoxylated part of the molecule, and wherein said alkaline composition contains an alkaline agent selected from the group consisting of 3-50% w/w alkaline complexing agents, 10- 50% w/w alkali hydroxide, and mixtures thereof; in which method a n-hexyl glycoside of the formula C6H13Ogn (I), Where G is a monosaccharide residue and n is from 1 to 5, is added as a hydrotrope to the compostion.|
|Full Text||The present invention relates to a clear and stable, highly alkaline coinposition with controlled foam¬ing, containing a high amount of surface active nonionic alkylene oxide adduct and a hexyl glycoside as a hydro-trope. This composition has a very good wetting and clean¬ing ability and can be used for cleaning of hard surfaces, in a mercerization process and for a cleaning, desizing or scouring process of fibres and fabrics.
Highly alkaline compositions, such as concentrates having a high content of alkaline agents, such as alkali hydroxides, alkaline complexing agents and silicates, and having a pH value above 11, preferably above 13, are fre¬quently used for cleaning of hard surfaces, for merceriza-tion, scouring etc. A good wetting ability combined with a good cleaning effect is essential in the above-mentioned applications, which requires the presence of considerable amounts of suitable surfactants to lower the high surface tension caused by the high amount of electrolytes. It is also important to have a controlled foaming in these systems. To minimize the cost of transportation, these concentrates should contain as small amounts of water and other solvents as possible. It is also advantageous if the concentrates remain homogenous during transportation and storage.
Since these compositions contain high amounts of electrolytes, such as alkali and/or alkaline complexing agents, it is difficult to dissolve larger amounts of sur¬factants, especially nonionic surfactants. Therefore, in order to improve the solubility, hydrotropes are often added, and the most commonly used hydrotropes are ethanol and sodium xylene or cumene sulphonate. Ethanol is rather efficient, but presents an explosion hazard, and sodium xylene or cumene sulphonate is relatively inefficient at higher surfactant levels.
If a surfactant that is soluble in alkaline water solutions without the addition of a hydrotrope is used, there will be a problem with too much foam, which requires the addition of a foam depressor.
Alkyl glycosides have earlier been used in highly alkaline compositions, see for example EP-Bl-589 978, EP-Al-638 685 and US 4 240 921. Furthermore, alkyl glycosides are well known as active cleaning agents in commonly used cleaning compositions, see e.g. WO 97/34971, US 4 627 931 and EP-Bl-075 995.
EP-Bl-589 978 describes the use of CB-CI4 alkyl gly¬cosides as surface active auxiliaries in the desizing, bleaching and alkaline scouring of natural and/ai^synthe¬tic sheet-form textile materials, yarns or flocks, while EP-Al-638 685 relates to a mercerizing wetting agent con¬taining, either alone or in combination, a C4-Cig alkyl glycoside, a C4-Cie alkyl glyconic amide and the corresponding sulphonated derivatives. Liquid highly alkaline cleaning concentrates containing an alkyl glycoside or an alkyl glycidyl ether and surface active nonionic alkylene oxide adducts are described in US 4 240 921. The preferred alkylene oxide adducts are the ones capable of acting as foam depressors, such as polyoxyethylene/polyoxypropylene block copolymers and capped alcohol ethoxylates. The concentrate contains
a) 10 - 35% by weight of alkali metal hydroxide,
b) 10 - 50% by weight of a mixture of a first nonionic surfactant which is a polyoxypropylene polyoxyethylene condensate that acts as a foam depressor and a second nonionic surfactant which is a capped ethoxylated alcohol together with an alkyl glycoside or an alkyl glycidyl ether, where the weight ratio between the alkyl glycoside or the alkyl glycidyl ether and the before-mentioned first and second nonionic surfactants is between 5:1 to 10:1 and
c) water to balance.
These concentrates are used to formulate low foaming cleaning compositions having utility e.g. in the food industry.
However, the above composition disclosed in US 4 240 921 requires a rather high ratio of alkyl glycoside to the other nonionic surfactants present in the composi¬tion. Further, it is well known that the inclusion of larger amounts of PO in an alkoxylate, such as in foam depressors of the Pluronic type, has a negative influence on the biodegradability of the product. Finally, a capped alcohol ethoxylate normally is a poor wetting agent and has in addition a low cleaning ability. Its presence also increases the need for an extra amount of the alkyl glyco¬side or alkyl glycidyl ether.
There is consequently a need for highly alkaline compositions with improved properties.
It has now been found that highly alkaline composi¬tions having a pH above 11, preferably at least 13 and most preferably above 13.7, that exhibit an excellent cleaning and wetting ability, can be prepared by using a hexyl glycoside having the formula
CsHiaOG^ (I) , where G is a monosaccharide residue and n is from 1 to 5, as a hydrotrope for a surface active nonionic alkylene oxide adduct that is not soluble in the highly alkaline composition and contains a hydrocarbon group or an acyl group of from 8 to 2 4 carbon atoms and at least one pri¬mary hydroxyl group in the alkoxylated part of the mole¬cule. Suitably the adduct has the formula
R(AO)^(C2H40)yH (II), where R is an alkoxy group R"O- having 8 to 24 carbon atoms or a group R""CONR"""-, where R"" is a hydrocarbon group having 7 to 2 3 carbon atoms, R""" is hydrogen or the group -(AO)3^(C2H40)yH, preferably hydrogen, AO is an alky-leneoxy group with 2-4 carbon atoms, x is a number from 0 to 5 and y is a number from 1 to 10.
The present invention also relates to a composition
having a pH value above 11, which contains
a) 3-50% by weight of alkali hydroxide and/or alkaline complexing agents,
b) 0.05-30% by weight of a surface active nonionic alkylene oxide adduct having a hydrocarbon group or an acyl group of from 8 to 2 4 carbon atoms and hav¬ing at least one primary hydroxyl group in the al-koxylated part of the molecule,
c) 0.04-30% by weight of a hexyl glycoside, and
d) 20-97% by weight of water.
The weight ratio between the hexyl glucoside and the nonionic surfactant according to formula II is from 1:10 to 10:1, preferably from 1:10 to 4:1.
It should be pointed out that alkyl glucosides have been used in less alkaline detergent compositions, where the conditions are different. Examples of such composi¬tions are to be found in US 4 488 981 and EP-Bl-136 844.
The US Patent 4 488 981 and EP-Bl-136 844 describe the use of C1-C6 alkyl glycosides for reducing the visco¬sity of and preventing phase separation in an aqueous liquid detergent, for instance in liquid shampoos and soaps and in heavy duty liquids. The C2-C4 alkyl glycosides are the most preferred alkyl glycosides, since they are most effective in reducing the viscosity.
Furthermore, in the US Patent 5 525 256 and in Statuary Invention H 4 68 industrial and institutional alkaline liquid cleaning compositions containing C8-C25 alkyl glycosides as cleaning agents are described.
However, none of these references discloses the un¬expected effects of hexyl glycosides in highly alkaline cleaning compositions, containing at least 3%, preferably at least 20% alkali and/or alkaline builders and having a pH-value above 11, preferably at least 13, and most pre¬ferably above 13.7.
Suitable examples of nonionic surfactants according to formula II are alkylene oxide adducts obtained by al-koxylation of an alcohol or an amide. The R group in
formula II may be branched or straight, saturated or un¬saturated, aromatic or aliphatic. Examples of suitable hydrocarbon groups R" are 2-ethylhexyl, octyl, decyl, cocoalkyl, lauryl, oleyl, rape seed alkyl and tallow alkyl. Especially suitable hydrocarbon groups R" are those obtained from oxoalcohols, Guerbet alcohols, methyl sub¬stituted alcohols with 2-4 groups having the formula -CH(CH3)- included in the alkyl chain, and straight alco¬hols. Other suitable R groups are the R""CONH- aliphatic amido groups, where R""CO is preferably derived from ali¬phatic acids such as 2-ethylhexanoic acid, octanoic acid, decanoic acid, lauric acid, coconut fatty acid, oleic acid, rape seed oil fatty acid and tallow fatty acid.
The alkali hydroxide in the composition is prefer¬ably sodium or potassium hydroxide. The alkaline complex-ing agent can be inorganic as well as organic. Typical examples of inorganic complexing agents used in the alka¬line composition are alkali salts of silicates and phos¬phates, such as sodium tripolyphosphate, sodium ortho-phosphate, sodium pyrophosphate, sodium phosphate and the corresponding potassium salts. Typical examples of organic complexing agents are alkaline aminopolyphosphonates, organic phosphates, polycarboxylates, such as citrates; aminocarboxylates, such as sodium nitrilotriacetate (NasNTA), sodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate, sodium di-ethylenetriaminepentaacetate, sodium 1,3-propylenediamine-tetraacetate and sodium hydroxyethylethylenediaminetri-acetate.
The wetting of the composition is attributable to the nonionic surfactant present. The hexyl glycoside is not a wetting agent in itself, but by acting as a hydro-trope for the surfactant it enhances the wetting ability of the composition, since the otherwise insoluble sur¬factant now is dissolved and can exert its wetting abili¬ty. Concentrates with unexpectedly high amounts of sur¬factants can be dissolved in a highly alkaline aqueous phase, and the amount of hydrotrope needed to obtain a
stable, clear concentrate or composition is less than in prior art. This is very surprising, since in formulations with other short-chain alkyl glycosides, it is not possible to include as large amounts of surface active nonionic alkylene oxide adducts as when n-hexyl glucoside is present in the formulations. For a comparison, formula¬tions have also been made with both shorter and longer alkyl glucosides, which is illustrated in Example 1.
The composition of the present invention also ex¬hibits a controlled foaming without the need to add foam depressors as those used in prior art. The products in the composition all have good environmental properties. They are readily biodegradable and of low toxicity.
The composition has an excellent wetting and clean¬ing ability and can advantageously be used for the alka¬line cleaning of hard surfaces, e.g. vehicle cleaning, in a mercerisation process and for a cleaning, desizing or scouring process of fibres and fabrics performed at a pH above 11.
When used for the cleaning of hard surfaces, the composition is normally diluted with water prior to use, whereas in a mercerisation process, the composition can be used as such. For the cleaning, desizing and scouring of fibres and fabrics the composition could either be used as such or diluted.
When producing woven fabrics, the warp threads are subject to extreme stresses and must therefore be provided with a protective coating - the sizing agent - that adheres to the fibre, forming an abrasion-resistant, elastic film. The two main groups of sizing agents are macromolecular natural products and their derivatives, e.g. starches and carboxymethyl cellulose, and synthetic polymers, e.g. polyvinyl compounds. The sizing agent must be completely removed when the cloth has been woven, since it usually has a deleterious effect on subsequent finish¬ing processes. The desizing process can be enzymatic or oxidative and is usually carried out to completion in the
subsequent alkaline scouring and bleaching stages, where the initially water-insoluble starch degradation products and the residual sizes are broken down partly hydrolyti-cally and partly oxidatively and removed.
During the scouring, intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds of cellulose are broken, and the polar hydroxy1 groups of the polysaccharide are solvated. Tran¬sport of impurities from the inside to the outside of the fibre occurs. In the alkaline environment hydrolytic de¬composition of different plant parts takes place and fats and waxes are also hydrolysed. The alkali concentration used is ca 4-6% when using NaOH,
In the scouring process there is a need for auxili¬aries to effect thorough wetting, emulsification and dis¬persion of water insoluble impurities, complexation of heavy metal ions and prevention of fibre damage by atmos¬pheric oxygen. Here alkali-stable wetting agents and detergents constitute an important group of additives. It is also very important that an adequate amount of wetting agent/detergent is dissoluble in the alkaline water solu¬tion, which often requires the addition of a hydrotrope. The same applies to an even greater extent for the mercerization process, which is performed principally in order to improve the dyeability of cotton. The process involves treatment of cotton under tension with a ca 2 0-26% caustic soda solution at 15-25°C for 25-40 s. This treatment destroys the spiral form of cellulose, whereby the accessibility to water and, consequently, to water-based dyes, is improved. In addition to a good wetting ability and alkaline stability, it is also important that the additives do not cause foaming, since this would im¬pede the rapid wetting required in the mercerization baths.
The present invention is further illustrated by the following Examples.
This example illustrates the amount of different
alkyl glucoside hydrotropes, RO(G)„, that is needed to ob¬tain clear solutions of 5% nonionic surfactant in solu¬tions containing 10, 20, 30 and 40% NaOH. The nonionic surfactant used was a Cg.^ alcohol with a linearity above 8 0% that had been ethoxylated with 4 moles of ethylene oxide per mole alcohol in the presence of a narrow range catalyst. The glucosides tested are laboratory samples, except for the butyl glucoside which is a commercial sample from SEPPIC. The degree of polymerisation lies be¬tween 1.4 and 1.6 with the somewhat higher glucose amounts for the longer alkyl chains.
5% nonionic surfactant was added to water solutions with different amounts of sodium hydroxide. The hydro-tropes tested were added dropwise at room temperature to those aqueous mixtures of nonionic and sodium hydroxide in an amount that was just sufficient to obtain a clear solution.
no clear solution was obtained
a glucoside based on a methyl substituted alcohol
containing groups having the formula -CH(CH3)-
included in the alkyl chain
From the results it is evident that the solubiliz-ing effect of the hexyl glucoside is superior to the
solubilizing effects of the alkyl glucosides used for comparison.
To compare the efficiency of the n-hexyl glucoside to other kinds of hydrotropes, the same procedure was followed as described in Example 1.
no clear solution was obtained
The tests show an unexpectedly good solubilizing ability of the n-hexyl glucoside, especially at high alka¬line contents.
The surface tension was measured according to du Nouy (DIN 53914). The first three solutions contained 5% of the same nonionic as was used in Example 1 and 2, and the different amounts of hydrotropes were the same as in Example 2.
For the solutions that contained only n-hexyl glu¬coside the amounts were (54-x)%, where x represents the amounts used in Examples 1 and 2.
no clear solution was obtained, and the surface
tension was not measured for these formulations.
The modified Drave"s test was used to measure the wetting ability of highly alkaline compositions containing the n-hexyl glucoside and nonionic surfactants, as compar¬ed to decyl glucoside alone. In the modified Drave"s test, the sinking time in s is measured for a specified cotton yarn in approximately 0,1% surfactant solution. In this example the concentrations for hexyl glucoside and non-ionic surfactant specified in the table below were used.
Decyl glucoside is used for a comparison, since it represents an example of a nonionic surfactant that is soluble in alkaline water solution in the absence of any hydrotrope.
As can be seen from the table, n-hexyl glucoside has no wetting ability on its own.
The contact angle was measured with surfactant solutions, at concentrations specified in the table below, against a hydrophobic polymeric material (Parafilm). The angle is measured with a goniometer 1 min. after applica¬tion of the fluid. Decyl glucoside is used for a compari¬son.
The foam is measured as mm foam produced in a 500 ml measuring cylinder with 49 mm inner diameter from 200
ml surfactant solution when the cylinder is turned around 4 0 times in one minute. The test is made at room tempera¬ture and the foam height is registrated directly and after 1 and 5 minutes. Decyl glucoside is used for a comparison.
The following two formulations were prepared to evaluate the cleaning efficiency of a formulation using n-hexyl glucoside as a hydrotrope compared to a formulation using sodium cumene sulphonate as a hydrotrope.
^" This amount was needed to obtain a clear solution. The cleaning efficiency of the formulations in the table above was evaluated using the following cleaning test: White painted plates were smeared with an oil-soot
mixture obtained from diesel engines. 2 5 ml of the test solutions are poured onto the top of the oil-smeared plates and left there for one minute. The plates are then rinsed off with a rich flow of water. All solutions and the water are kept at a temperature of about 15-20°C. Both test solutions were placed on the same plate. The reflect¬ance of the plates was measured with a Minolta Chroma Meter CR-200 reflactometer before and after cleaning.
The test was performed both with the concentrates and with solutions diluted 1:3 with water. The washed-away soil was calculated by the computer program integrated in the meter, whereby for formulation I according to the in¬vention about 85% washed-away soil and for the reference formulation II about 44% washed-away soil was obtained. For the 1:3 diluted solutions the corresponding amounts were 68 and 21% respectively.
It was also found that, when using n-hexyl glucoside as a hydrotrope, the hydrophobic dirt that is emulsified in the cleaning process can easily be separated from the waste-water after dilution with water. This is an important advantage since there is a growing environmental demand for low oil content in waste-water.
The table below shows some examples of how much n-hexyl glucoside that is needed to obtain a clear solution in water with different types and amounts of nonionic sur¬factants with different amounts of added.
. WE CLAIM:
1. A method for improving the solubility in a highly alkaline composition having a
pH-value above 11 of a surface active nonionic alkylene oxide adduct, which is
not soluble in the highly alkaline composition and contains a hydrocarbon group or
an acyl group of from 8 to 24 carbon atoms and at least one primary hydroxyl
group in the alkoxylated part of the molecule, and wherein said alkaline
composition contains an alkaline agent selected from the group consisting of 3-
50% w/w alkaline complexing agents, 10- 50% w/w alkali hydroxide, and mixtures
thereof; in which method a n-hexyl glycoside of the formula
where G is a monosaccharide residue and n is from 1 to 5, is added as a hydrotrope to the composition.
2. The method as claimed in claim 1, where the adduct has the formula
where R is an alkoxy group R"O- having 8 to 24 carbon atoms or a group R" "CONR""- where R" is a hydrocarbon group having 7 to 23 carbon atoms, R"" is hydrogen or the group is an alkyleneoxy group with 2-4
carbon atoms, x is a number from 0 to 5 and y is a number from 1 to 10.
3. The method as claimed in claim 1 or 2, where the alkaline composition has a pH-value above 13.
4. The method as claimed in claims 1 to 3, where the composition contains 20-50% by weight of alkali hydroxide and/or alkaline complexing agents.
5. An aqueous alkaline composition having a pH-value above 11, characterized in
it contains a) an alkaline agent selected from the group consisting of 3-50% w/w
alkaline complexing agents, 10-50% w/w alkali hydroxide, and mixtures thereof,
b) 0.05-30% by weight of a surface active nonionic alkylene oxide adduct having a hydrocarbon group or an acyl group of from 8 to 24 carbon atoms and having at least one primary hydroxyl group in the alkoxylated part of the molecule,
c) 0,04-30% by weight of n-hexyl glycoside, and d) 20-97% by weight of water.
6. The composition as claimed in claim 5, wherein the nonionic surfactant is an
alkoxylate having the formula
where R is an alkoxy group R"O- having 8 to 24 carbon atoms or a group R"-CONR""- where R" is a hydrocarbon group having 7 to 23 carbon atoms, R"" is hydrogen or the group is an alkyleneoxy group with 2-4
carbon atoms, x is a number from 0 to 5 and y is a number from 1 to 10.
7. The composition as claimed in claims 5 and 6, wherein the weight ratio between c) and b) is from 1:10 to 4:1.
8. The composition as claimed in claims 5 to 7, having a pH value above 13.
9. The composition as claimed in claims 5 to 8, wherein 20-50% by weight of alkali hydroxide and/or alkaline complexing agents.
10. A method for the mercerization of fibers which comprises adding to said fibers the alkaline composition as claimed in claims 5 to 9.
11. A method for the cleaning of hard surfaces which comprises applying to said hard surfaces the alkaline composition as claimed in claims 5 to 9.
12. A method for cleaning, de sizing or scouring fibres and fabrics which comprises adding the alkaline composition as claimed in claims 5 to 9 to said fibers and fabrics during a cleaning, desizing or scouring process.
|Indian Patent Application Number||2272/MAS/1998|
|PG Journal Number||05/2007|
|Date of Filing||09-Oct-1998|
|Name of Patentee||M/S. AKZO NOBEL NV|
|Applicant Address||PO BOX 9300 NL-6800 SB ARNHEM|
|PCT International Classification Number||C 11 D 03/16|
|PCT International Application Number||N/A|
|PCT International Filing date|