|Title of Invention||
FRIEDEL-CRAFT PROCESS FOR THE PREPARETION OF THIOXANTHONES
|Abstract||This invention is directed to a process of preparing thioxanthones, represented by Formula 1, by a Friedel-Craft reaction giving higher yields and lower amount of waste, compared to known processes. The invention also involves purification of the starting material, a 2-chlorothiobenzoyl chloride, by distillation.|
A PROCESS FOR THE PREPARATION OF THIOXANTHONES Technical field of the invention
The invention relates to a process for the preparation of thioxanthen-9-one derivatives, of the following thioxanthones, of the Formula 1.
Background of the invention
Thioxanthones are useful intermediates for the preparation of pharmaceuticals
in the field of psychoterapeutics.
Another important use is as activators or sensitizers in the photopolymerisation
of ethylenically unsaturated monomers.
Basically thioxanthones are formed by cyclisation of 2-phenylthiobenzoic acid
derivatives. As described by Smiles, J. Chem. Soc. (1911), 99, 645, this reaction can
be performed in one step, by reacting 2,2'-dithiodibenzoic acid with an aromatic
compound in sulittric acid. This invention has been the most utilised for producing
thioxanthones in an industrial scale.
The main drawbacks of the process is that yields are poor, 40 - 60%, a large excess
of sulfur ic acid must be used, after reaction a large amount of diluted sulfuric acid
has to be regenerated or disposed. Sulfonated aromatics are major biproducts.
For that reason 2-chlorothiobenzoyl chloride (CTBC) or derivatives hereof has been
considered as an obvious choice for a Friedel-Craft type reaction to form
thioxanthones. This reaction is first revealed in patent US4101558 where
2-chlorotbiobenzoyl - and 5-chloro-2-chlorobenzoyl chloride is reacted with
benzene and chlorobenzene to form thioxanthone, 7-chlorothioxanthone and
2,7-dichlorothioxanthone with aluminium chloride as catalyst.
In the examples of preparation, CTBC and the aromatic substrate are mixed in a suitable solvent and aluminium chloride is added in small portions giving rise to product yields from 70-91%. The patent claims do not specify in which order the Friedel-Craft catalyst and the two reactants are brought together. Belleau et al, Synth. Commun., (1983), 13, 977 - 984, have investigated different types of Lewis acids as catalyst to form thioxanthones from CTBC and ortho-/para-xylene or 1,4-dimethoxy substituted aromatic substrates. They found that in this case of activated aromatic substrates tin(IV)chloride was the most effective catalyst. The experimental section describes that CTBC in a chlorinated solvent is mixed with tin(TV) chloride, where after the substrate is added in one portion.
Disclosure of invention
It is an object of this invention to provide a facile process for the preparation
of thioxanthones, specially 2-isopropyl- and 2-chlorothioxanthone in commercial
quantities, good yield and high purity.
To avoid the problems connected to the method using sulfuric acid as medium for
reaction of 2,2'-dithiodibenzoic acid with an aromatic substrate, the reaction
between CTBC and an aromatic substrate under Friedel-Craft conditions were
pursued according to Reaction Schemel
CTBC is prepared by known methods where 2,2'-dithiodibenzoic acid or substituted
derivatives hereof is transformed to the acid chloride by reaction with thionyl
chloride or a similar reagent. The reaction is facilitated by using thionyl chloride as
solvent and addition of a catalyst of the amide type like dimethylformamide or
N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinoiL The acid chloride is chlorinated with chlorine or suliuryl
chloride revealing CTBC.
As CTBC where R1 = R2 = H also is an important starting material for the industrial
production of the biocide, l,2-benzisothiazolin-3-one, investigations were done for
purification of CTBC. Even the literature does not disclose examples of distilling the
product, it was shown that this could be done by a vacuum distillation at, 165 - 170°C
and 10 mm Hg, giving a light yellow product with rn.p. 67 -68°C, from the brown
crude starting material. CTBC was found to be heat sensitive by prolonged heating to
about 200°C. To avoid decomposition in industrial scale, distillation should
preferably be performed under mild conditions like falling- or wiped film
Experiments with CTBC wherein R1 = R2 - H and substrate isopropylbenzene
(cumene) wherein R3 = i-C3H7, R4 =: R5 = H in 1,2-dichloroetnane (DCE) as solvent
and aluminium chloride as catalyst, were performed according to the conditions in
The content of isomers 2- and 4-isopropylthioxanthone in the organic phase were
found to be 70% of theory, by HPLC, and 50% as isolated yield.
The reaction could not be performed as described by Belleau et al. as CTBC
disproportionated with aluminium chloride in DCE.
Using the substrate, cumene, as solvent with aluminium chloride and adding
CTBC to the slurry gave rise to formation of an insoluble compound, which
probably is a reaction product from 1 mole CTBC with 2 moles cumene.
Surprisingly it turned out that the reaction could be performed if a mixture
of CTBC and cumene, with a small molar excess of cumene, in DCE, were added
to a slurry of aluminium chloride, in small molar excess, and DCE. After water
quench the total yield of 2- and 4-thioxanthone isomers in the organic phase were
89% of theory, by calibrated HPLC.
By performing the process in the described way handling aluminium chloride
in industrial scale has been facilitated, as the catalyst has not to be added during the
The process has been extended to thioxanthones, according to Reaction Scheme 1,
where R1 is different from, or equals R2 both are represented by hydrogen, chlorine,
bromine, alkyl, aryl and alkoxy radicals having 1 to 8 carbon atoms. R3.R4 and R5
can equals one another by pair or all three, or be different and be represented by
hydrogen, chlorine, bromine, hydroxyl, alkyl, cycloalkyl, aryl, alkoxy,
alkylcarbonylalkoxy, carbonylalkyl, carbonylalkoxy, carbamido
or R3 and R4 can form a 5, 6 or seven member ring fused to the aromatic ring.
R3,R4 and R5 can be radicals having 1 to 10 carbon atoms. Specific types of
substituted thioxanthone are 2-chloro, 4-chloro, 2-bromo, 4-bromo, 2,7-dichloro, 2-
hydroxy, 2-methyl, 4-methyl, 2,4-diethyl, 2-isopropyl, 2-carboethoxymethyl. The
aromatic compound may include polynuclear aromatic compounds as biphenyl as
The process is carried out in an organic solvent which are particularly known to be
useful for Friedel-Craft reaction such as methylene chloride, 1,2-dichloroethane,
To perform the reaction, known Friedel-Craft catalyst as aluminium chloride,
aluminium bromide, iron (HI) chloride, tin(II) chloride, tin(IV) chloride,
iron(III) chloride can be used. Specially aluminium chloride.
The reaction may preferably be carried out using substitutet or unsubstitutet
CTBC : aromatic substrate : Friedel-Craft catalyst in the molar ratio
1:1:1-1:20:5. The molar ratio of said components is particularly
advantageously as 1 :1,2 : 1,6.
The reaction may be performed at a temperature between 0°C and 80°C.
The method of isolating the thioxanthones from the organic reaction media may
vary depending on the physical and chemical nature of the product. If the complex
between the product and aluminium chloride is sparingly soluble, it can be an
advantage to isolate the complex before decomposition. Preferably decomposition
of the complex can be accomplished by adding the reaction mixture to water,
diluted mineral acid or aqueous solutions of alkaline hydroxides like sodium,
potassium, barium or calcium. The choice of decomposition medium depends on
the base or acid nature of the product and of insoluble by-products, keeping the product in the organic phase and by-products in the water phase. Crude thioxanthones are isolated by evaporation of the solvent, and if necessary purified by methods as crystallisation, chromatographi etc. Examples
Reaction mixtures and products were analysed by HPLC chromatographi. Specific compounds were characterised by comparison with authentic samples. HPLC conditions:
Column : Merck, LiChrospher 100-RP 18, 5 micron 250 x 4 mm
Detector wavel. : 254 nm
Injection Vol. : 20 microL
Flow rate : 2mL/min
Eluents: : A: 0.005 M H3PO4 in Water; B: Acetonitrile
Gradient o Time 0, %B 40; 10, 90; 15, 90; 20, 40.
Isocratic %B 66
2-Chlorothiobenzovl chloride (CTBC)
2,2'-dthiodibenzoic acid, assay 95%, 100 g, 0.3105 moles, and l-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone, 1.0 g, 0.010 moles, was added to thionyl chloride 260 g, 2.185 moles. The stirred slurry was heated slowly to reflux, 80°C, until it has become a clear solution and HC1 evolution had ceased. The mixture was cooled to 50°C and sulfuryl chloride, 48.6 g, 0.3600 moles, was slowly introduced. Stirring was continued for 30 rnin, where after volatiles were evaporated off on a rotary evaporator leaving crude, CTBC, 140.0 g, as a light brown solid. The product was vacuum distilled through a short Vigreux column at 165 -170°C, 10 mmHg, affording CTBC, 119.5g, 0.5773 moles, as a light yellow crystalline product in 93% yield of theory. Purity was estimated to 98.5 % by derivatisation with ammonia to l,2-benzisothiazolin-3-one and running HPLC of the solution.
2- and 4- isopropylthioxanthonc (ITX)
Crude CTBC, 95% assay, 7.6 g, 0.0349 moles, and cumene, 4.6 g, 0.0383 moles, were dissolved in 1,2-dich.loroethaae (DCE), 70 g. This solution was added over 45 min to a stirred slurry of aluminium chloride, 7.3 g, 0.0548, in DCE, 50 g covered with nitrogen, with temperature kept at 20 - 25°C. Temperature was raised to 30°C for 30 min, where after the reaction mixture was poured into 5% hydrochloric acid, 100 mL, with vigorous stirring. The organic phase was separated and washed once with water. HPLC on the organic phase revealed a content of 7.5 g, 0.0295 moles ITX Corresponding to 85% yield of theory. Volatiles were evaporated off in vacuo leaving crude ITX as an orange oil, 9.44 g, which was crystallised from methanol, 28 g, leaving ITX, 6.11 g, 0.0240 moles, 69% yield of theory, as light yellow crystals, with purity, by HPLC, 97.3% and m.p. 73 - 74°C. Example 3
ITX from distilled CTBC
The experiment in Example 2 was repeated using distilled CTBC. Results were nearly similar, except for purity, which was estimated, by IIPLC, to 99.2%. Example 4
2- and 4- chlorothioxanthone (CTX)
Crude CTBC, 95 % assay, 0.0481 moles, and chlorobenzene, 6.7 g, 0.0588 moles, dissolved in DCE, 16 g, was added over 30 min to a stirred slurry of aluminium chloride in DCE, 150 g, covered with nitrogen, keeping temperature at 40 -45°C. The reaction mixture was stirred for a further 30 min at 40°C and poured into stirred water keeping pH at 12 with 50 w/w% sodium hydroxide.
The DCE phase was separated and washed once with water. HPLC run revealed a content of 11.1 g, 0.0450 moles of CTX corresponding to 94% yield of theory. The solvent was evaporated on rotary evaporator to a weight of 20.1 g. Separated crystals was isolated, washed with a little ethanol and dried affording CTX, 8.6 g, 0.0349 moles, with purity, by HPLC, 98.8% and m.p. 143 - 145°C. Yield of theory was 73%.
1. A process for the preparation of one or more thioxanthones represented by Formula 1:
wherein R1 and R2 are the same or different and are selected from hydrogen, chlorine, bromine, and alkyl, aryl and alkoxy radicals having from 1 to 8 carbon atoms, and R3, R4 and R5 are the same or different and are selected from hydrogen, chlorine, bromine, hydroxy, and alkyl, alkoxy, alkoxycarbonylalkyl, alkylcarbonyl, alkoxycarbonyl, or carbamido radicals having from 1 to 10 carbon atoms, or R3 and R4 together form a 5,6 or 7 member ring fused to the aromatic ring,
which process comprises adding a reactant mixture of a 2-chlorothiobenzoyl chloride (A) represented by Formula-2:
and an aromatic compound (B) represented by Formula 3:
to a slurry of a Friedel-Crafts catalyst in an organic Friedel-Crafts solvent.
2. The process as claimed in claim 1 wherein the Friedel-Crafts catalyst is selected from aluminium chloride, aluminium bromide, iron (III) chloride, tin (II) chloride, tin (IV) chloride and iron (III) chloride, especially aluminium chloride.
3. The process as claimed in claim 1 or 2, wherein the Friedel-Crafts catalyst is used in an amount of 1.0 to 2.5, such as from l.l to 1.6, moles per mole of 2-chlorothiobenzoyl chloride (A).
4. (The process as claimed in any preceding claim,
wherein R1 and R2 are both hydrogen.
5. The process as claimed in any preceding claim,
wherein R3 is isopropyl and R4 and R5 are both hydrogen.
6. The process as claimed in any preceding claim,
wherein the Friedel-Crafts solvent is selected from
methylene chloride, 1,2-dichloroethane and 1,1,2,2-
7. The process as claimed in any preceding claim,
wherein the Friedel-Crafts solvent is additionally present
in the reactant mixture before the latter is added to the
8. The process as claimed in claim 7, wherein the
reactants are dissolved in a Friedel-Crafts solvent, in an
amount of 1 to 30 parts by weight per part by weight of the
9. The process as claimed in any preceding claim,
wherein the slurry contains 1 to 2 0 parts by weight of the
Friedel-Crafte solvent per part by weight of the catalyst.
10. The process as claimed in any preceding claim,
wherein the reactant mixture contains from 1 to 20,
especially from 1.1 to 1.2, moles of the aromatic compound
(B) per mole of the 2-chlorothiobenzoyl chloride (A).
11. The process as claimed in any preceding claim,
carried out at a temperature of from 0° to 80°C, especially
from 200C to 4S°C.
12. The process as claimed in any preceding claim,
wherein the 2-chlorothiobenzoyl chloride (A) has previously
been purified by vacuum distillation at a temperature of
from 80oC to 200°C, such as from 165oC to 170°C, and a
pressure of from 0.1 to 300 mm Hg, such-as about 10 mm Hg.
This invention is directed to a process of preparing thioxanthones, represented
by Formula 1, by a Friedel-Craft reaction giving higher yields and lower amount of
waste, compared to known processes. The invention also involves purification of the
starting material, a 2-chlorothiobenzoyl chloride, by distillation.
|Indian Patent Application Number||00359/KOLNP/2003|
|PG Journal Number||11/2007|
|Date of Filing||26-Mar-2003|
|Name of Patentee||PROM LIMITED,|
|Applicant Address||PROM HOUSE,89 HIGH STREET,CATERHAM CR3 5UH,|
|PCT International Classification Number||C07D 335/16|
|PCT International Application Number||PCT/GB00/04343|
|PCT International Filing date||2000-11-15|